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Article

Acute Rubigine® Poisoning in Martinique a French Overseas Department of America: Clinical Characteristics and Prognostic Factors

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Service des Urgences Adultes, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Martinique (Fort-de-France), CEDEX, 97261 Fort-de-France, France
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Service de Réanimation Polyvalente, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Martinique (Fort-de-France), CEDEX, 97261 Fort-de-France, France
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SAMU Centre 15, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Martinique (Fort-de-France), CEDEX, 97261 Fort-de-France, France
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Soins Intensifs Médicaux et Toxicologiques, Hôpital Lariboisière, Université Paris-Diderot, 75011 Paris, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Guido Cavaletti
Toxics 2022, 10(8), 453; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10080453
Received: 19 June 2022 / Revised: 28 July 2022 / Accepted: 30 July 2022 / Published: 5 August 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Toxicology)
Rubigine® is an anti-rust stain remover containing fluorides which is believed to have been the cause of many deaths in Martinique. However, after the modification of its composition in 2006, serious poisoning from old formulas containing fluorides persisted. Our main objective was to determine the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of these intoxications. Methods: Any patient admitted to the Martinique University Hospital for acute Rubigine® poisoning was included from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2016. Usual demographic and clinical data were collected and comparisons between surviving and deceased patients made using a univariate analysis and logistic regression. Results: Fifty-five patients were included (mean age: 43 years; sex ratio M/F: 1.1), and the main clinical characteristics were: changes in electrocardiogram (ECG) (80%), digestive system disorders (75%), and neurological disorders (12%). The main features linked to death were the presence of hydrofluoric acid (p < 0.0001), age over 55 years (p = 0.01), hypocalcemia after the initial intravenous calcium supplementation (p = 0.0003), diarrhea (p < 0.0001), hypersialorrhea (p < 0.0001), myocardial excitability (p < 0.0001), and state of shock (p < 0.0001). Three patients required circulatory support by venous-arterial ECMO. Mortality was 10.9%. Conclusions: Rubigine® poisoning is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality. Fortunately, its incidence as well as mortality has sharply decreased in Martinique thanks to the measures taken by the French state. This retrospective work nevertheless shows that acute intoxication by the old formula of Rubigine® remains the main factor of poor prognosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: Rubigine®; hydrofluoric acid; ammonium bifluoride; acute poisoning; Martinique Rubigine®; hydrofluoric acid; ammonium bifluoride; acute poisoning; Martinique
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MDPI and ACS Style

Florentin, J.; Neviere, R.; Gueye, P.; Mégarbane, B.; Mehdaoui, H.; Resiere, D. Acute Rubigine® Poisoning in Martinique a French Overseas Department of America: Clinical Characteristics and Prognostic Factors. Toxics 2022, 10, 453. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10080453

AMA Style

Florentin J, Neviere R, Gueye P, Mégarbane B, Mehdaoui H, Resiere D. Acute Rubigine® Poisoning in Martinique a French Overseas Department of America: Clinical Characteristics and Prognostic Factors. Toxics. 2022; 10(8):453. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10080453

Chicago/Turabian Style

Florentin, Jonathan, Remi Neviere, Papa Gueye, Bruno Mégarbane, Hossein Mehdaoui, and Dabor Resiere. 2022. "Acute Rubigine® Poisoning in Martinique a French Overseas Department of America: Clinical Characteristics and Prognostic Factors" Toxics 10, no. 8: 453. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10080453

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