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Article

Cystometric Measurements in Rats with an Experimentally Induced Traumatic Brain Injury and Voiding Dysfunction: A Time-Course Study

1
School of Biomedical Engineering, College of Biomedical Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei-11031, Taiwan
2
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei-11031, Taiwan
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Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei-11031, Taiwan
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Department of Physical Therapy and Graduate Institute of Rehabilitation Science, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan-33302, Taiwan
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Neuroscience Research Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou-33305, Taiwan
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Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei-11031, Taiwan
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Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei-11031, Taiwan
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Research Center of Biomedical Device, Taipei Medical University, Taipei-11031, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(11), 325; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9110325
Received: 25 October 2019 / Revised: 8 November 2019 / Accepted: 12 November 2019 / Published: 14 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Collection on Clinical Neuroscience)
Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are a serious public health issue worldwide with increased mortality as well as severe disabilities and injuries caused by falls and road accidents. Unfortunately, there is no approved therapy for TBIs, and bladder dysfunction is a striking symptom. Accordingly, we attempted to analyze bladder dysfunction and voiding efficiency in rats with a TBI at different time-course intervals. Time-dependent analyses were scheduled from the next day until four weeks after a TBI. Experimental animals were grouped and analyzed under the above conditions. Cystometric measurements were used for this analysis and were further elaborated as external urethral sphincter electromyographic (EUS-EMG) activity and cystometrogram (CMG) measurements. Moreover, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies were conducted to investigate secondary injury progression in TBI rats, and results were compared to normal control (NC) rats. Results of EUS-EMG revealed that the burst period, active period, and silent period in TBI rats were drastically reduced compared to NC rats, but they increased later and reached a stagnant phase. Likewise, in CMG measurements, bladder function, the voided volume, and voiding efficiency decreased immediately after the TBI, and other parameters like the volume threshold, inter-contraction interval, and residual volume drastically increased. Later, those levels changed, and all observed results were compared to NC rats. MRI results revealed the prevalence of cerebral edema and the progression of secondary injury. All of the above-stated results of the experiments were extensively substantiated. Thus, these innovative findings of our study model will surely pave the way for new therapeutic interventions for TBI treatment and prominently highlight their applications in the field of neuroscience in the future. View Full-Text
Keywords: traumatic brain injury; cystometric measurements; time-course analysis; external urethral sphincter electromyographic activity traumatic brain injury; cystometric measurements; time-course analysis; external urethral sphincter electromyographic activity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Praveen Rajneesh, C.; Yang, L.-Y.; Chen, S.-C.; Hsieh, T.-H.; Chin, H.-Y.; Peng, C.-W. Cystometric Measurements in Rats with an Experimentally Induced Traumatic Brain Injury and Voiding Dysfunction: A Time-Course Study. Brain Sci. 2019, 9, 325. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9110325

AMA Style

Praveen Rajneesh C, Yang L-Y, Chen S-C, Hsieh T-H, Chin H-Y, Peng C-W. Cystometric Measurements in Rats with an Experimentally Induced Traumatic Brain Injury and Voiding Dysfunction: A Time-Course Study. Brain Sciences. 2019; 9(11):325. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9110325

Chicago/Turabian Style

Praveen Rajneesh, Chellappan; Yang, Ling-Yu; Chen, Shih-Ching; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsun; Chin, Hung-Yen; Peng, Chih-Wei. 2019. "Cystometric Measurements in Rats with an Experimentally Induced Traumatic Brain Injury and Voiding Dysfunction: A Time-Course Study" Brain Sci. 9, no. 11: 325. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9110325

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