Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

Foods, Volume 8, Issue 2 (February 2019)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) Cream cheese is a fresh-acid-curd cheese that is produced all over the world. Some manufacturers [...] Read more.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-45
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessFeature PaperReview Bacterial Production and Control of Biogenic Amines in Asian Fermented Soybean Foods
Received: 27 January 2019 / Revised: 14 February 2019 / Accepted: 19 February 2019 / Published: 25 February 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 682 | PDF Full-text (508 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fermented soybean foods possess significant health-promoting effects and are consumed worldwide, especially within Asia, but less attention has been paid to the safety of the foods. Since fermented soybean foods contain abundant amino acids and biogenic amine-producing microorganisms, it is necessary to understand [...] Read more.
Fermented soybean foods possess significant health-promoting effects and are consumed worldwide, especially within Asia, but less attention has been paid to the safety of the foods. Since fermented soybean foods contain abundant amino acids and biogenic amine-producing microorganisms, it is necessary to understand the presence of biogenic amines in the foods. The amounts of biogenic amines in most products have been reported to be within safe levels. Conversely, certain products contain vasoactive biogenic amines greater than toxic levels. Nonetheless, government legislation regulating biogenic amines in fermented soybean foods is not found throughout the world. Therefore, it is necessary to provide strategies to reduce biogenic amine formation in the foods. Alongside numerous existing intervention methods, the use of Bacillus starter cultures capable of degrading and/or incapable of producing biogenic amines has been proposed as a guaranteed way to reduce biogenic amines in fermented soybean foods, considering that Bacillus species have been known as fermenting microorganisms responsible for biogenic amine formation in the foods. Molecular genetic studies of Bacillus genes involved in the formation and degradation of biogenic amines would be helpful in selecting starter cultures. This review summarizes the presence and control strategies of biogenic amines in fermented soybean foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biogenic Amines on Food Safety)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Effect of Microwave Drying on the Drying Characteristics, Color, Microstructure, and Thermal Properties of Trabzon Persimmon
Received: 8 January 2019 / Revised: 12 February 2019 / Accepted: 20 February 2019 / Published: 23 February 2019
Viewed by 593 | PDF Full-text (7542 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, changes in the drying kinetics, color change, and the energy consumption for microwave energy were investigated for Trabzon persimmon. In addition to that, the microstructure of the persimmon was also investigated by considering its thermal changes. It is important to [...] Read more.
In this study, changes in the drying kinetics, color change, and the energy consumption for microwave energy were investigated for Trabzon persimmon. In addition to that, the microstructure of the persimmon was also investigated by considering its thermal changes. It is important to be aware of the purpose of the drying process for determining the drying system. Results of this research showed that 460 W for 7 mm slice thickness depending on energy consumption, 600 W for 5 mm slice thickness depending on drying time, and 600 W depending on color changes were found as suitable drying processes depending on drying conditions. The effective diffusion values varied between 2.97 × 10−8 m2 s−1 and 4.63 × 10−6 m2 s−1. The activation energy values for 5 mm, 7 mm and 9 mm slice thickness were estimated as 32.82, 18.64, and 12.80 W g−1, respectively. The drying time and energy consumption decreased, whereas drying rate increased with an increase in the microwave energy. The number of pores increased compared to structure of fresh sample, and the pores got to be larger for 5 mm slice thickness as the power level increased. Results showed that the applied microwave energy had an important effect on the heating of the material and the change in the microstructure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drying Technologies in Food Preservation)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Influence of Flour Particle Size Distribution on the Quality of Maize Gluten-Free Cookies
Received: 29 January 2019 / Revised: 19 February 2019 / Accepted: 20 February 2019 / Published: 23 February 2019
Viewed by 584 | PDF Full-text (618 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of the present study was to analyse the influence of particle size distribution of maize flour in the formulation of gluten-free cookies. Different cookie formulations were made with three distinct maize flour fractions obtained by sieving (less than 80 µm; between [...] Read more.
The objective of the present study was to analyse the influence of particle size distribution of maize flour in the formulation of gluten-free cookies. Different cookie formulations were made with three distinct maize flour fractions obtained by sieving (less than 80 µm; between 80 and 180 µm; greater than 180 µm). Cookies dimension, texture and colour were evaluated. Flour hydration properties and cookie dough rheology were also measured. Overall, an increase in maize flour particle size decreases the values of water holding capacity (WHC), swelling volume and G’ (elastic modulus) for the doughs. An increase in average particle size also increases diameter and spread factor of the cookies but decreases their hardness. A higher percentage of thick particles is more effective to reduce cookie hardness, but a certain percentage of thinner particles is necessary to give cohesion to the dough and to allow formation of the cookies without breaking. Cookies with a larger diameter also presented a darker colour after baking. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Nondestructive Classification Analysis of Green Coffee Beans by Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy
Received: 11 January 2019 / Revised: 12 February 2019 / Accepted: 18 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
Viewed by 615 | PDF Full-text (1346 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a powerful tool for the nondestructive evaluation of organic materials, and it has found widespread use in a variety of industries. In the food industry, it is important to know the district in which a particular food was produced. [...] Read more.
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a powerful tool for the nondestructive evaluation of organic materials, and it has found widespread use in a variety of industries. In the food industry, it is important to know the district in which a particular food was produced. Therefore, in this study, we focused on determining the production area (five areas and three districts) of green coffee beans using classification analysis and NIRS. Soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) was applied as the classification method. Samples of green coffee beans produced in seven locations—Cuba, Ethiopia, Indonesia (Bari, Java, and Sumatra), Tanzania, and Yemen—were analyzed. These regions were selected since green coffee beans from these locations are commonly sold in Japan supermarkets. A good classification result was obtained with SIMCA for the seven green bean samples, although some samples were partly classified into several categories. Then, the model distance values of SIMCA were calculated and compared. A few model distance values were ~10; such small values may be the reason for misclassification. However, over a 73% correct classification rate could be achieved for the different kinds of green coffee beans using NIRS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods Quality Assessed by Chemometrics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Investigation of the Performance of a Hybrid Dryer Designed for the Food Industry
Received: 14 January 2019 / Revised: 16 February 2019 / Accepted: 18 February 2019 / Published: 21 February 2019
Viewed by 541 | PDF Full-text (1548 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, a microwave energy conveyor dryer with the support of solar energy was researched with respect to its usability in the food industry and its short drying time and low energy requirements. The hot air produced using a collector (which was [...] Read more.
In this study, a microwave energy conveyor dryer with the support of solar energy was researched with respect to its usability in the food industry and its short drying time and low energy requirements. The hot air produced using a collector (which was designed in the shape of a hemisphere for the purpose of getting high efficiency from solar energy) was transferred to a conveyor drying chamber operating with microwave energy at the speed of 0.245 m/min. Drying kinetics of the selected black radishes for the experiments were determined using samples sliced into 4, 6, and 8 mm. At the end of the drying, the duration and specific energy consumption for the drying process as well as color changes in the samples were measured, and the collector’s efficiency was calculated. In addition, as a result of statistical analysis, the most suitable model among the seven drying models was determined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drying Technologies in Food Preservation)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Antimicrobial Interventions against E. coli O157:H7 on the Surface of Raw Beef to Reduce Bacterial Translocation during Blade Tenderization
Received: 11 January 2019 / Revised: 4 February 2019 / Accepted: 15 February 2019 / Published: 20 February 2019
Viewed by 680 | PDF Full-text (4256 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The US Department of Agriculture, Food Safety Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS) considers mechanically-tenderized beef as “non-intact” and a food safety concern because of the potential for translocation of surface Escherichia coli O157:H7 into the interior of the meat that may be cooked “rare or [...] Read more.
The US Department of Agriculture, Food Safety Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS) considers mechanically-tenderized beef as “non-intact” and a food safety concern because of the potential for translocation of surface Escherichia coli O157:H7 into the interior of the meat that may be cooked “rare or medium-rare” and consumed. We evaluated 14 potential spray interventions on E. coli O157:H7-inoculated lean beef wafers (~106 CFU/cm2, n = 896) passing through a spray system (18 s dwell time, ~40 pounds per square inch, PSI) integrated into the front end of a Ross TC-700MC tenderizer. Inoculated and processed beef wafers were stomached with D/E neutralizing broth and plated immediately, or were held in refrigerated storage for 1-, 7-, or 14-days prior to microbial enumeration. Seven antimicrobials that showed better performance in preliminary screening on beef wafers were selected for further testing on beef subprimals in conjunction with blade tenderization. Boneless top sirloin beef subprimals were inoculated at ~2 × 104 CFU/cm2 with a four-strain cocktail of E. coli O157:H7 and passed once, lean side up, through an integrated spray system and blade tenderizer. Core samples obtained from each subprimal were examined for the presence/absence of E. coli O157:H7. The absence of E. coli O157:H7 in core samples correlated with the ability of the antimicrobials to reduce bacterial levels on the surface of beef prior to blade tenderization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiology Research in Meat and Meat Production)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Biofilm Challenge: Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Bovine Udders versus Staphylococci
Received: 26 December 2018 / Revised: 25 January 2019 / Accepted: 18 February 2019 / Published: 20 February 2019
Viewed by 629 | PDF Full-text (1646 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mastitis poses a considerable threat to productivity and to animal welfare on modern dairy farms. However, the common way of antibiotic treatment does not always lead to a cure. Unsuccessful cures can, among other reasons, occur due to biofilm formation of the causative [...] Read more.
Mastitis poses a considerable threat to productivity and to animal welfare on modern dairy farms. However, the common way of antibiotic treatment does not always lead to a cure. Unsuccessful cures can, among other reasons, occur due to biofilm formation of the causative agent. This has attracted interest from researchers to introduce promising alternative therapeutic approaches, such as the use of beneficial lactic acid bacteria (LAB). In fact, using LAB for treating mastitis probably requires the formation of a beneficial biofilm by the probiotic bacteria. The present study investigated the ability of five LAB strains, selected on the basis of results from previous studies, to remove and to replace pathogenic biofilms in vitro. For this purpose, Staphylococcus (S.) aureus ATCC 12,600 and two strains—S. xylosus (35/07) and S. epidermidis (575/08)—belonging to the group of coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) were allowed to form biofilms in a 96-well plate. Subsequently, the LAB were added to the well. The biofilm challenge was evaluated by scraping off and suspending the biofilm cells, followed by a plate count of serial dilutions using selective media. All the LAB strains successfully removed the staphylococcal biofilms. However, only Lactobacillus (L.) rhamnosus ATCC 7469 and L. plantarum 2/37 formed biofilms of their own to replace the pathogenic ones. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Swiss Cheese Flavor Variability Based on Correlations of Volatile Flavor Compounds, Descriptive Sensory Attributes, and Consumer Preference
Received: 28 January 2019 / Revised: 13 February 2019 / Accepted: 14 February 2019 / Published: 19 February 2019
Viewed by 646 | PDF Full-text (539 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Minimizing flavor variation in cheeses without perceived flavor defects in order to produce a consistent product is a challenge in the Swiss cheese industry. This study evaluated flavor variability based on correlations of volatile flavor compounds and sensory attributes. The headspace concentrations of [...] Read more.
Minimizing flavor variation in cheeses without perceived flavor defects in order to produce a consistent product is a challenge in the Swiss cheese industry. This study evaluated flavor variability based on correlations of volatile flavor compounds and sensory attributes. The headspace concentrations of volatile compounds were analyzed using selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS), while the sensory attributes were evaluated using descriptive sensory analysis and consumer testing. The important discriminating volatile compounds were classified into five functional groups: sulfur-containing compounds (methyl mercaptan, hydrogen sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, and methional), organic acids (propanoic acid, acetic acid, 3-methylbutanoic acid), aldehydes (3-methylbutanal, butanal, and 2-methylpropanal), a ketone (2,3-butanedione), and an ester (ethyl hexanoate). Correlations were identified among volatile compounds and between volatile compounds and sensory attributes. Only a small number of volatile compounds strongly correlated positively or negatively to a specific sensory attribute. Nutty malty, milkfat lactone, salty, umami, and sweet positively correlated to overall liking and nutty flavor liking of Swiss cheese. Evaluation of cheese flavor using correlations between volatile compounds and sensory attributes provided further understanding of the complexity of flavor and flavor variability among Swiss cheeses manufactured from different factories that can be used to improve flavor consistency of Swiss cheeses. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Oriental Melon (Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa)
Received: 23 January 2019 / Revised: 13 February 2019 / Accepted: 13 February 2019 / Published: 19 February 2019
Viewed by 624 | PDF Full-text (1199 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Full-length cDNAs encoding ξ-carotene desaturase (CmZDS), lycopene ε-cyclase (CmLCYE), β-ring carotene hydroxylase (CmCHXB), and zeaxanthin epoxidase (CmZEP), and partial-length cDNA encoding ε-ring carotene hydroxylase (CmCHXE) were isolated in Chamoe (Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa), an important commercial fruit. Sequence analyses revealed [...] Read more.
Full-length cDNAs encoding ξ-carotene desaturase (CmZDS), lycopene ε-cyclase (CmLCYE), β-ring carotene hydroxylase (CmCHXB), and zeaxanthin epoxidase (CmZEP), and partial-length cDNA encoding ε-ring carotene hydroxylase (CmCHXE) were isolated in Chamoe (Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa), an important commercial fruit. Sequence analyses revealed that these proteins share high identity and common features with other orthologous genes. Expression levels of entire genes involved in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway were investigated in the peel, pulp, and stalk of chamoe cultivars Ohbokggul and Gotgam. Most of the carotenoid biosynthetic genes were expressed at their highest levels in the stalk, whereas carotenoids were highly distributed in the peel. The expression levels of all carotenoid biosynthetic genes in fruits of the native cultivar Gotgam chamoe were higher than those in the cultivar Ohbokggul chamoe, consistent with the abundant carotenoid accumulation in Gotgam chamoe fruits and trace carotenoid content of Ohbokggul chamoe fruit. Lutein and β-carotene were the dominant carotenoids; high levels (278.05 μg g−1 and 112.02 μg g−1 dry weight, respectively) were found in the peel of Gotgam chamoe. Our findings may provide a foundation for elucidating the carotenoid biosynthetic mechanism in C. melo and inform strategies for developing new chamoe cultivars with improved characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Effects of Light-Emitting Diodes on the Accumulation of Glucosinolates and Phenolic Compounds in Sprouting Canola (Brassica napus L.)
Received: 25 January 2019 / Revised: 7 February 2019 / Accepted: 12 February 2019 / Published: 19 February 2019
Viewed by 584 | PDF Full-text (433 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, we investigated optimal light conditions for enhancement of the growth and accumulation of glucosinolates and phenolics in the sprouts of canola (Brassica napus L.). We found that the shoot lengths and fresh weights of red light-irradiated sprouts were higher [...] Read more.
In this study, we investigated optimal light conditions for enhancement of the growth and accumulation of glucosinolates and phenolics in the sprouts of canola (Brassica napus L.). We found that the shoot lengths and fresh weights of red light-irradiated sprouts were higher than those of sprouts exposed to white, blue, and blue + red light, whereas root length was not notably different among red, blue, white, and blue + red light treatments. The accumulations of total glucosinolates in plants irradiated with white, blue, and red lights were not significantly different (19.32 ± 0.13, 20.69 ± 0.05, and 20.65 ± 1.70 mg/g dry weight (wt.), respectively). However, sprouts exposed to blue + red light contained the lowest levels of total glucosinolates (17.08 ± 0.28 mg/g dry wt.). The accumulation of total phenolic compounds was the highest in plants irradiated with blue light (3.81 ± 0.08 mg/g dry wt.), 1.33 times higher than the lowest level in plants irradiated with red light (2.87 ± 0.05 mg/g dry wt.). These results demonstrate that red light-emitting diode (LED) light is suitable for sprout growth and that blue LED light is effective in increasing the accumulation of glucosinolates and phenolics in B. napus sprouts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Emerging Technologies on Food Products Composition)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Antioxidant Characterization and Biological Effects of Grape Pomace Extracts Supplementation in Caenorhabditis elegans
Received: 18 January 2019 / Revised: 11 February 2019 / Accepted: 12 February 2019 / Published: 15 February 2019
Viewed by 666 | PDF Full-text (1228 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this work was to evaluate the biological activity of four grape pomace (GP) extracts that are rich in polyphenols using C. elegans as an in vivo model. Different concentrations of the GP extracts were assessed for their effects on the [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to evaluate the biological activity of four grape pomace (GP) extracts that are rich in polyphenols using C. elegans as an in vivo model. Different concentrations of the GP extracts were assessed for their effects on the resistance of C. elegans against thermally induced oxidative stress, accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and lifespan. The cultivation of C. elegans with relatively low concentrations of GP extracts increased their resistance against thermal stress and prolonged their lifespan, while high levels displayed detrimental effects. In the studied extracts, maximum protection was observed for levels of polyphenols around 7 to 9 µg gallic acid equivalents per cultivation plate. The obtained results suggested that small changes in the ROS levels could have beneficial effects, although further studies are required to fully understand the impact of the extracts and assayed doses on ROS levels to explain the mechanism that is involved in the observed effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis and Health Benefits of Wine Polyphenols)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Incremental Adjustments to Amount of Thickening Agent in Beverages: Implications for Clinical Practitioners Who Oversee Nutrition Care Involving Thickened Liquids
Received: 3 January 2019 / Revised: 10 February 2019 / Accepted: 12 February 2019 / Published: 14 February 2019
Viewed by 594 | PDF Full-text (1878 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study examined the changes in viscosity in response to small alterations in the amount of a thickening agent mixed with three commonly thickened beverages. A total of 11 incremental adjustments in the amount of a starch-based thickening agent (5.0 g to 7.0 [...] Read more.
This study examined the changes in viscosity in response to small alterations in the amount of a thickening agent mixed with three commonly thickened beverages. A total of 11 incremental adjustments in the amount of a starch-based thickening agent (5.0 g to 7.0 g) were made. The results showed that the incremental increases resulted in systematic changes to the liquid thickness, reflecting modifications that ranged from a nectar (mildly thick) to a honey-like (moderately thick) level of consistency. The findings emphasize the importance of the proper preparation of thickened beverages, highlighting the need for standards in training practices and the use of simple measurement tools for assuring the prescribed levels of consistency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle The Occurrence of Biogenic Amines and Determination of Biogenic Amine-Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria in Kkakdugi and Chonggak Kimchi
Received: 3 February 2019 / Revised: 8 February 2019 / Accepted: 12 February 2019 / Published: 14 February 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 734 | PDF Full-text (1548 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In this study, biogenic amine content in two types of fermented radish kimchi (Kkakdugi and Chonggak kimchi) was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). While most samples had low levels of biogenic amines, some samples contained histamine content over the toxicity [...] Read more.
In this study, biogenic amine content in two types of fermented radish kimchi (Kkakdugi and Chonggak kimchi) was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). While most samples had low levels of biogenic amines, some samples contained histamine content over the toxicity limit. Additionally, significant amounts of total biogenic amines were detected in certain samples due to high levels of putrefactive amines. As one of the significant factors influencing biogenic amine content in both radish kimchi, Myeolchi-aekjoet appeared to be important source of histamine. Besides, tyramine-producing strains of lactic acid bacteria existed in both radish kimchi. Through 16s rRNA sequencing analysis, the dominant species of tyramine-producing strains was identified as Lactobacillus brevis, which suggests that the species is responsible for tyramine formation in both radish kimchi. During fermentation, a higher tyramine accumulation was observed in both radish kimchi when L. brevis strains were used as inocula. The addition of Myeolchi-aekjeot affected the initial concentrations of histamine and cadaverine in both radish kimchi. Therefore, this study suggests that reducing the ratio of Myeolchi-aekjeot to other ingredients (and/or using Myeolchi-aekjeot with low biogenic amine content) and using starter cultures with ability to degrade and/or inability to produce biogenic amines would be effective in reducing biogenic amine content in Kkakdugi and Chonggak kimchi. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biogenic Amines on Food Safety)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Exploring the Brine Microbiota of a Traditional Norwegian Fermented Fish Product (Rakfisk) from Six Different Producers during Two Consecutive Seasonal Productions
Received: 28 January 2019 / Revised: 10 February 2019 / Accepted: 12 February 2019 / Published: 14 February 2019
Viewed by 652 | PDF Full-text (2156 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to explore the microbiota of Norwegian fermented fish (rakfisk), a traditional product popular in the Norwegian market. Brine samples, collected from six producers during two subsequent years, were used. The producers applied different salt concentrations [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to explore the microbiota of Norwegian fermented fish (rakfisk), a traditional product popular in the Norwegian market. Brine samples, collected from six producers during two subsequent years, were used. The producers applied different salt concentrations (between 3.8% and 7.2% NaCl), ripening temperatures (between 3.5 and 7.5 °C), fish species (trout or char), and fish upbringing (wild trout, on-shore farmed trout or char, and off-shore farmed char). The microbiota in the brine during the ripening process was mainly characterized by DNA-based, culture-independent methods. In total, 1710 samples were processed and of these 1342 were used for the final analysis. The microbiota was dominated by Gammaproteobacteria and Bacilli with the largest variance between samples associated with the genera Psychrobacter and Lactobacillus. The variance in the material was mainly determined by the origin of the samples, i.e., the different producers. The microbiota from the individual producers was to a large extent reproducible from one year to the next and appeared to be determined by the relatively small differences in the salinity and the ripening temperature. This is the first study exploring the microbiota in rakfisk brine and it provides insights into environmental factors affecting the rakfisk ecosystems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processing Technology and Quality of Fermented Food and Beverages)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Influence of Monosodium Glutamate and Its Substitutes on Sensory Characteristics and Consumer Perceptions of Chicken Soup
Received: 16 December 2018 / Revised: 12 February 2019 / Accepted: 12 February 2019 / Published: 14 February 2019
Viewed by 637 | PDF Full-text (741 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Soup manufacturers are removing monosodium glutamate (MSG) to meet consumer demand for natural ingredients. This research investigated the influence of MSG and its substitutes (yeast extract: YE; mushroom concentrate: MC; tomato concentrate: TC) on clear chicken soup with 0.4% sodium chloride (salt) by [...] Read more.
Soup manufacturers are removing monosodium glutamate (MSG) to meet consumer demand for natural ingredients. This research investigated the influence of MSG and its substitutes (yeast extract: YE; mushroom concentrate: MC; tomato concentrate: TC) on clear chicken soup with 0.4% sodium chloride (salt) by comparing sensory attributes and consumer acceptability among each other, and to a chicken soup sample containing 0.5% salt (Salt 0.5%). The soup with 0.4% salt without enhancers was designated as the control. Corresponding list of ingredients was also presented to consumers to study the effects on consumer expectations about chicken soup products. Our results showed that MSG and its substitutes significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced the sensory properties of chicken soup. These flavor enhancers also achieved statistically same or stronger improvement in overall flavor, meaty flavor, chicken flavor and umami taste when compared to Salt 0.5% sample. Consumers significantly preferred MSG 0.1%, YE 0.025%, and Salt 0.5% samples than others. Compared to MC and TC samples, less consumers perceived MSG and YE samples as “free of artificial” and “natural” with lower consumption interest. Claims about artificial/natural ingredients were attractive selling points for chicken soups, but good sensory appealing was the most important attribute linearly affecting consumer satisfactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Sensory Properties in Foods)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Use of a Selected Leuconostoc Citreum Strain as a Starter for Making a “Yeast-Free” Bread
Received: 28 December 2018 / Revised: 30 January 2019 / Accepted: 8 February 2019 / Published: 13 February 2019
Viewed by 707 | PDF Full-text (2450 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was the characterization and selection of bacterial strains suitable for the production of a “yeast-free” bread. The strains Leuconostoc citreum C2.27 and Weissella confusa C5.7 were selected for their leavening and acidification capabilities and individually used as starters [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was the characterization and selection of bacterial strains suitable for the production of a “yeast-free” bread. The strains Leuconostoc citreum C2.27 and Weissella confusa C5.7 were selected for their leavening and acidification capabilities and individually used as starters in bread-making tests. Liquid type-II sourdoughs, singly inoculated with the two selected strains, were characterized and employed for bread-making, through the set-up of a biotechnological protocol without the use of baker’s yeast as a leavening agent. Aiming to verify the ability of the selected strains to dominate the fermentation process, bacteria and yeasts were isolated from liquid sourdoughs and doughs, genetically characterized and identified. Both the selected strains were suitable for the production of bread, even if L. citreum C2.27 showed the highest leavening capacity and was able to dominate the dough microbiota. The effects of different salt concentrations on the selected strain performances were also investigated. The applicability of the developed protocol, adapted for the production of the typical Apulian bread, “puccia”, and the suitability of the strain L. citreum C2.27 were confirmed at pilot scale in an industrial bakery. The puccia bread, which was produced with the liquid sourdough fermented with L. citreum C2.27, without baker’s yeast and salt, was similar in appearance to the conventional product containing baker’s yeast and was judged positively by a sensory analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processing Technology and Quality of Fermented Food and Beverages)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Feeding of 1-Kestose Induces Glutathione-S-Transferase Expression in Mouse Liver
Received: 29 January 2019 / Revised: 5 February 2019 / Accepted: 6 February 2019 / Published: 13 February 2019
Viewed by 627 | PDF Full-text (856 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Functional food ingredients, including prebiotics, have been increasingly developed for human health. The improvement of the human intestinal environment is one of their main targets. Fructooligosaccarides (FOS) are oligosaccharide fructans that are well studied and commercialized prebiotics. 1-Kestose, one of the components of [...] Read more.
Functional food ingredients, including prebiotics, have been increasingly developed for human health. The improvement of the human intestinal environment is one of their main targets. Fructooligosaccarides (FOS) are oligosaccharide fructans that are well studied and commercialized prebiotics. 1-Kestose, one of the components of FOS, is considered to be a key prebiotic component in FOS. However, to our knowledge, no studies have been reported on the physiological efficacy of 1-Kestose regarding its anti-oxidative activity. In the present study, we examined the effects of dietary 1-Kestose on gene expression of antioxidative enzymes in the liver, kidney and epididymal adipose tissue of mice by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). We demonstrated that a 1-Kestose-rich diet increased mRNA and enzymatic activity levels of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in mouse liver. These results suggest the possibility that dietary 1-Kestose as a prebiotic may enhance antioxidative activity in mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Synbiotics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle An Assessment of the Bioactivity of Coffee Silverskin Melanoidins
Received: 22 January 2019 / Revised: 7 February 2019 / Accepted: 9 February 2019 / Published: 12 February 2019
Viewed by 781 | PDF Full-text (2058 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Melanoidins present in coffee silverskin, the only by-product of the roasting process, are formed via the Maillard reaction. The exact structure, biological properties, and mechanism of action of coffee silverskin melanoidins, remain unknown. This research work aimed to contribute to this novel knowledge. [...] Read more.
Melanoidins present in coffee silverskin, the only by-product of the roasting process, are formed via the Maillard reaction. The exact structure, biological properties, and mechanism of action of coffee silverskin melanoidins, remain unknown. This research work aimed to contribute to this novel knowledge. To achieve this goal, melanoidins were obtained from an aqueous extract of Arabica coffee silverskin (WO2013004873A1) and was isolated through ultrafiltration (>10 kDa). The isolation protocol was optimized and the chemical composition of the high molecular weight fraction (>10 kDa) was evaluated, by analyzing the content of protein, caffeine, chlorogenic acid, and the total dietary fiber. In addition, the structural analysis was performed by infrared spectroscopy. Antioxidant properties were studied in vitro and the fiber effect was studied in vivo, in healthy male Wistar rats. Melanoidins were administered to animals in the drinking water at a dose of 1 g/kg. At the fourth week of treatment, gastrointestinal motility was evaluated through non-invasive radiographic means. In conclusion, the isolation process was effective in obtaining a high molecular weight fraction, composed mainly of dietary fiber, including melanoidins, with in vitro antioxidant capacity and in vivo dietary fiber effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Browning Reactions in Foods. Impact on Nutrition, Safety and Health)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Lysozyme Aptamer-Functionalized Magnetic Nanoparticles for the Purification of Lysozyme from Chicken Egg White
Received: 8 January 2019 / Revised: 7 February 2019 / Accepted: 9 February 2019 / Published: 12 February 2019
Viewed by 614 | PDF Full-text (2649 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Lysozyme is in high demand due to its many favorable characteristics such as being naturally occurring, non-toxic, and easy to digest and absorb. Recently, superparamagnetic nanoparticles with strong magnetic responsiveness have attracted significant interest for enzyme purification. The aptamer of the enzyme can [...] Read more.
Lysozyme is in high demand due to its many favorable characteristics such as being naturally occurring, non-toxic, and easy to digest and absorb. Recently, superparamagnetic nanoparticles with strong magnetic responsiveness have attracted significant interest for enzyme purification. The aptamer of the enzyme can be chemically synthesized rapidly at a large scale using simple and low-cost preparation methods. Therefore, Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) were prepared by chemical co-precipitation and were then functionalized with amino groups to produce NH2-Fe3O4 NPs. The specific reaction of aldehyde and amino groups was used to attach lysozyme aptamers with specific sequences to NH2-Fe3O4 NPs to produce Apt-NH2-Fe3O4 NPs. The synthesized materials were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), hysteresis loop analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The optimal experimental conditions for adsorption of lysozyme were investigated. The effects of initial lysozyme concentration, adsorption time, pH, reaction temperature, and ionic strength were determined. The maximum adsorption capacity and relevant activity of Apt-NH2-Fe3O4 NPs was 460 mg·g−1 and 16,412 ± 55 U·mg−1 in an aqueous lysozyme solution. In addition, as demonstrated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) electrophoresis analysis, lysozyme could be separated from crude fresh egg white using Apt-NH2-Fe3O4 NPs with an amount up to 113 ± 4.2 mg·g−1 and an activity up to 16,370 ± 46 U·mg−1. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Influence of Carob Flour and Carob Bean Gum on Rheological Properties of Cocoa and Carob Pastry Fillings
Received: 11 January 2019 / Revised: 31 January 2019 / Accepted: 4 February 2019 / Published: 12 February 2019
Viewed by 560 | PDF Full-text (1544 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to develop a new cocoa and carob based pastry filling and explore the influences of carob flour and carob gum on the rheological and textural properties, specifically (i) the effect of increasing the amount of carob flour [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to develop a new cocoa and carob based pastry filling and explore the influences of carob flour and carob gum on the rheological and textural properties, specifically (i) the effect of increasing the amount of carob flour and (ii) the effect of carob bean gum naturally present in the carob flour with seeds versus the commercially available carob bean gum. All samples analyzed in this study exhibited shear thinning behavior. The texture analysis revealed a significant (p < 0.01) increase in consistency and firmness in samples with higher amounts of carob flour added, while higher temperatures significantly (p < 0.01) decreased adhesiveness. When comparing naturally occurring and commercially available LBG (locust bean gum), it was concluded that lower concentrations (up to 0.45% w/w) of naturally occurring LBG work just as well at the same concentrations of commercially available LBG, but this effect cannot be confirmed for higher LBG concentrations, nor for rheological properties determined at higher temperatures (80 °C). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Affordable Production of Antioxidant Aqueous Solutions by Hydrodynamic Cavitation Processing of Silver Fir (Abies alba Mill.) Needles
Received: 8 January 2019 / Revised: 23 January 2019 / Accepted: 4 February 2019 / Published: 12 February 2019
Viewed by 837 | PDF Full-text (2610 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Extracts from parts of coniferous trees have received increased interest due to their valuable bioactive compounds and properties, useful for plenty of experimental and consolidated applications, in fields comprising nutraceutics, cosmetics, pharmacology, food preservation, and stimulation of plant growth. However, the variability of [...] Read more.
Extracts from parts of coniferous trees have received increased interest due to their valuable bioactive compounds and properties, useful for plenty of experimental and consolidated applications, in fields comprising nutraceutics, cosmetics, pharmacology, food preservation, and stimulation of plant growth. However, the variability of the bioactive properties, the complexity of the extraction methods, and the use of potentially harmful synthetic chemicals, still represent an obstacle to the spreading of such valuable natural compounds. Hydrodynamic cavitation is emerging as a promising innovative technique for the extraction of precious food components and by-products from waste raw material of the agro-food production chain, which can improve processing efficiency, reduce resource consumption, and produce healthy, high-quality products. In this study, a process based on controlled hydrodynamic cavitation was applied for the first time to the production of aqueous solutions of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) needles with enhanced antioxidant activity. The observed levels of the in vitro antioxidant activity, comparable or higher than those found for reference substances, pure extracts, and other water extracts and beverages, highlight the very good potential of the hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) process for the creation of solvent-free, aqueous solutions endowed with bioactive compounds extracted from silver fir needles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Sensory Profile and Acceptability of HydroSOStainable Almonds
Received: 25 December 2018 / Revised: 7 February 2019 / Accepted: 8 February 2019 / Published: 12 February 2019
Viewed by 612 | PDF Full-text (569 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fresh water availability is considered highly risky because it is a finite resource, and a deficiency in water leads to numerous economic and environmental issues. Agriculture is one of the main consumers of fresh water in practices such as irrigation and fertilization. In [...] Read more.
Fresh water availability is considered highly risky because it is a finite resource, and a deficiency in water leads to numerous economic and environmental issues. Agriculture is one of the main consumers of fresh water in practices such as irrigation and fertilization. In this context, the main objectives of this study were (i) to determine the descriptive sensory profiles of four almond types grown using different irrigation strategies and (ii) to study their acceptance in a cross-cultural study (Romania and Spain). Consumers’ willingness to pay for hydroSOS almonds was also evaluated. The four irrigation strategies evaluated were a control sample, two samples grown under regulated deficit irrigation strategies (RDI), and a sample grown under a sustained deficit irrigation strategy (SDI). The main conclusion was that neither descriptive nor affective sensory results showed significant differences among treatments. These findings should encourage farmers to reduce their water usage by demonstrating that sensory quality was not significantly affected by any of the studied treatments, compared to the control. Regarding willingness to pay, both Spanish and Romanian consumers were willing to pay a higher price for the hydroSOS almonds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Sensory Properties in Foods)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Antioxidant Activities of Solanum nigrum L. Leaf Extracts Determined in In Vitro Cellular Models
Received: 31 December 2018 / Revised: 28 January 2019 / Accepted: 30 January 2019 / Published: 8 February 2019
Viewed by 698 | PDF Full-text (1711 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Several medicinal foods abound in traditional medicine with antioxidant potentials that could be of importance for the management of several diseases but with little or no scientific justification to substantiate their use. Thus, the objective of this study was the assessment of the [...] Read more.
Several medicinal foods abound in traditional medicine with antioxidant potentials that could be of importance for the management of several diseases but with little or no scientific justification to substantiate their use. Thus, the objective of this study was the assessment of the antioxidant effect of two leave extracts of Solanum nigrum L. (SN), which is a medicinal plant member of the Solanaceae family, mainly used for soup preparation in different parts of the world. Then methanolic/water (80:20) (SN1) and water (SN2) leaves extracts were prepared. The total polyphenolic content and the concentration of phenolic acids and flavones compounds were determined. In order to verify whether examined extracts were able to restore the oxidative status, modified by glutamate in primary cultures of astrocytes, the study evaluated the glutathione levels, the intracellular oxidative stress, and the cytotoxicity of SN1 and SN2 extracts. Both extracts were able to quench the radical in an in vitro free cellular system and restore the oxidative status in in vitro primary cultures of rat astroglial cells exposed to glutamate. These extracts prevented the increase in glutamate uptake and inhibited glutamate excitotoxicity, which leads to cell damage and shows a notable antioxidant property. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Impact of Biogenic Amines on Food Quality and Safety
Received: 20 December 2018 / Revised: 30 January 2019 / Accepted: 5 February 2019 / Published: 8 February 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1158 | PDF Full-text (941 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Today, food safety and quality are some of the main concerns of consumer and health agencies around the world. Our current lifestyle and market globalization have led to an increase in the number of people affected by food poisoning. Foodborne illness and food [...] Read more.
Today, food safety and quality are some of the main concerns of consumer and health agencies around the world. Our current lifestyle and market globalization have led to an increase in the number of people affected by food poisoning. Foodborne illness and food poisoning have different origins (bacteria, virus, parasites, mold, contaminants, etc.), and some cases of food poisoning can be traced back to chemical and natural toxins. One of the toxins targeted by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is the biogenic amine histamine. Biogenic amines (BAs) in food constitute a potential public health concern due to their physiological and toxicological effects. The consumption of foods containing high concentrations of biogenic amines has been associated with health hazards. In recent years there has been an increase in the number of food poisoning cases associated with BAs in food, mainly in relation to histamines in fish. We need to gain a better understanding of the origin of foodborne disease and how to control it if we expect to keep people from getting ill. Biogenic amines are found in varying concentrations in a wide range of foods (fish, cheese, meat, wine, beer, vegetables, etc.), and BA formation is influenced by different factors associated with the raw material making up food products, microorganisms, processing, and conservation conditions. Moreover, BAs are thermostable. Biogenic amines also play an important role as indicators of food quality and/or acceptability. Hence, BAs need to be controlled in order to ensure high levels of food quality and safety. All of these aspects will be addressed in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biogenic Amines on Food Safety)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Effect of the Roasting Conditions on the Physicochemical, Quality and Sensory Attributes of Coffee-Like Powder and Brew from Defatted Palm Date Seeds
Received: 30 December 2018 / Revised: 20 January 2019 / Accepted: 23 January 2019 / Published: 6 February 2019
Viewed by 803 | PDF Full-text (3039 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Developing a bioactive brew is a novel track for revalorization of palm date byproducts. The effect of roasting temperature (160, 180 and 200 °C ) and roasting time (10, 20 and 30 min) on the hardness of the roasted date seeds, moisture content [...] Read more.
Developing a bioactive brew is a novel track for revalorization of palm date byproducts. The effect of roasting temperature (160, 180 and 200 °C ) and roasting time (10, 20 and 30 min) on the hardness of the roasted date seeds, moisture content of the defatted roasted date seed powder (DRDSP), bulk density of the DRDSP, color parameters of DRDSP, quality attributes (extraction yield, pH and browning index), the chemical properties (antioxidants and total phenolic content) and the sensory attributes (color, aroma, taste and overall preference) of the brew prepared from DRDSP was studied. The physicochemical, quality, and sensory attributes were found to be significantly influenced by the roasting temperature and time. Additionally, the models proposed could satisfactorily describe the changes in the different properties during the roasting process. The optimum conditions of the roasting process obtained using the superimposed contour plot were 199.9 °C and 21.5 min. In the longer term, the results of this study would be beneficial for the manufacturers of the date seeds powder and brew. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessCommunication Assessment of RNAlater® as a Potential Method to Preserve Bovine Muscle Proteins Compared with Dry Ice in a Proteomic Study
Received: 9 January 2019 / Revised: 31 January 2019 / Accepted: 2 February 2019 / Published: 5 February 2019
Viewed by 710 | PDF Full-text (539 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
RNAlater® is regarded as a potential preservation method for proteins, while its effect on bovine muscle proteins has rarely been evaluated. Bovine muscle protein samples (n = 12) collected from three tender (Warner–Bratzler shear force: 30.02–31.74 N) and three tough (Warner–Bratzler [...] Read more.
RNAlater® is regarded as a potential preservation method for proteins, while its effect on bovine muscle proteins has rarely been evaluated. Bovine muscle protein samples (n = 12) collected from three tender (Warner–Bratzler shear force: 30.02–31.74 N) and three tough (Warner–Bratzler shear force: 54.12–66.25 N) Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) samples, preserved using two different sampling preservation methods (RNAlater® and dry ice), at two post mortem time points (day 0 and day 14), were characterized using one-dimensional electrophoresis. Fourteen bands with molecular weights ranging from 15 to 250 kDa were verified, both in the dry ice and RNAlater® storage groups, at each time point, using image analysis. A shift from high to low molecular weight fragments, between day 0 and day 14, indicated proteolysis of the muscle proteins during post mortem storage. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses and database searching resulted in the identification of 10 proteins in four bands. Protein profiles of muscle preserved in RNAlater® were similar to those of muscle frozen on dry ice storage, both at day 0 and day 14. The results demonstrate that RNAlater® could be a simple and efficient way to preserve bovine muscle proteins for bovine muscle proteomic studies. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Platinum and Rhodium in Potato Samples by Using Voltammetric Techniques
Received: 21 January 2019 / Revised: 30 January 2019 / Accepted: 31 January 2019 / Published: 5 February 2019
Viewed by 708 | PDF Full-text (982 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial Solanum tuberosum having high nutritional values. This paper is the first analytical approach to quantify Pt and Rh in vegetal food. In this study a total of 38 different potato samples produced in Europe [...] Read more.
Potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial Solanum tuberosum having high nutritional values. This paper is the first analytical approach to quantify Pt and Rh in vegetal food. In this study a total of 38 different potato samples produced in Europe and one in Australia were investigated. Determinations of Pt and Rh in potato samples were carried out by Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV/a) for platinum and by Adsorptive stripping voltammetry (AdSV) for Rh using standard addition procedure. Because no certified reference potatoes containing platinum and rhodium are available, we used addition standard method. The quantification limits for Pt and Rh are 0.007 and 0.0008 μg kg−1 respectively. Considering all the potato samples, concentrations of Pt and Rh vary in the ranges from 0.007 to 109 μg kg−1 (sample no, 6 potatoes grown in Sicily) and from 0.0008 to 0.030 μg kg−1 (sample no. 3 of potatoes grown in Emilia Romagna), respectively. For both metals, in many cases the concentrations fall near the quantification limit. In all the samples, platinum is always more abundant than rhodium and their mean ratio is 14,500, which is much greater than that of the Earth’s crust (about 100). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Varietal Authentication of Extra Virgin Olive Oils by Triacylglycerols and Volatiles Analysis
Received: 31 December 2018 / Revised: 28 January 2019 / Accepted: 1 February 2019 / Published: 5 February 2019
Viewed by 766 | PDF Full-text (846 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years, there is an increasing interest in high-quality extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) produced from local cultivars. They have particular chemical/organoleptic characteristics and are frequently subjected to fraud, whereby the control of quality requires a powerful varietal check. In the present [...] Read more.
In recent years, there is an increasing interest in high-quality extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) produced from local cultivars. They have particular chemical/organoleptic characteristics and are frequently subjected to fraud, whereby the control of quality requires a powerful varietal check. In the present research, triacylglycerols (TAGs) and volatiles have been studied as chemical markers for the authentication of EVOO samples from four Italian varieties of Olea europea (Dolce Agogia, Frantoio, Leccino, and Moraiolo). The monocultivar EVOO samples have been subjected to a chemical–enzymatic chromatographic method in order to perform a stereospecific analysis, an important procedure for the characterization of TAG of food products. The results, combined with chemometric analysis (linear discriminant analysis, LDA), were elaborated in order to classify Italian EVOO monocultivar samples. In accordance with the total and intrapositional fatty acid (FA) composition of TAG fraction, the results were allowed to carry out a varietal discrimination. In addition, volatile compounds were also determined by solid-phase micro-extraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. All EVOO samples were correctly classified when TAG stereospecific data and volatile results were elaborated by the LDA procedure, even if volatile compounds showed a higher discriminant power. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Olive Oil: Processing, Characterization, and Health Benefits)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Edible Coatings Enriched with Essential Oils on Apples Impair the Survival of Bacterial Pathogens through a Simulated Gastrointestinal System
Received: 28 December 2018 / Revised: 24 January 2019 / Accepted: 30 January 2019 / Published: 4 February 2019
Viewed by 754 | PDF Full-text (1925 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Edible coatings supplemented with essential oil components have been investigated to control spoilage microorganisms. In this study, the survival of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium on apples treated with edible coatings based on sodium alginate (2%) (ECs) and supplemented with essential [...] Read more.
Edible coatings supplemented with essential oil components have been investigated to control spoilage microorganisms. In this study, the survival of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium on apples treated with edible coatings based on sodium alginate (2%) (ECs) and supplemented with essential oil components, namely eugenol (Eug) at 0.2% or in combination with 0.1% (v/v) of Eug and citral (Cit) at 0.15% was determined. Both bacterial pathogens were exposed on apples treated with ECs supplemented with Eug or Eug + Cit and challenged with gastrointestinal fluids and their survival was examined. Both pathogens were able to survive on the surface of ‘Bravo de Esmolfe’ apple. The use of ECs in fresh-cut fruits impaired the survival of both bacterial populations over 72 h at 4 °C. The exposure of the pathogens on apples with ECs supplemented with Eug and Cit and challenged with gastrointestinal fluids significantly reduced their survival. This study evidences that the use of alginate edible coating enriched with Eug or the combination of Eug and Cit can contribute to the safer consumption of minimally processed fruits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Preservation: Challenges and Efforts for the Future)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Dried-Fruit Storage: An Analysis of Package Headspace Atmosphere Changes
Received: 15 January 2019 / Revised: 28 January 2019 / Accepted: 30 January 2019 / Published: 4 February 2019
Viewed by 808 | PDF Full-text (1653 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The quality of packaged dried foods depends on storage conditions and is determined largely by the initial gas composition inside and the transference through the container. The aim of this work was to analyze the O2 and CO2 concentrations within the [...] Read more.
The quality of packaged dried foods depends on storage conditions and is determined largely by the initial gas composition inside and the transference through the container. The aim of this work was to analyze the O2 and CO2 concentrations within the internal atmosphere of the packaging. In this study, dried apricots and raisins were packaged in glass jars and polypropylene trays thermosealed with different polymers, and stored at 5, 15, 25, and 35 °C. Some trays were flushed with nitrogen just before sealing. In addition, the work relates to other previous papers to investigate the effect of these gases and packages on the stored products, and compares the influence of permeable and impermeable containers on food quality parameters. When packages were flushed with nitrogen before sealing, the O2 level in the headspace increased until the outside O2 concentration was reached. The CO2 concentration increased over time, regardless of the initial atmosphere. Nitrogen had a great influence on the concentration of O2, but not on that of CO2. Finally, this paper shows that the films and initial gas used in this study had no significant effect on the quality of the stored dried fruit. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Foods EISSN 2304-8158 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top