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Open AccessFeature PaperReview

Prebiotics: Definition, Types, Sources, Mechanisms, and Clinical Applications

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Pharmaceutical Biotechnology Incubator, School of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz 71348, Iran
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Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz 71348, Iran
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Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz 71348, Iran
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Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz 71348, Iran
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Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Waikato, Hamilton 3216, New Zealand
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Biotechnology Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz 71348, Iran
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Nutrition Research Center, Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz 71348, Iran
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Department of Medical Biotechnology, School of Advanced Medical Sciences and Technologies, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz 71348, Iran
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2019, 8(3), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8030092
Received: 27 February 2019 / Revised: 4 March 2019 / Accepted: 5 March 2019 / Published: 9 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Probiotics and Functional Foods)
Prebiotics are a group of nutrients that are degraded by gut microbiota. Their relationship with human overall health has been an area of increasing interest in recent years. They can feed the intestinal microbiota, and their degradation products are short-chain fatty acids that are released into blood circulation, consequently, affecting not only the gastrointestinal tracts but also other distant organs. Fructo-oligosaccharides and galacto-oligosaccharides are the two important groups of prebiotics with beneficial effects on human health. Since low quantities of fructo-oligosaccharides and galacto-oligosaccharides naturally exist in foods, scientists are attempting to produce prebiotics on an industrial scale. Considering the health benefits of prebiotics and their safety, as well as their production and storage advantages compared to probiotics, they seem to be fascinating candidates for promoting human health condition as a replacement or in association with probiotics. This review discusses different aspects of prebiotics, including their crucial role in human well-being. View Full-Text
Keywords: prebiotics; gut microbiota; short-chain fatty acids; fructo-oligosaccharides; galacto-oligosaccharides prebiotics; gut microbiota; short-chain fatty acids; fructo-oligosaccharides; galacto-oligosaccharides
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MDPI and ACS Style

Davani-Davari, D.; Negahdaripour, M.; Karimzadeh, I.; Seifan, M.; Mohkam, M.; Masoumi, S.J.; Berenjian, A.; Ghasemi, Y. Prebiotics: Definition, Types, Sources, Mechanisms, and Clinical Applications. Foods 2019, 8, 92.

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