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Multilayer Bixin Microcapsules: The Impact of Native Carbohydrates on the Microencapsulation Efficiency and Dispersion Stability

1
Food Science and Technology Department, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden
2
Institute of Chemical Research, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, 27th Cota Cota, P.O. Box 303, La Paz, Bolivia
3
Division of Biotechnology, Department of Chemistry, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden
4
Department of Food Engineering, Ankara University, TR 06532 Ankara, Turkey
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2019, 8(3), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8030108
Received: 15 January 2019 / Revised: 14 March 2019 / Accepted: 15 March 2019 / Published: 22 March 2019
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Abstract

Bixin is a hydrophobic carotenoid present in the integument of the seeds of Bixa orellana. Microencapsulation was applied to obtain water dispersible formulations and protect the colorant against degradation. Microencapsulated systems were obtained by spray-drying a mild alkaline bixin dispersion with different encapsulating materials. The encapsulation trials were performed with and without native carbohydrates of the integument in addition to the main encapsulant. It was possible to dry dispersions with up to 10% bixin counted on total solids. All the studied systems were characterized by colorimetry, UV-vis spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, light microscopy, turbidometric sedimentation analyses and laser light diffraction analyses. All the systems showed aqueous dispersibility but displayed differences in their transparency, UV-vis spectra and physical stability at pH 3. The results show that the native carbohydrates enhance the encapsulation efficiency of other encapsulating materials. The chemical composition of this native carbohydrate fraction shows the presence of polysaccharides containing arabinose, galactose and glucose as monomers. Starch was identified enzymatically. The native carbohydrates allowed the encapsulation of bixin in its native microcrystalline form, resulting in a multilayer structure after spray-drying. In addition, the colorant particles displayed dispersibility under acidic aqueous conditions suggesting that they are stabilized by the native carbohydrates after the microcapsules are dissolved. View Full-Text
Keywords: bixin; hemicellulose; starch; spray drying; encapsulation efficiency; aqueous dispersion; physical stability bixin; hemicellulose; starch; spray drying; encapsulation efficiency; aqueous dispersion; physical stability
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Curi-Borda, C.K.; Linares-Pastén, J.A.; Tat, T.; Tarqui-Dueñas, R.; Chino-Flores, N.; Alvarado, J.-A.; Bergenstahl, B. Multilayer Bixin Microcapsules: The Impact of Native Carbohydrates on the Microencapsulation Efficiency and Dispersion Stability. Foods 2019, 8, 108.

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