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Formation of Biogenic Amines in Pa (Green Onion) Kimchi and Gat (Mustard Leaf) Kimchi

Department of Food and Biotechnology, Korea University, 2511 Sejong-ro, Sejong 30019, Korea
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Foods 2019, 8(3), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8030109
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 18 March 2019 / Accepted: 21 March 2019 / Published: 24 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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Abstract

In this study, biogenic amine content in Pa (green onion) kimchi and Gat (mustard leaf) kimchi, Korean specialty kimchi types, was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Many kimchi samples contained low levels of biogenic amines, but some samples had histamine and tyramine content over the safe levels. Based on the comparative analysis between the ingredient information on food labels and biogenic amine content of kimchi samples, Myeolchi-aekjeot appeared to be an important source of biogenic amines in both kimchi. Besides, through the 16s rRNA sequence analysis, Lactobacillus brevis appeared to be responsible for the formation of biogenic amines (tyramine, β-phenylethylamine, putrescine, and cadaverine) in both kimchi, in a strain-dependent manner. During fermentation, a higher accumulation of tyramine, β-phenylethylamine, and putrescine was observed in both or one (for putrescine) of kimchi types when L. brevis strains served as inocula. The addition of Myeolchi-aekjeot affected the initial concentrations of most biogenic amines (except for spermidine in Gat kimchi) in both kimchi. Therefore, this study suggests that using appropriately salted and fermented seafood products for kimchi preparation and using biogenic amine-negative and/or biogenic amine-degrading starter cultures would be effective in reducing biogenic amine content in Pa kimchi and Gat kimchi. View Full-Text
Keywords: kimchi; Pa kimchi; Gat kimchi; Korean specialty kimchi; biogenic amines; lactic acid bacteria; Lactobacillus brevis kimchi; Pa kimchi; Gat kimchi; Korean specialty kimchi; biogenic amines; lactic acid bacteria; Lactobacillus brevis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Lee, J.-H.; Jin, Y.H.; Park, Y.K.; Yun, S.J.; Mah, J.-H. Formation of Biogenic Amines in Pa (Green Onion) Kimchi and Gat (Mustard Leaf) Kimchi. Foods 2019, 8, 109.

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