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Toxics, Volume 10, Issue 8 (August 2022) – 80 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Humans are exposed to many environmental chemicals and their mixtures. There is increasing scientific information describing their relationships with numerous adverse health effects. Therefore, artificial intelligence and the development of biological databases could be used to systematically explore the toxicological and epidemiological data available in the scientific literature, e.g., through the bioinformatics tool AOP-helpFinder, which allows for the construction of adverse outcome pathways (AOPs), and the identification of associations between these environmental stressors and human health, thus supporting chemical risk assessment. AOP-helpFinder has been successfully applied to explore the relationships between PFAS exposure and metabolic health outcomes. View this paper
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Article
Intrauterine and Extrauterine Environmental PM2.5 Exposure Is Associated with Overweight/Obesity (O/O) in Children Aged 6 to 59 Months from Lima, Peru: A Case-Control Study
Toxics 2022, 10(8), 487; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10080487 - 22 Aug 2022
Viewed by 460
Abstract
There is evidence that PM2.5 could be obesogenic. Lima is one of the most polluted cities in South America, with an increasing prevalence of childhood obesity. This study aimed to determine the association between PM2.5 exposure of children aged 6 to [...] Read more.
There is evidence that PM2.5 could be obesogenic. Lima is one of the most polluted cities in South America, with an increasing prevalence of childhood obesity. This study aimed to determine the association between PM2.5 exposure of children aged 6 to 59 months and being overweight or obese (O/O) in a significant dataset survey. Cases were defined when weight for height Z-score (WHZ) was >2 standard deviations (SD) from the mean, for each sex. A control was defined when WHZ was between ±2 SD. We used a conditional logistic regression model to calculate the odds ratio (OR) between extrauterine and intrauterine PM2.5 exposure and O/O. Extrauterine PM2.5 exposure was evaluated as a 6-month PM2.5 mean prior to the survey. We found a significant association between O/O and extrauterine (OR: 1.57, 1.51–1.63) and intrauterine (OR: 1.99, 1.88–2.12) PM2.5 exposure for an increment of 10 μg/m3. The ORs increased as the quartile increased in both exposures. We observed a higher association in children aged 6–11 months (OR: 3.07, 2.84–3.31). In conclusion, higher levels of PM2.5 in Lima and Callao were associated with cases of O/O in children from 6 to 59 months, with the association higher for prenatal exposure. Full article
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Case Report
Forensic Aspects of a Fatal Intoxication Involving Acetaminophen, Citalopram and Trazodone: A Case Report
Toxics 2022, 10(8), 486; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10080486 - 22 Aug 2022
Viewed by 599
Abstract
We report the case of a young man, a former heroin addict, found dead at home by the Police Forces in an advanced state of decomposition. Numerous blisters and unpacked tablets of medications were found all over the bed and on the floor [...] Read more.
We report the case of a young man, a former heroin addict, found dead at home by the Police Forces in an advanced state of decomposition. Numerous blisters and unpacked tablets of medications were found all over the bed and on the floor of the room. Multiple injuries to the face, left arm and neck of the deceased were noted. The latter damages were attributed to post-mortem dog bites, since no indications of a possible defense against the animal were observed. The autopsy findings were unremarkable. Toxicological investigations performed on peripheral blood and urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique showed the presence of acetaminophen, citalopram and trazodone. Combined drug intoxication was proposed as the cause of death since acetaminophen and trazodone concentrations were comparable with the ones found in fatal cases. Moreover, citalopram concentration in peripheral blood was above the toxic range and in accordance with levels found in fatalities due to poly-drug intoxication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Identification of Drug Abuse)
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Article
Insights into the Seasonal Olfactory Mechanism of Geosmin in Raw Water of Huangpu River
Toxics 2022, 10(8), 485; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10080485 - 19 Aug 2022
Viewed by 307
Abstract
Since the 1990s, the raw water of Huangpu River in Shanghai, China, has intermittently encountered off-flavor contamination. In this work, the concentrations of typical odor, geosmin, in raw water of Huangpu River are found to shift along with the seasons. However, microbes recognized [...] Read more.
Since the 1990s, the raw water of Huangpu River in Shanghai, China, has intermittently encountered off-flavor contamination. In this work, the concentrations of typical odor, geosmin, in raw water of Huangpu River are found to shift along with the seasons. However, microbes recognized as the producer of geosmin such as Cyanobacteria and Actinobacteria are not consistent with the shift of geosmin. Cyanobacteria blooms in summer rather than winter, whereas Actinobacteria thrives in winter. Representational difference analysis (RDA) reveals that microbes associated with blooming algae have positive co-occurrence correlations with the concentrations of geosmin and nutrients in winter, whereas those within Cyanobacteria and Planctomycete are in a positive correlation with temperature and thrive in summer. This causes the concentration of geosmin in raw water to appear to depend on the abundance of Actinobacteria rather than that of Cyanobacteria. However, combining with the synthesis and storage properties of geosmin in algae, as well as the decomposition properties of algae with Actinobacteria, geosmin might be synthesized by Cyanobacteria in summer, which is stored in cells of Cyanobacteria and released only via the decomposition of Actinobacteria in winter. This potential olfactory mechanism of geosmin is quite different from that derived from pure culture of odor producers or correlation analysis of bacteria and odors; thus, providing insights into the mechanism of practical off-flavor events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradation and Hazards of Environmental Emerging Pollutants)
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Review
Recent Strategies for Bioremediation of Emerging Pollutants: A Review for a Green and Sustainable Environment
Toxics 2022, 10(8), 484; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10080484 - 19 Aug 2022
Viewed by 498
Abstract
Environmental pollution brought on by xenobiotics and other related recalcitrant compounds have recently been identified as a major risk to both human health and the natural environment. Due to their toxicity and non-biodegradability, a wide range of pollutants, such as heavy metals, polychlorinated [...] Read more.
Environmental pollution brought on by xenobiotics and other related recalcitrant compounds have recently been identified as a major risk to both human health and the natural environment. Due to their toxicity and non-biodegradability, a wide range of pollutants, such as heavy metals, polychlorinated biphenyls, plastics, and various agrochemicals are present in the environment. Bioremediation is an effective cleaning technique for removing toxic waste from polluted environments that is gaining popularity. Various microorganisms, including aerobes and anaerobes, are used in bioremediation to treat contaminated sites. Microorganisms play a major role in bioremediation, given that it is a process in which hazardous wastes and pollutants are eliminated, degraded, detoxified, and immobilized. Pollutants are degraded and converted to less toxic forms, which is a primary goal of bioremediation. Ex situ or in situ bioremediation can be used, depending on a variety of factors, such as cost, pollutant types, and concentration. As a result, a suitable bioremediation method has been chosen. This review focuses on the most recent developments in bioremediation techniques, how microorganisms break down different pollutants, and what the future holds for bioremediation in order to reduce the amount of pollution in the world. Full article
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Article
HBM4EU Chromates Study—Genotoxicity and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Workers Exposed to Hexavalent Chromium
Toxics 2022, 10(8), 483; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10080483 - 18 Aug 2022
Viewed by 564
Abstract
A study was conducted within the European Human Biomonitoring Initiative (HBM4EU) to characterize occupational exposure to Cr(VI). Herein we present the results of biomarkers of genotoxicity and oxidative stress, including micronucleus analysis in lymphocytes and reticulocytes, the comet assay in whole blood, and [...] Read more.
A study was conducted within the European Human Biomonitoring Initiative (HBM4EU) to characterize occupational exposure to Cr(VI). Herein we present the results of biomarkers of genotoxicity and oxidative stress, including micronucleus analysis in lymphocytes and reticulocytes, the comet assay in whole blood, and malondialdehyde and 8-oxo-2′-deoxyguanosine in urine. Workers from several Cr(VI)-related industrial activities and controls from industrial (within company) and non-industrial (outwith company) environments were included. The significantly increased genotoxicity (p = 0.03 for MN in lymphocytes and reticulocytes; p < 0.001 for comet assay data) and oxidative stress levels (p = 0.007 and p < 0.001 for MDA and 8-OHdG levels in pre-shift urine samples, respectively) that were detected in the exposed workers over the outwith company controls suggest that Cr(VI) exposure might still represent a health risk, particularly, for chrome painters and electrolytic bath platers, despite the low Cr exposure. The within-company controls displayed DNA and chromosomal damage levels that were comparable to those of the exposed group, highlighting the relevance of considering all industry workers as potentially exposed. The use of effect biomarkers proved their capacity to detect the early biological effects from low Cr(VI) exposure, and to contribute to identifying subgroups that are at higher risk. Overall, this study reinforces the need for further re-evaluation of the occupational exposure limit and better application of protection measures. However, it also raised some additional questions and unexplained inconsistencies that need follow-up studies to be clarified. Full article
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Article
Efficiency of Several Cytochrome P450 Biomarkers in Highlighting the Exposure of Daphnia magna to an Organophosphate Pesticide
Toxics 2022, 10(8), 482; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10080482 - 17 Aug 2022
Viewed by 464
Abstract
The cytochromes P450 (CYP450) represent a major enzyme family operating mostly in the first step of xenobiotic detoxification in aquatic organisms. The ability to measure these CYP450 enzymes’ activities provides a crucial tool to understand organisms’ response to chemical stressors. However, research on [...] Read more.
The cytochromes P450 (CYP450) represent a major enzyme family operating mostly in the first step of xenobiotic detoxification in aquatic organisms. The ability to measure these CYP450 enzymes’ activities provides a crucial tool to understand organisms’ response to chemical stressors. However, research on CYP450 activity measurement is still limited and has had variable success. In the present study, we optimize, compile, and compare existing scientific information and techniques for a series of CYP450 biomarkers (EROD, MROD, ECOD, APND, and ERND) used on Daphnia magna. Additionally, we explored these CYP450 biomarkers’ activities through the first 5 days of life of daphnids, providing a link between their age and sensitivity to chemicals. In the experiment, daphnids were exposed to an organophosphate pesticide (diazinon) from birth to measure the molecular response of the detoxification process. Our results suggest EROD as the most applicable biomarker for organisms such as D. magna, with a higher organophosphate detoxification rate in daphnids that are 2 and 5 days old. Additionally, a larger body size allowed a more accurate EROD measurement; hence, we emphasize the use of 5-day-old daphnids when analyzing their detoxification response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ecotoxicology)
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Article
Time Trends of Acrylamide Exposure in Europe: Combined Analysis of Published Reports and Current HBM4EU Studies
Toxics 2022, 10(8), 481; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10080481 - 17 Aug 2022
Viewed by 499
Abstract
More than 20 years ago, acrylamide was added to the list of potential carcinogens found in many common dietary products and tobacco smoke. Consequently, human biomonitoring studies investigating exposure to acrylamide in the form of adducts in blood and metabolites in urine have [...] Read more.
More than 20 years ago, acrylamide was added to the list of potential carcinogens found in many common dietary products and tobacco smoke. Consequently, human biomonitoring studies investigating exposure to acrylamide in the form of adducts in blood and metabolites in urine have been performed to obtain data on the actual burden in different populations of the world and in Europe. Recognizing the related health risk, the European Commission responded with measures to curb the acrylamide content in food products. In 2017, a trans-European human biomonitoring project (HBM4EU) was started with the aim to investigate exposure to several chemicals, including acrylamide. Here we set out to provide a combined analysis of previous and current European acrylamide biomonitoring study results by harmonizing and integrating different data sources, including HBM4EU aligned studies, with the aim to resolve overall and current time trends of acrylamide exposure in Europe. Data from 10 European countries were included in the analysis, comprising more than 5500 individual samples (3214 children and teenagers, 2293 adults). We utilized linear models as well as a non-linear fit and breakpoint analysis to investigate trends in temporal acrylamide exposure as well as descriptive statistics and statistical tests to validate findings. Our results indicate an overall increase in acrylamide exposure between the years 2001 and 2017. Studies with samples collected after 2018 focusing on adults do not indicate increasing exposure but show declining values. Regional differences appear to affect absolute values, but not the overall time-trend of exposure. As benchmark levels for acrylamide content in food have been adopted in Europe in 2018, our results may imply the effects of these measures, but only indicated for adults, as corresponding data are still missing for children. Full article
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Review
The Use of Human Biomonitoring to Assess Occupational Exposure to PAHs in Europe: A Comprehensive Review
Toxics 2022, 10(8), 480; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10080480 - 17 Aug 2022
Viewed by 534
Abstract
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are among the chemicals with proven impact on workers’ health. The use of human biomonitoring (HBM) to assess occupational exposure to PAHs has become more common in recent years, but the data generated need an overall view to make [...] Read more.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are among the chemicals with proven impact on workers’ health. The use of human biomonitoring (HBM) to assess occupational exposure to PAHs has become more common in recent years, but the data generated need an overall view to make them more usable by regulators and policymakers. This comprehensive review, developed under the Human Biomonitoring for Europe (HBM4EU) Initiative, was based on the literature available from 2008–2022, aiming to present and discuss the information on occupational exposure to PAHs, in order to identify the strengths and limitations of exposure and effect biomarkers and the knowledge needs for regulation in the workplace. The most frequently used exposure biomarker is urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OH-PYR), a metabolite of pyrene. As effect biomarkers, those based on the measurement of oxidative stress (urinary 8-oxo-dG adducts) and genotoxicity (blood DNA strand-breaks) are the most common. Overall, a need to advance new harmonized approaches both in data and sample collection and in the use of appropriate biomarkers in occupational studies to obtain reliable and comparable data on PAH exposure in different industrial sectors, was noted. Moreover, the use of effect biomarkers can assist to identify work environments or activities of high risk, thus enabling preventive risk mitigation and management measures. Full article
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Article
Ecotoxicity of Polyvinylidene Difluoride (PVDF) and Polylactic Acid (PLA) Microplastics in Marine Zooplankton
Toxics 2022, 10(8), 479; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10080479 - 17 Aug 2022
Viewed by 668
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the ecotoxicity of polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) and polylactic acid (PLA) microplastics (MPs) in two marine zooplankton: the crustacean Artemia franciscana and the cnidarian Aurelia sp. (common jellyfish). To achieve this goal, (i) MP uptake, (ii) [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the ecotoxicity of polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) and polylactic acid (PLA) microplastics (MPs) in two marine zooplankton: the crustacean Artemia franciscana and the cnidarian Aurelia sp. (common jellyfish). To achieve this goal, (i) MP uptake, (ii) immobility, and (iii) behavior (swimming speed, pulsation mode) of crustacean larval stages and jellyfish ephyrae exposed to MPs concentrations (1, 10, 100 mg/L) were assessed for 24 h. Using traditional and novel techniques, i.e., epifluorescence microscopy and 3D holotomography (HT), PVDF and PLA MPs were found in the digestive systems of the crustaceans and in the gelatinous tissue of jellyfish. Immobility was not affected in either organism, while a significant behavioral alteration in terms of pulsation mode was found in jellyfish after exposure to both PVDF and PLA MPs. Moreover, PLA MPs exposure in jellyfish induced a toxic effect (EC50: 77.43 mg/L) on the behavioral response. This study provides new insights into PLA and PVDF toxicity with the potential for a large impact on the marine ecosystem, since jellyfish play a key role in the marine food chain. However, further investigations incorporating additional species belonging to other trophic levels are paramount to better understand and clarify the impact of such polymers at micro scale in the marine environment. These findings suggest that although PVDF and PLA have been recently proposed as innovative and, in the case of PLA, biodegradable polymers, their effects on marine biota should not be underestimated. Full article
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Article
Physico-Chemical and Ecotoxicological Evaluation of Marine Sediments Contamination: A Case Study of Rovinj Coastal Area, NE Adriatic Sea, Croatia
Toxics 2022, 10(8), 478; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10080478 - 16 Aug 2022
Viewed by 383
Abstract
Comprehensive spatial and temporal data on sediment quality in the Adriatic Sea are lacking. Therefore, prior to planned anthropogenic interventions in the local marine environment, such as deepening of the Rovinj harbour, the results of physicochemical and ecotoxicological analyses of five local coastal [...] Read more.
Comprehensive spatial and temporal data on sediment quality in the Adriatic Sea are lacking. Therefore, prior to planned anthropogenic interventions in the local marine environment, such as deepening of the Rovinj harbour, the results of physicochemical and ecotoxicological analyses of five local coastal sediments were compared with regional averages and SQGs of neighbouring countries. Analyses of sediment grain size, content of metals and heavy metals, PAHs and PCBs were performed according to standard protocols. Sediment quality was classified according to French legislation (N1 and N2 level) and sediment guidelines. The phytotoxicity of the eluates was studied by flax seed germination tests. The logistic regression models Pmax and Pavg were used to estimate the probability of toxic effects. Except for the open sea (S5), all other sediments had concentrations slightly higher than the N1 for some metals (Cu, Ni, Hg, Cr) or ΣPAHs, while the Rovinj harbour (S1) reached the N2 value for mercury. The phytotoxicity assay with sediment eluates showed inhibition of germination, root length and root biomass production, with an average phytotoxicity index (PI) ranging from 6.06% to 42.00%. Significant correlations of Pavg and Pmax values with phytotoxicity and other specific parameters were found. In general, according to the applied SQGs, there are no potential ecological impacts on the marine environment at any of the investigated sites, with the exception of site S1. Full article
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Article
Quercetin-3-O-β-D-Glucopyranoside-Rich Fraction from Spondias mombin Leaves Halted Responses from Oxidative Stress, Neuroinflammation, Apoptosis, and Lipid Peroxidation in the Brain of Dichlorvos-Treated Wistar Rats
Toxics 2022, 10(8), 477; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10080477 - 16 Aug 2022
Viewed by 336
Abstract
Dichlorvos (2,3-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate or DDVP), is a popular organophosphate (OP) with several domestic, industrial, and agricultural uses and applications in developing countries [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Exposome)
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Article
Effects of Unconventional Water Agricultural Utilization on the Heavy Metals Accumulation in Typical Black Clay Soil around the Metallic Ore
Toxics 2022, 10(8), 476; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10080476 - 16 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 293
Abstract
Unconventional water is an important water resource for agricultural utilization in the drought and water shortage of Northeast China. Additionally, exploration in making full use of it is an important way to alleviate water shortage in China. This paper analyzed the effects of [...] Read more.
Unconventional water is an important water resource for agricultural utilization in the drought and water shortage of Northeast China. Additionally, exploration in making full use of it is an important way to alleviate water shortage in China. This paper analyzed the effects of unconventional water through field trials on the accumulation of heavy metals in both cucumbers and the typical black clay soil (expressed as black soil) around the Anshan metallic ore. By exploring the effects of unconventional water after secondary treatment on the accumulation characteristics of heavy metals in cucumbers and the heavy metal balance in the soil–crop system under different conditions, the study shows that there are no significant differences in the heavy metal content when the quantity of unconventional water for irrigation varies. Unconventional water for short-term irrigation does not cause pollution to either the soil environment or the crops. Nor will it cause the accumulation of heavy metals, and the index for the heavy metal content is far below the critical value of the trade standard and national standard, which indicates that the crops irrigated with unconventional water during their growth turn out to be free of pollutants. Unconventional water brings less heavy metals into the black soil than crops. The input and output quantities have only small effects on the heavy metal balance in the black soil. This paper provides a reference for the safety control and evaluation of unconventional agricultural utilization. Full article
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Article
Thermal Remediation of Soil Contaminated with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Pollutant Removal Process and Influence on Soil Functionality
Toxics 2022, 10(8), 474; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10080474 - 16 Aug 2022
Viewed by 367
Abstract
Thermal remediation has been widely used for the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) from contaminated soil. The method has a high removal rate for semi-volatile organic pollutants; however, soil functionality is affected by the method because of the alteration of the soil [...] Read more.
Thermal remediation has been widely used for the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) from contaminated soil. The method has a high removal rate for semi-volatile organic pollutants; however, soil functionality is affected by the method because of the alteration of the soil properties. In this study, experimental soil was impregnated with phenanthrene (Phe), pyrene (Pyr), and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP); after natural air-dry aging, the thermal remediation experiment was carried out, using a tube-furnace and thermal gravimetry–Fourier transform infrared (TG-FTIR) equipment. More than 84% of the Phe and Pyr were lost in the aging stage, whereas the BaP was stable with 41% retention in the soil. After the thermal treatment, the desorption and decomposition of the pollutants and organic matter led to the removal of the PAHs; about 1% of the PAHs remained in the soil treated at 400 °C. The presence of the PAHs can promote the thermal reaction by slightly reducing the reaction activation energy by ~7−16%. The thermal remediation had a significant influence on the physical properties of the soil and destroyed the bioavailability by reducing the organic matter content. Therefore, a comprehensive consideration of effective PAH removal while preserving soil functionality may require a low temperature (100 °C) method for thermal remediation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Chemistry)
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Editorial
Advanced Studies on Toxic Chemicals: Properties and Characteristics
Toxics 2022, 10(8), 475; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10080475 - 15 Aug 2022
Viewed by 346
Abstract
Examining the toxic scope of substances used in daily life (referred to as Contaminants of Emerging Concern (CEC)) in food, medicines, utensils, work and other industries, provides us with interesting information that will help us to prevent and recover from the dangerous organic [...] Read more.
Examining the toxic scope of substances used in daily life (referred to as Contaminants of Emerging Concern (CEC)) in food, medicines, utensils, work and other industries, provides us with interesting information that will help us to prevent and recover from the dangerous organic unbalances that these substances can cause [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Studies on Toxic Chemicals: Properties and Characteristics)
Article
Post-Mortem Analysis of Heroin Biomarkers, Morphine and Codeine in Stomach Wall Tissue in Heroin-Related Deaths
Toxics 2022, 10(8), 473; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10080473 - 14 Aug 2022
Viewed by 576
Abstract
Toxicological analysis of some cases can be complicated by poor sample quality caused by decomposition. Although heroin-related deaths have been researched extensively, the interpretation of toxicology findings in these cases is challenging, especially in instances where blood samples are unavailable. Thus, it is [...] Read more.
Toxicological analysis of some cases can be complicated by poor sample quality caused by decomposition. Although heroin-related deaths have been researched extensively, the interpretation of toxicology findings in these cases is challenging, especially in instances where blood samples are unavailable. Thus, it is important to develop analytical methods for different sample types. In this study. a method for the quantification of 6-monoacetylmorphine, 6-acetylcodeine, morphine, and codeine in postmortem stomach wall tissue using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated. All calibration curves prepared with the stomach wall tissue were linear and ranged from 0.5–1000 ng/g with determination coefficients of >0.99 and a lower limit of quantification of 1.0 ng/g. The coefficients of variation for within-run precision and between-run precision were <9%. Matrix effects of stomach wall tissues and their extraction recoveries were investigated and ranged from −19% to +17% and 76% to 80%, respectively. Among the 16 analyzed heroin-related death cases, 6-monoacetylmorphine, 6-acetylcodeine, morphine, and codeine were detected in 75%, 31%, 100%, and 94% of all stomach wall tissues with median concentrations of 90 ng/g, 20 ng/g, 140 ng/g, and 30 ng/g, respectively. This study provides new data on the distribution of 6-monoacetylmorphine, 6-Acetylcodeine, morphine, and codeine in postmortem stomach wall tissue and suggests the usefulness of alternative matrices for investigating heroin-related fatalities when blood samples are unavailable. In addition, the prevalence of 6-monoacetylmorphine in the stomach wall tissue was higher than that in the liver and kidney tissues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forensic Toxicology: A New Scientific Contribution)
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Review
Multiple Targets of Toxicity in Environmental Exposure to Low-Dose Cadmium
Toxics 2022, 10(8), 472; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10080472 - 13 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 657
Abstract
Dietary assessment reports and population surveillance programs show that chronic exposure to low levels of environmental cadmium (Cd) is inevitable for most people, and adversely impacts the health of children and adults. Based on a risk assessment model that considers an increase in [...] Read more.
Dietary assessment reports and population surveillance programs show that chronic exposure to low levels of environmental cadmium (Cd) is inevitable for most people, and adversely impacts the health of children and adults. Based on a risk assessment model that considers an increase in the excretion of β2-microglobulin (β2M) above 300 μg/g creatinine to be the “critical” toxicity endpoint, the tolerable intake level of Cd was set at 0.83 µg/kg body weight/day, and a urinary Cd excretion rate of 5.24 µg/g creatinine was considered to be the toxicity threshold level. The aim of this review is to draw attention to the many other toxicity endpoints that are both clinically relevant and more appropriate to derive Cd exposure limits than a β2M endpoint. In the present review, we focus on a reduction in the glomerular filtration rate and diminished fecundity because chronic exposure to low-dose Cd, reflected by its excretion levels as low as 0.5 µg/g creatinine, have been associated with dose-dependent increases in risk of these pathological symptoms. Some protective effects of the nutritionally essential elements selenium and zinc are highlighted. Cd-induced mitochondrial dysfunction is discussed as a potential mechanism underlying gonadal toxicities and infertility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Epidemiology)
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Article
Nose-Only Exposure to Cherry- and Tobacco-Flavored E-Cigarettes Induced Lung Inflammation in Mice in a Sex-Dependent Manner
Toxics 2022, 10(8), 471; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10080471 - 13 Aug 2022
Viewed by 429
Abstract
Flavoring chemicals in electronic nicotine delivery systems have been shown to cause cellular inflammation; meanwhile, the effects of fruit and tobacco flavors on lung inflammation by nose-only exposures to mice are relatively unknown. We hypothesized that exposure to flavored e-cigarettes would cause lung [...] Read more.
Flavoring chemicals in electronic nicotine delivery systems have been shown to cause cellular inflammation; meanwhile, the effects of fruit and tobacco flavors on lung inflammation by nose-only exposures to mice are relatively unknown. We hypothesized that exposure to flavored e-cigarettes would cause lung inflammation in C57BL/6 J mice. The mice were exposed to air, propylene glycol/vegetable glycerin, and flavored e-liquids: Apple, Cherry, Strawberry, Wintergreen, and Smooth & Mild Tobacco, one hour per day for three days. Quantification of flavoring chemicals by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR), differential cell counts by flow cytometry, pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines by ELISA, and matrix metalloproteinase levels by western blot were performed. Exposure to PG/VG increased neutrophil cell count in lung bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). KC and IL6 levels were increased by PG/VG exposure and female mice exposed to Cherry flavored e-cigarettes, in lung homogenate. Mice exposed to PG/VG, Apple, Cherry, and Wintergreen increased MMP2 levels. Our results revealed flavor- and sex-based e-cigarette effects in female mice exposed to cherry-flavored e-liquids and male mice exposed to tobacco-flavored e-liquids, namely, increased lung inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advantages and Disadvantages of Electronic Cigarettes)
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Article
Glyphosate and AMPA in Human Urine of HBM4EU Aligned Studies: Part A Children
Toxics 2022, 10(8), 470; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10080470 - 12 Aug 2022
Viewed by 676
Abstract
Few data are available on the exposure of children to glyphosate (Gly) in Europe. Within HBM4EU, new HBM exposure data were collected from aligned studies at five sampling sites distributed over Europe (studies: SLO CRP (SI); ORGANIKO (CY); GerES V-sub (DE); 3XG (BE); [...] Read more.
Few data are available on the exposure of children to glyphosate (Gly) in Europe. Within HBM4EU, new HBM exposure data were collected from aligned studies at five sampling sites distributed over Europe (studies: SLO CRP (SI); ORGANIKO (CY); GerES V-sub (DE); 3XG (BE); ESTEBAN (FR)). Median Gly concentrations in urine were below or around the detection limit (0.1 µg/L). The 95th percentiles ranged between 0.18 and 1.03 µg Gly/L. The ratio of AMPA (aminomethylphosphonic acid; main metabolite of Gly) to Gly at molar basis was on average 2.2 and the ratio decreased with higher Gly concentrations, suggesting that other sources of AMPA, independent of metabolism of Gly to AMPA in the monitored participants, may concurrently operate. Using reverse dosimetry and HBM exposure data from five European countries (east, west and south Europe) combined with the proposed ADI (acceptable daily intake) of EFSA for Gly of 0.1 mg/kg bw/day (based on histopathological findings in the salivary gland of rats) indicated no human health risks for Gly in the studied populations at the moment. However, the absence of a group ADI for Gly+AMPA and ongoing discussions on e.g., endocrine disrupting effects cast some uncertainty in relation to the current single substance ADI for Gly. The carcinogenic effects of Gly are still debated in the scientific community. These outcomes would influence the risk conclusions presented here. Finally, regression analyses did not find clear associations between urinary exposure biomarkers and analyzed potential exposure determinants. More information from questionnaires targeting exposure-related behavior just before the sampling is needed. Full article
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Article
Mineralogical Properties of a Refractory Tantalum-Niobium Slag and the Effect of Roasting on the Leaching of Uranium-Thorium
Toxics 2022, 10(8), 469; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10080469 - 12 Aug 2022
Viewed by 327
Abstract
In order to realize sustainable development, it is beneficial to explore an appropriate process to recover the radionuclides contained in tantalum-niobium slag. By micro-mineralogical analysis and roasting experiments, the effect of uranium-thorium leaching from a refractory tantalum-niobium slag is investigated. The uranium and [...] Read more.
In order to realize sustainable development, it is beneficial to explore an appropriate process to recover the radionuclides contained in tantalum-niobium slag. By micro-mineralogical analysis and roasting experiments, the effect of uranium-thorium leaching from a refractory tantalum-niobium slag is investigated. The uranium and thorium content in the slag is 2.26 × 103 mg/kg and 7.84 × 103 mg/kg, which have large recovery value. As the surface area and pore size of the slag are very small, the leaching agent cannot fully penetrate the particles. Various methods of characterization are used to analyze the mineralogical properties of roasted slag at different temperatures. The leaching ratio of U-Th is 90.84% and 96.62% at the optimum roasting temperature of 500 °C, which are about 39% and 27% higher than original samples. The oxidants Fe3+, O2 and Mn can also promote the conversion of insoluble U(IV) to soluble U(VI). Roasting reduces the content of organic C and S, thereby preventing reduction of U(VI), and increasing pore size as well as specific surface area also promote radionuclide leaching. Thus, the roasting method at 500 °C can destroy the surface wrapping structure of radionuclides, reduce the internal density of minerals, and improve uranium-thorium leaching ratio significantly. It is of great practical significance to reduce the radioactive hazard of waste tantalum-niobium slag and to strengthen the sustainable utilization of resources by suitable process improvement techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Adsorbents and Adsorption Methods for Pollutants Removal)
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Review
Selected Political Criminal Poisonings in the Years 1978–2020: Detection and Treatment
Toxics 2022, 10(8), 468; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10080468 - 12 Aug 2022
Viewed by 451
Abstract
Criminal poisonings are among the least frequently detected crimes in the world. Lack of suspicion of this type of event by police officers and prosecutors, clinical symptoms imitating many somatic diseases and technical difficulties in diagnostics, as well as high research costs make [...] Read more.
Criminal poisonings are among the least frequently detected crimes in the world. Lack of suspicion of this type of event by police officers and prosecutors, clinical symptoms imitating many somatic diseases and technical difficulties in diagnostics, as well as high research costs make the actual frequency of these events difficult to estimate. The substance used for criminal poisoning is often characterized by: lack of taste, color and smell, delayed action, easy availability and difficulty to detect. The aim of the study was to analyze selected cases of political poisoning that took place in the years 1978–2020, to describe the mechanisms of action of the substances used and to evaluate the diagnosis and treatment. The analyzed cases of criminal poisoning concerned: Georgi Markov (ricin), Khalid Maszal (fentanyl), Wiktor Yushchenko (TCDD dioxin), Jasir Arafat (polonium 210Po isotope), Alexander Litvinenko (polonium 210Po isotope), Kim Jong-Nam (VX), Sergei Skripal (Novichok) and Alexei Navalny (Novichok). Contemporary poisons, to a greater extent than in the past, are based on the use of synthetic substances from the group of organophosphorus compounds and radioactive substances. The possibility of taking appropriate and effective treatment in such cases is the result of many factors, including the possibility of quick and competent rescue intervention, quick and reliable detection of the toxic substance and the possibility of using an antidote. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Forensic Toxicology)
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Article
Composition, Source Apportionment, and Health Risk of PM2.5-Bound Metals during Winter Haze in Yuci College Town, Shanxi, China
Toxics 2022, 10(8), 467; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10080467 - 11 Aug 2022
Viewed by 374
Abstract
The composition, source, and health risks of PM2.5-bound metals were investigated during winter haze in Yuci College Town, Shanxi, China. The 24-h PM2.5 levels of 34 samples ranged from 17 to 174 μg·m−3, with a mean of 81 [...] Read more.
The composition, source, and health risks of PM2.5-bound metals were investigated during winter haze in Yuci College Town, Shanxi, China. The 24-h PM2.5 levels of 34 samples ranged from 17 to 174 μg·m−3, with a mean of 81 ± 35 μg·m−3. PM2.5-bound metals ranked in the following order: Zn > Cu > Pb > As > Ni > Cr (VI) > Cd > Co. The concentrations of 18% As and 100% Cr (VI) exceeded the corresponding standards of the Ambient Air Quality Standards set by China and the WHO. Subsequently, positive matrix factorization analyses revealed that the three major sources of metals were combustion (37.91%), traffic emissions (32.19%), and industry sources (29.9%). Finally, the non-carcinogenic risks for eight metals indicated that only 2.9% of the samples exceeded a threshold value of one, and As accounted for 45.31%. The total carcinogenic risk values for six metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr (VI), Ni, and Pb) were in the range from 10−6 to 10−4, with Cr (VI) and As accounting for 80.92% and 15.52%, respectively. In conclusion, winter haze in Yuci College Town was characterized by higher metal levels and health risks; among the metals, As and Cr (VI) were probably the main contributors. Full article
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Article
Spatial Distribution, Contamination Levels, and Health Risk Assessment of Potentially Toxic Elements in Household Dust in Cairo City, Egypt
Toxics 2022, 10(8), 466; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10080466 - 11 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 420
Abstract
Urban areas’ pollution, which is owing to rapid urbanization and industrialization, is one of the most critical issues in densely populated cities such as Cairo. The concentrations and the spatial distribution of fourteen potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in household dust were investigated in [...] Read more.
Urban areas’ pollution, which is owing to rapid urbanization and industrialization, is one of the most critical issues in densely populated cities such as Cairo. The concentrations and the spatial distribution of fourteen potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in household dust were investigated in Cairo City, Egypt. PTE exposure and human health risk were assessed using the USEPA’s exposure model and guidelines. The levels of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, and Zn surpassed the background values. Contamination factor index revealed that contamination levels are in the sequence Cd > Hg > Zn > Pb > Cu > As > Mo > Ni > Cr > Co > V > Mn > Fe > Al. The degree of contamination ranges from considerably to very high pollution. Elevated PTE concentrations in Cairo’s household dust may be due to heavy traffic emissions and industrial activities. The calculated noncarcinogenic risk for adults falls within the safe limit, while those for children exceed that limit in some sites. Cairo residents are at cancer risk owing to prolonged exposure to the indoor dust in their homes. A quick and targeted plan must be implemented to mitigate these risks. Full article
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Article
Phytoremediation of Soil Contaminated by Organochlorine Pesticides and Toxic Trace Elements: Prospects and Limitations of Paulownia tomentosa
Toxics 2022, 10(8), 465; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10080465 - 11 Aug 2022
Viewed by 387
Abstract
Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb.) Steud is a drought-resistant, low-maintenance and fast-growing energy crop that can withstand a wide range of climatic conditions, provides a high biomass yield (approximately 50 t DM ha−1 yr−1), and develops successfully in contaminated sites. In Kazakhstan, [...] Read more.
Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb.) Steud is a drought-resistant, low-maintenance and fast-growing energy crop that can withstand a wide range of climatic conditions, provides a high biomass yield (approximately 50 t DM ha−1 yr−1), and develops successfully in contaminated sites. In Kazakhstan, there are many historically contaminated sites polluted by a mixture of xenobiotics of organic and inorganic origin that need to be revitalised. Pilot-scale research evaluated the potential of P. tomentosa for the phytoremediation of soils historically contaminated with organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and toxic trace elements (TTEs) to minimise their impact on the environment. Targeted soils from the obsolete pesticide stockpiles located in three villages of Talgar district, Almaty region, Kazakhstan, i.e., Amangeldy (soil A), Beskainar (soil B), and Kyzylkairat (soil K), were subjected to research. Twenty OCPs and eight TTEs (As, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) were detected in the soils. The phytoremediation potential of P. tomentosa was investigated for OCPs whose concentrations in the soils were significantly different (aldrin, endosulfans, endrin aldehyde, HCB, heptachlor, hexabromobenzene, keltan, methoxychlor, and γ-HCH) and for TTEs (Cu, Zn, and Cd) whose concentrations exceeded maximum permissible concentrations. Bioconcentration (BCF) and translocation (TLF) factors were used as indicators of the phytoremediation process. It was ensured that the uptake and translocation of contaminants by P. tomentosa was highly variable and depended on their properties and concentrations in soil. Besides the ability to bioconcentrate Cr, Ni, and Cu, P. tomentosa demonstrated very encouraging results in the accumulation of endosulfans, keltan, and methoxychlor and the phytoextraction of γ-HCH (TLFs of 1.9–9.9) and HCB (BCFs of 197–571). The results of the pilot trials support the need to further investigate the potential of P. tomentosa for phytoremediation on a field scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Engineering, Remediation and Restoration)
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Article
Prenatal Exposure to Mercury, Manganese, and Lead and Adverse Birth Outcomes in Suriname: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study
Toxics 2022, 10(8), 464; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10080464 - 11 Aug 2022
Viewed by 435
Abstract
Globally, adverse birth outcomes are increasingly linked to prenatal exposure to environmental contaminants, such as mercury, manganese, and lead. This study aims to assess an association between prenatal exposure to mercury, manganese, and lead and the occurrence of adverse birth outcomes in 380 [...] Read more.
Globally, adverse birth outcomes are increasingly linked to prenatal exposure to environmental contaminants, such as mercury, manganese, and lead. This study aims to assess an association between prenatal exposure to mercury, manganese, and lead and the occurrence of adverse birth outcomes in 380 pregnant women in Suriname. The numbers of stillbirths, preterm births, low birth weights, and low Apgar scores were determined, as well as blood levels of mercury, manganese, lead, and relevant covariates. Descriptive statistics were calculated using frequency distributions. The associations between mercury, manganese, and lead blood levels, on the one hand, and adverse birth outcomes, on the other hand, were explored using contingency tables, tested with the χ2-test (Fisher’s exact test), and expressed with a p value. Multivariate logistic regression models were computed to explore independent associations and expressed as (adjusted) odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The findings of this study indicate no statistically significant relationship between blood mercury, manganese, or lead levels and stillbirth, preterm birth, low birth weight, and low Apgar score. However, the covariate diabetes mellitus (aOR 5.58, 95% CI (1.38–22.53)) was independently associated with preterm birth and the covariate hypertension (aOR 2.72, 95% CI (1.081–6.86)) with low birth weight. Nevertheless, the observed high proportions of pregnant women with blood levels of mercury, manganese, and lead above the reference levels values of public health concern warrants environmental health research on risk factors for adverse birth outcomes to develop public health policy interventions to protect pregnant Surinamese women and their newborns from potential long-term effects. Full article
Article
Ce3+/Ce4+-Doped ZrO2/CuO Nanocomposite for Enhanced Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue under Visible Light
Toxics 2022, 10(8), 463; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10080463 - 10 Aug 2022
Viewed by 376
Abstract
In recent years, photocatalysis has been used as an environmentally friendly method for the degradation of organic pigments in water. In this study, Ce3+/Ce4+-doped ZrO2/CuO as a mixed semiconductor oxide was successfully prepared by a one-step hydrothermal [...] Read more.
In recent years, photocatalysis has been used as an environmentally friendly method for the degradation of organic pigments in water. In this study, Ce3+/Ce4+-doped ZrO2/CuO as a mixed semiconductor oxide was successfully prepared by a one-step hydrothermal method. The Ce3+/Ce4+-doped ZrO2/CuO has shown high degradation efficiency of methylene blue (MB), and the maximum degradation percentage was observed to be 94.5% at 180 min under irradiation visible light. The photocatalytic activity increases significantly by doping Ce3+/Ce4+ in ZrO2/CuO for MB degradation. Ce3+/Ce4+ doping is shown to reduce the (e-/h+) recombination rate and improve the charge transfer, leading to enhanced photocatalytic activity of materials. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FTIR, EDS, BET and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Engineering, Remediation and Restoration)
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Article
Biochar Is Not Durable for Remediation of Heavy Metal-Contaminated Soils Affected by Acid-Mine Drainage
Toxics 2022, 10(8), 462; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10080462 - 09 Aug 2022
Viewed by 522
Abstract
Biochar is a soil conditioner for enhancing plant growth and reducing plants’ uptake of heavy metals. However, the protonation of biochar surfaces in acid soils can weaken the capacity of biochar to reduce the phytoavailability of soil-borne heavy metals over time. The aim [...] Read more.
Biochar is a soil conditioner for enhancing plant growth and reducing plants’ uptake of heavy metals. However, the protonation of biochar surfaces in acid soils can weaken the capacity of biochar to reduce the phytoavailability of soil-borne heavy metals over time. The aim of this study was to test this hypothesis by performing a plant-growth experiment with five harvest cycles to examine the durability of rice-straw biochar for the remediation of an acidic-mine-water-contaminated soil. The application of the biochar significantly reduced the phytoavailability of the heavy metals and inhibited the plant uptake of cationic heavy metals but not anionic Cr. The beneficial effects of the biochar were weakened with the increasing number of harvest cycles caused by the gradual protonation of the biochar surfaces, which resulted in the desorption of the adsorbed heavy metals. The weakening capacity of the biochar to reduce the heavy-metal uptake by the vegetable plants was more evident for Cu, Zn, and Pb compared to Ni and Cd. The experimental results generally confirmed the hypothesis. It was also observed that the bioaccessible amount of various metals in the edible portion of the vegetable was also reduced as a result of the biochar application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Environmental Technologies)
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Article
Recognition of Heavy Metals by Using Resorcin[4]arenes Soluble in Water
Toxics 2022, 10(8), 461; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10080461 - 09 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 356
Abstract
The complexing properties of two water-soluble resorcin[4]arenes (tetrasodium 5,11,17,23-tetrakissulfonatemethylen 2,8,14,20-tetra(butyl)resorcin[4]arene, Na4BRA, and tetrasodium 5,11,17,23-tetrakissulfonatemethylen-2,8,14,20-tetra(2-(methylthio)ethyl)resorcin[4]arene, Na4SRA) with polluting heavy metals such as Cu2+, Pb2+, Cd2+ and Hg2+ were studied by conductivity, and the findings [...] Read more.
The complexing properties of two water-soluble resorcin[4]arenes (tetrasodium 5,11,17,23-tetrakissulfonatemethylen 2,8,14,20-tetra(butyl)resorcin[4]arene, Na4BRA, and tetrasodium 5,11,17,23-tetrakissulfonatemethylen-2,8,14,20-tetra(2-(methylthio)ethyl)resorcin[4]arene, Na4SRA) with polluting heavy metals such as Cu2+, Pb2+, Cd2+ and Hg2+ were studied by conductivity, and the findings were confirmed by using other techniques to try to apply this knowledge to removing them. The results indicate that Na4BRA is able to complex Cu2+ in a 1:1 ratio and Pb2+ in a 1:2 ratio, while Na4SRA complexes Hg2+ in a 1:1 ratio. On the contrary, no indications have been observed that either of the resorcin[4]arenes studied complexes the Cd2+ ions. The results suggest that the bonds established between the sulfur atoms located at the lower edge of the SRA4− and the solvent hydrogens could prevent the entry of the guest into the host cavity. However, in the case of Hg2+ ions, the entry is favoured by the interactions between the sulfur donor atoms present on the lower edge of Na4SRA and the Hg2+ ions. Therefore, it can be said that Na4BRA is selective for Cu2+ and Pb2+ ions and Na4SRA is selective for Hg2+ ions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Studies on Toxic Chemicals: Properties and Characteristics)
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Article
Toxicity of Orthodontic Brackets Examined by Single Cell Tracking
Toxics 2022, 10(8), 460; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10080460 - 08 Aug 2022
Viewed by 460
Abstract
Subtle toxic effects may be masked in traditional assays that average or summate the response of thousands of cells. We overcome this by using the recent method of single cell tracking in time-lapse recordings. This follows the fate and behavior of individual cells [...] Read more.
Subtle toxic effects may be masked in traditional assays that average or summate the response of thousands of cells. We overcome this by using the recent method of single cell tracking in time-lapse recordings. This follows the fate and behavior of individual cells and their progeny and provides unambiguous results for multiple simultaneous biological responses. Further, single cell tracking permits correlation between progeny relationships and cell behavior that is not otherwise possible, including disruption by toxins and toxicants of similarity between paired sister cells. Notably, single cell tracking seems not to have been previously used to study biomaterials toxicity. The culture medium was pre-conditioned by 79 days incubation with orthodontic brackets from seven separate commercial sources. Metal levels were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. Metal levels varied amongst conditioned media, with elevated Cr, Mn, Ni, and Cu and often Mo, Pb, Zn, Pd, and Ag were occasionally found. The effect on human dermal fibroblasts was determined by single cell tracking. All bracket-conditioned media reduced cell division (p < 0.05), while some reduced cell migration (p < 0.05). Most bracket-conditioned media increased the rate of asynchronous sister cell division (p < 0.05), a seemingly novel measure for toxicity. No clear effect on cell morphology was seen. We conclude that orthodontic brackets have cytotoxic effects, and that single cell tracking is effective for the study of subtle biomaterials cytotoxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxico-Pathological Interactions in Animals and Human)
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Review
Effects of Selected Metal Nanoparticles (Ag, ZnO, TiO2) on the Structure and Function of Reproductive Organs
Toxics 2022, 10(8), 459; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10080459 - 08 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 554
Abstract
Various studies have shown that the reproductive organs are highly sensitive to toxic elements found in the environment. Due to technological progress, the use of nanoparticles has become more common nowadays. Nanoparticles are used for drug delivery because their dimensions allow them to [...] Read more.
Various studies have shown that the reproductive organs are highly sensitive to toxic elements found in the environment. Due to technological progress, the use of nanoparticles has become more common nowadays. Nanoparticles are used for drug delivery because their dimensions allow them to circulate throughout the body and enter directly into the cell. Antimicrobial properties are increasingly used in the manufacture of medical devices, textiles, food packaging, cosmetics, and other consumer products. Nanoparticles provide several benefits, but aspects related to their effects on living organisms and the environment are not well known. This review summarizes current in vivo, and in vitro animal studies focused on the evaluation of toxicity of selected metal nanoparticles (Ag, ZnO, TiO2) on male and female reproductive health. It can be concluded that higher concentrations of metal nanoparticles in the male reproductive system can cause a decrease in spermatozoa motility, viability and disruption of membrane integrity. Histopathological changes of the testicular epithelium, infiltration of inflammatory cells in the epididymis, and prostatic hyperplasia have been observed. Nanoparticles in the female reproductive system caused their accumulation in the ovaries and uterus. Metal nanoparticles most likely induce polycystic ovary syndrome and follicular atresia, inflammation, apoptosis, and necrosis also occurred. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Toxicology)
Review
Health Outcomes in Children Associated with Prenatal and Early-Life Exposures to Air Pollution: A Narrative Review
Toxics 2022, 10(8), 458; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10080458 - 08 Aug 2022
Viewed by 538
Abstract
(1) Background: The developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) hypothesis links adverse fetal exposures with developmental mal-adaptations and morbidity later in life. Short- and long-term exposures to air pollutants are known contributors to health outcomes; however, the potential for developmental health effects [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) hypothesis links adverse fetal exposures with developmental mal-adaptations and morbidity later in life. Short- and long-term exposures to air pollutants are known contributors to health outcomes; however, the potential for developmental health effects of air pollution exposures during gestation or early-childhood have yet to be reviewed and synthesized from a DOHaD lens. The objective of this study is to summarize the literature on cardiovascular and metabolic, respiratory, allergic, and neuropsychological health outcomes, from prenatal development through early childhood, associated with early-life exposures to outdoor air pollutants, including traffic-related and wildfire-generated air pollutants. (2) Methods: We conducted a search using PubMed and the references of articles previously known to the authors. We selected papers that investigated health outcomes during fetal or childhood development in association with early-life ambient or source-specific air pollution exposure. (3) Results: The current literature reports that prenatal and early-childhood exposures to ambient and traffic-related air pollutants are associated with a range of adverse outcomes in early life, including cardiovascular and metabolic, respiratory and allergic, and neurodevelopmental outcomes. Very few studies have investigated associations between wildfire-related air pollution exposure and health outcomes during prenatal, postnatal, or childhood development. (4) Conclusion: Evidence from January 2000 to January 2022 supports a role for prenatal and early-childhood air pollution exposures adversely affecting health outcomes during development. Future studies are needed to identify both detrimental air pollutants from the exposure mixture and critical exposure time periods, investigate emerging exposure sources such as wildfire, and develop feasible interventional tools. Full article
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