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Article

Ecotoxicity of Polyvinylidene Difluoride (PVDF) and Polylactic Acid (PLA) Microplastics in Marine Zooplankton

1
Early PostDoc Mobility Grant—Swiss National Science Foundation, 3000 Bern, Switzerland
2
Institute for the Study of the Anthropic Impact and Sustainability in the Marine Environment (CNR-IAS), National Research Council, Via de Marini 16, 16149 Genova, Italy
3
Institute of Biophysics (CNR-IBF), National Research Council, Via de Marini 16, 16149 Genova, Italy
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Schaefer SEE srl, Via Luigi Einaudi 23, 45100 Rovigo, Italy
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Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism (CNR-IMEM), National Research Council, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16149 Genova, Italy
6
Institute of Molecular Science and Technologies (CNR-SCITEC), National Research Council, Via de Marini 16, 16149 Genova, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Rosa Bonaventura, Francesca Zito and Roberta Russo
Toxics 2022, 10(8), 479; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10080479
Received: 6 July 2022 / Revised: 11 August 2022 / Accepted: 13 August 2022 / Published: 17 August 2022
The aim of this study was to investigate the ecotoxicity of polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) and polylactic acid (PLA) microplastics (MPs) in two marine zooplankton: the crustacean Artemia franciscana and the cnidarian Aurelia sp. (common jellyfish). To achieve this goal, (i) MP uptake, (ii) immobility, and (iii) behavior (swimming speed, pulsation mode) of crustacean larval stages and jellyfish ephyrae exposed to MPs concentrations (1, 10, 100 mg/L) were assessed for 24 h. Using traditional and novel techniques, i.e., epifluorescence microscopy and 3D holotomography (HT), PVDF and PLA MPs were found in the digestive systems of the crustaceans and in the gelatinous tissue of jellyfish. Immobility was not affected in either organism, while a significant behavioral alteration in terms of pulsation mode was found in jellyfish after exposure to both PVDF and PLA MPs. Moreover, PLA MPs exposure in jellyfish induced a toxic effect (EC50: 77.43 mg/L) on the behavioral response. This study provides new insights into PLA and PVDF toxicity with the potential for a large impact on the marine ecosystem, since jellyfish play a key role in the marine food chain. However, further investigations incorporating additional species belonging to other trophic levels are paramount to better understand and clarify the impact of such polymers at micro scale in the marine environment. These findings suggest that although PVDF and PLA have been recently proposed as innovative and, in the case of PLA, biodegradable polymers, their effects on marine biota should not be underestimated. View Full-Text
Keywords: behavior; cnidarians; crustacean; ecotoxicology; emerging contaminants; marine biota; novel detection method behavior; cnidarians; crustacean; ecotoxicology; emerging contaminants; marine biota; novel detection method
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MDPI and ACS Style

Di Giannantonio, M.; Gambardella, C.; Miroglio, R.; Costa, E.; Sbrana, F.; Smerieri, M.; Carraro, G.; Utzeri, R.; Faimali, M.; Garaventa, F. Ecotoxicity of Polyvinylidene Difluoride (PVDF) and Polylactic Acid (PLA) Microplastics in Marine Zooplankton. Toxics 2022, 10, 479. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10080479

AMA Style

Di Giannantonio M, Gambardella C, Miroglio R, Costa E, Sbrana F, Smerieri M, Carraro G, Utzeri R, Faimali M, Garaventa F. Ecotoxicity of Polyvinylidene Difluoride (PVDF) and Polylactic Acid (PLA) Microplastics in Marine Zooplankton. Toxics. 2022; 10(8):479. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10080479

Chicago/Turabian Style

Di Giannantonio, Michela, Chiara Gambardella, Roberta Miroglio, Elisa Costa, Francesca Sbrana, Marco Smerieri, Giovanni Carraro, Roberto Utzeri, Marco Faimali, and Francesca Garaventa. 2022. "Ecotoxicity of Polyvinylidene Difluoride (PVDF) and Polylactic Acid (PLA) Microplastics in Marine Zooplankton" Toxics 10, no. 8: 479. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10080479

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