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Open AccessArticle

Exploratory Monitoring of the Quality and Authenticity of Commercial Honey in Ecuador

Centro de Investigación de Alimentos, CIAL, Universidad UTE, EC170527 Quito, Ecuador
Centro de Investigación de la Caña de Azúcar, CINCAE, El Triunfo 091601, Ecuador
Departamento de Ciencias Nucleares, Facultad de Ingeniería Química y Agroindustria, Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Quito EC170525, Ecuador
Rigaku Analytical Devices, Inc., Wilmington, NC 01887, USA
Wageningen University & Research Akkermaalsbos 2, 6708 WB Wageningen, The Netherlands
CEQUINOR (UNLP-CONICET), Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata 1900, Argentina
Facultad de Ciencias de la Seguridad y Gestión de Riesgos, Universidad Internacional del Ecuador, Quito EC170504, Ecuador
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2019, 8(3), 105;
Received: 6 February 2019 / Revised: 11 March 2019 / Accepted: 15 March 2019 / Published: 20 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
Honey is one of the oldest sweetening foods and has economic importance, making this product attractive to adulteration with cheap sugars. This can cause a critical problem in the honey industry and a possible health risk. The present work has the aim of evaluating the authenticity of honey commercialized in two different provinces of Ecuador (Pichincha and Loja) by performing physicochemical and spectroscopic analyses. For this study 25 samples were collected from different places and markets and characterized by water, sucrose, reducing sugars and electric conductivity measurement. Also, their Raman and Infrared (IR) spectra were recorded and analysed using a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) in order to verify the quality of the honeys. In addition, a screening of several pesticides was performed in order to verify possible chemical threats to human health and honey bees. It was found that 8 samples have a deviation from the Standard established parameters. Two of them have a high difference in the content of sucrose and reducing sugars, which are located deviated from all the other samples in the PCA of the applied vibrational spectroscopy (IR/Raman), shaping two clear clusters. The results show that Raman and IR spectroscopy is appropriate techniques for the quality control of honey and correlates well with the physicochemical analyses. View Full-Text
Keywords: Honey; adulteration; Raman spectroscopy; infrared spectroscopy; chemometric Honey; adulteration; Raman spectroscopy; infrared spectroscopy; chemometric
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Salvador, L.; Guijarro, M.; Rubio, D.; Aucatoma, B.; Guillén, T.; Vargas Jentzsch, P.; Ciobotă, V.; Stolker, L.; Ulic, S.; Vásquez, L.; Garrido, P.; Bravo, J.; Ramos Guerrero, L. Exploratory Monitoring of the Quality and Authenticity of Commercial Honey in Ecuador. Foods 2019, 8, 105.

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