Special Issue "Foods of Plant Origin"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Michael Netzel
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Centre for Nutrtion and Food Sciences, Queensland Alliance for Agriculutre and Food Innovation, The University of Queensland, Coopers Plains, QLD 4108, Australia
Interests: bioactive compounds; phytochemicals; plant food/material; food chemistry; nutritional biochemistry;i vitro models for digestion & bioaccessibility; in vivo bioavailability & metabolism
Assoc. Prof. Yasmina Sultanbawa
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Centre for Nutrtion and Food Sciences, Queensland Alliance for Agriculutre and Food Innovation, The University of Queensland, Coopers Plains, QLD 4108, Australia
Interests: native Australian food; bioactive compounds; functional properties; food processing; preservation; packaging; shelf-life; quality and safety

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is now well accepted that the consumption of plant-based foods is beneficial to human health.

Fruits, vegetables, grains and derived products can be excellent sources of minerals, vitamins and fibre and have usually a favourable ‘nutrient:energy ratio’. Furthermore, plant foods are also a rich source of phytochemicals such as polyphenols, carotenoids and betalains, with potential health benefits for humans.

Many epidemiological studies have made a direct link between the consumption of plant foods and health. Human intervention studies have also shown that higher intake/consumption of plant foods can reduce the incidence of the metabolic syndrome and other chronic diseases, especially in population at risk like obese people.

In addition to its health benefits, plant foods are also used as functional ingredients in food applications such as antioxidants, antimicrobials, natural colorants and improving sensory and textural properties.

Your proposed publication, which can address all aspects of “Foods of Plant Origin”, is welcomed to this Special Edition of Foods. The final deadline for submitting manuscripts is 30 June 2019. All manuscripts will be peer-reviewed, and manuscripts received before the deadline will be immediately processed.

Sincerely,

Dr. Michael Netzel
Assoc. Prof. Yasmina Sultanbawa
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Plant food
  • Composition
  • Nutrients
  • Vitamins
  • Phytochemicals
  • Fiber
  • Biofortification
  • Processing
  • Preservation
  • Shelf-life
  • Functional properties
  • Products
  • Bioaccessibility
  • Bioavailability
  • Health
  • Humans

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial
Introduction to the Special Issue: Foods of Plant Origin
Foods 2019, 8(11), 555; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110555 - 06 Nov 2019
Abstract
Plant food is usually rich in health-promoting ingredients such as polyphenols, carotenoids, betalains, glucosinolates, vitamins, minerals and fibre. However, pre- and post-harvest treatment, processing and storage can have significant effects on the concentration and composition of these bioactive ingredients. Furthermore, the plant food [...] Read more.
Plant food is usually rich in health-promoting ingredients such as polyphenols, carotenoids, betalains, glucosinolates, vitamins, minerals and fibre. However, pre- and post-harvest treatment, processing and storage can have significant effects on the concentration and composition of these bioactive ingredients. Furthermore, the plant food matrix in fruits, vegetables, grains, legumes, nuts and seeds is very different and can affect digestibility, bioavailability, processing properties and subsequently the nutritional value of the fresh and processed food. The Special Issue ‘Foods of Plant Origin’ covers biodiscovery, functionality, the effect of different cooking/preparation methods on bioactive (plant food) ingredients, and strategies to improve the nutritional quality of plant food by adding other food components using novel/alternative food sources or applying non-conventional preparation techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods of Plant Origin)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle
Effect of Moist Cooking Blanching on Colour, Phenolic Metabolites and Glucosinolate Content in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. subsp. chinensis)
Foods 2019, 8(9), 399; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090399 - 08 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. subsp. chinensis) is a widely consumed leafy vegetable by the rural people in South Africa. Traditional blanching methods (5%, 10% or 20% lemon juice solutions in steam, microwave treatments and hot water bath at 95 [...] Read more.
Non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. subsp. chinensis) is a widely consumed leafy vegetable by the rural people in South Africa. Traditional blanching methods (5%, 10% or 20% lemon juice solutions in steam, microwave treatments and hot water bath at 95 °C) on the changes of colour properties, phenolic metabolites, glucosinolates and antioxidant properties were investigated in this study. Blanching at 95 °C in 5% lemon juice solution maintained the chlorophyll content, reduced the difference in colour change ∆E, and increased the total phenolic content and the antioxidant activities (ferric reducing-antioxidant power assay (FRAP) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay). The highest concentration of kaempferol-dihexoside, kaempferol-sophoroside, kaempferol hexoside, and ferulic acid was noted in samples blanched in 5% lemon juice, at 95 °C. However, concentrations of kaempferol O-sophoroside-O-hexoside was highest in raw leaf samples. Supervised Orthogonal Projections to Latent Structures Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) and the UPLC-MS and chemometric approach showed the acid protocatechuoyl hexose unique marker identified responsible for the separation of the blanching treatments (5% lemon juice at 95° C) and raw leaves. However, other unidentified markers are also responsible for the separation of the two groups (the raw leaves and the hot water moist blanched samples) and these need to be identified. Blanching at 95 °C in 10% lemon solution significantly increased the glucosinolate sinigrin content. Overall blanching at 95 °C in 5% lemon juice solution can be recommended to preserve the functional compounds in Nightshade leaves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods of Plant Origin)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Non-Conventional Drying Methods on In Vitro Starch Digestibility Assessment of Cooked Potato Genotypes
Foods 2019, 8(9), 382; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090382 - 02 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) are a good dietary source of carbohydrates in the form of digestible starch (DS) and resistant starch (RS). As increased RS content consumption can be associated with decreased chronic disease risk, breeding efforts have focused on identifying potato [...] Read more.
Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) are a good dietary source of carbohydrates in the form of digestible starch (DS) and resistant starch (RS). As increased RS content consumption can be associated with decreased chronic disease risk, breeding efforts have focused on identifying potato varieties with higher RS content, which requires high-throughput analysis of starch profiles. For this purpose, freeze drying of potatoes has been used but this approach leads to inaccurate RS values. The present study objective was to assess the starch content (RS, DS and total starch (TS)) of three cooked potato genotypes that were dried using freeze drying and innovative drying techniques (microwave vacuum drying, instant controlled pressure drop drying and conductive hydro-drying) relative to freshly cooked potato samples. Depending on the genotype, all drying methods showed one or more starch measures that were significantly different from freshly cooked values. The combination of ultrasound and infrared assisted conductive hydro-drying was the only method identified to be associated with accurate assessment of DS and TS content relative to fresh samples. The drying treatments were all generally associated with highly variable RS content relative to fresh controls. We conclude that freshly cooked samples must be used for selecting varieties with a high proportion of RS starch as drying of cooked potatoes leads to unreliable RS measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods of Plant Origin)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of Healthy, Nutritious Bakery Products by Incorporation of Quinoa
Foods 2019, 8(9), 379; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090379 - 01 Sep 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The use of quinoa could be a strategy for the nutritional improvement of bakery products. The inclusion of this pseudocereal, with its suitable balance of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and minerals, could contribute to attaining the adequate intake values proposed by the FAO (Food [...] Read more.
The use of quinoa could be a strategy for the nutritional improvement of bakery products. The inclusion of this pseudocereal, with its suitable balance of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and minerals, could contribute to attaining the adequate intake values proposed by the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) and/or EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) for suitable maintenance and improvement of the population’s health. Bakery products made with white, red or black royal quinoa significantly improved the contribution to an adequate intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (linoleic and linolenic acids) and dietary fibre, which produced an improvement in the soluble/insoluble fibre ratio. There was also an increase in the contribution to the average requirement of Fe and Zn, although the increase in the phytate/mineral ratio would make absorption of them more difficult. Inclusion of flour obtained from the three quinoas studied slightly improved the protein quality of the products that were prepared and positively affected the reduction in their glycaemic index. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods of Plant Origin)
Open AccessArticle
Nutritional Characteristics and Antimicrobial Activity of Australian Grown Feijoa (Acca sellowiana)
Foods 2019, 8(9), 376; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090376 - 01 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The present study determined the chemical composition, bioactive compounds and biological properties of Australian grown feijoa (Acca sellowiana), including whole fruit with peel, fruit peel and pulp, in order to assess the nutritional quality and antimicrobial activity of this emerging subtropical [...] Read more.
The present study determined the chemical composition, bioactive compounds and biological properties of Australian grown feijoa (Acca sellowiana), including whole fruit with peel, fruit peel and pulp, in order to assess the nutritional quality and antimicrobial activity of this emerging subtropical fruit. Polyphenolic compounds and vitamins were determined by UHPLC-PDA-MS/MS, showing that the feijoa fruit not only contains high amounts of antioxidant flavonoids, but is also a valuable source of vitamin C (63 mg/100 g FW (fresh weight)) and pantothenic acid (0.2 mg/100 g FW). Feijoa fruit is also a good source of dietary fibre (6.8 g/100 g FW) and potassium (255 mg/100 g FW). The edible fruit peel possesses significantly (p < 0.05) higher amounts of antioxidant flavonoids and vitamin C than the fruit pulp. This is most likely the reason for the observed strong antimicrobial activity of the peel-extracts against a wide-range of food-spoilage microorganism. The consumption of feijoa fruit can deliver a considerable amount of bioactive compounds such as vitamin C, flavonoids and fibre, and therefore, may contribute to a healthy diet. Furthermore, the potential use of feijoa-peel as a natural food perseverative needs to be investigated in follow-up studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods of Plant Origin)
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Open AccessArticle
Promising Tropical Fruits High in Folates
Foods 2019, 8(9), 363; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090363 - 26 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
As the popularity of tropical fruits has been increasing consistently during the last few decades, nutritional and health-related data about these fruits have been gaining more and more interest. Therefore, we analyzed 35 samples of tropical fruits and vegetables with respect to folate [...] Read more.
As the popularity of tropical fruits has been increasing consistently during the last few decades, nutritional and health-related data about these fruits have been gaining more and more interest. Therefore, we analyzed 35 samples of tropical fruits and vegetables with respect to folate content and vitamer distribution in this study. The fruits and vegetables were selected by their availability in German supermarkets and were grouped according to their plant family. All fruits and vegetables were lyophilized and analyzed by stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The results vary from 7.82 ± 0.17 µg/100 g in the horned melon to 271 ± 3.64 µg/100 g in the yellow passion fruit. The yellow passion fruit is a good source for meeting the recommended requirements, as just 110 g are needed to cover the recommended daily intake of 300 µg folate for adults; however, longan fruits, okras, pete beans, papayas, mangos, jack fruits, and feijoas are also good sources of folates. In conclusion, the study gives a good overview of the total folate content in a broad range of tropical fruits and vegetables and shows that some of these fruits definitely have the potential to improve the supply of this critical vitamin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods of Plant Origin)
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Open AccessArticle
Different Postharvest Responses of Fresh-Cut Sweet Peppers Related to Quality and Antioxidant and Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase Activities during Exposure to Light-Emitting Diode Treatments
Foods 2019, 8(9), 359; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090359 - 23 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The influence of emitting diode (LED) treatments for 8 h per day on functional quality of three types of fresh-cut sweet peppers (yellow, red, and green) were investigated after 3, 7, 11, and 14 days postharvest storage on the market shelf at 7 [...] Read more.
The influence of emitting diode (LED) treatments for 8 h per day on functional quality of three types of fresh-cut sweet peppers (yellow, red, and green) were investigated after 3, 7, 11, and 14 days postharvest storage on the market shelf at 7 °C. Red LED light (660 nm, 150 μmol m−2 s−1) reduced weight loss to commercially acceptable level levels (≤2.0%) in fresh-cuts of yellow and green sweet peppers at 7 and 11 d, respectively. Blue LED light (450 nm, 100 μmol m−2 s−1) maintained weight loss acceptable for marketing in red fresh-cut sweet peppers up to 11 d. Highest marketability with minimum changes in color difference (∆E) and functional compounds (total phenols, ascorbic acid content, and antioxidant activity) were obtained in yellow and green sweet pepper fresh-cuts exposed to red LED light up to 7 and 11 d, respectively, and for red sweet pepper fresh-cuts exposed to blue LED light for 11 d. Red LED light maintained the highest concentrations of β carotene, chlorophyll, and lycopene in yellow, green, and red sweet pepper fresh-cuts up to 7 d. Similarly, blue LED light showed the highest increase in lycopene concentrations for red sweet pepper fresh-cuts up to 7 d. Red LED (yellow and green sweet peppers) and blue LED (red sweet pepper) lights maintained phenolic compounds by increasing phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity. Thus, the results indicate a new approach to improve functional compounds of different types of fresh-cut sweet pepper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods of Plant Origin)
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Open AccessArticle
Phytochemical Characteristics and Antimicrobial Activity of Australian Grown Garlic (Allium Sativum L.) Cultivars
Foods 2019, 8(9), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090358 - 23 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
This study systematically evaluated the main bioactive compounds and associated biological properties of two Australian grown garlic cultivars and commercial non-Australian grown garlic (for comparison purposes only). Additionally, the distribution of bioactive compounds in garlic skin and clove samples was determined to obtain [...] Read more.
This study systematically evaluated the main bioactive compounds and associated biological properties of two Australian grown garlic cultivars and commercial non-Australian grown garlic (for comparison purposes only). Additionally, the distribution of bioactive compounds in garlic skin and clove samples was determined to obtain a better understanding of the potential biological functionality of the different garlic parts. The identification and quantification of bioactive compounds was performed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry and photodiode array detection (UHPLC-PDA-MS). A principal component analysis was applied to assess the correlation between the determined bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity as well as antimicrobial activity. The content of phenolic compounds (free and bound forms) in the garlic skin samples was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than that of the garlic cloves, and was also higher (p < 0.05) in the Australian grown cultivars compared to the commercial non-Australian grown garlic. Anthocyanins were found in the skin samples of the Australian grown garlic cultivars. The organosulfur compounds were higher (p < 0.05) in the cloves compared to the skin samples and higher (p < 0.05) in the Australian grown cultivars compared to the studied commercial sample. As the richer source of bioactive compounds, the Australian grown garlic cultivars exhibited a significantly (p < 0.05) higher antioxidant capacity and stronger (p < 0.05) antimicrobial activity than the commercial non-Australian grown garlic. The potential of garlic cultivars rich in bioactive compounds for domestic and industrial applications, e.g., condiment and natural food preservative, should be explored further. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods of Plant Origin)
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Open AccessArticle
Antioxidant Rich Extracts of Terminalia ferdinandiana Inhibit the Growth of Foodborne Bacteria
Foods 2019, 8(8), 281; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080281 - 24 Jul 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Terminalia ferdinandiana (Kakadu plum) is a native Australian plant containing phytochemicals with antioxidant capacity. In the search for alternatives to synthetic preservatives, antioxidants from plants and herbs are increasingly being investigated for the preservation of food. In this study, extracts were prepared from [...] Read more.
Terminalia ferdinandiana (Kakadu plum) is a native Australian plant containing phytochemicals with antioxidant capacity. In the search for alternatives to synthetic preservatives, antioxidants from plants and herbs are increasingly being investigated for the preservation of food. In this study, extracts were prepared from Terminalia ferdinandiana fruit, leaves, seedcoats, and bark using different solvents. Hydrolysable and condensed tannin contents in the extracts were determined, as well as antioxidant capacity, by measuring the total phenolic content (TPC) and free radical scavenging activity using the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Total phenolic content was higher in the fruits and barks with methanol extracts, containing the highest TPC, hydrolysable tannins, and DPPH-free radical scavenging capacity (12.2 ± 2.8 g/100 g dry weight (DW), 55 ± 2 mg/100 g DW, and 93% respectively). Saponins and condensed tannins were highest in bark extracts (7.0 ± 0.2 and 6.5 ± 0.7 g/100 g DW). The antimicrobial activity of extracts from fruit and leaves showed larger zones of inhibition, compared to seedcoats and barks, against the foodborne bacteria Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration in response to the different extracts ranged from 1.0 to 3.0 mg/mL. Scanning electron microscopy images of the treated bacteria showed morphological changes, leading to cell death. These results suggest that antioxidant rich extracts of Terminalia ferdinandiana fruits and leaves have potential applications as natural antimicrobials in food preservation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods of Plant Origin)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Cooking Methods on Glucosinolates and Isothiocyanates Content in Novel Cruciferous Foods
Foods 2019, 8(7), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8070257 - 12 Jul 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Brassica vegetables are of great interest due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, being responsible for the glucosinolates (GLS) and their hydroxylated derivatives, the isothiocyanates (ITC). Nevertheless, these compounds are quite unstable when these vegetables are cooked. In order to study this fact, [...] Read more.
Brassica vegetables are of great interest due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, being responsible for the glucosinolates (GLS) and their hydroxylated derivatives, the isothiocyanates (ITC). Nevertheless, these compounds are quite unstable when these vegetables are cooked. In order to study this fact, the influence of several common domestic cooking practices on the degradation of GLS and ITC in two novel Brassica spp.: broccolini (Brassica oleracea var italica Group x alboglabra Group) and kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica L.) was determined. On one hand, results showed that both varieties were rich in health-promoter compounds, broccolini being a good source of glucoraphanin and sulforaphane (≈79 and 2.5 mg 100 g−1 fresh weight (F.W.), respectively), and kale rich in glucoiberin and iberin (≈12 and 0.8 mg 100 g−1 F.W., respectively). On the other hand, regarding cooking treatments, stir-frying and steaming were suitable techniques to preserve GLS and ITC (≥50% of the uncooked samples), while boiling was deleterious for the retention of these bioactive compounds (20–40% of the uncooked samples). Accordingly, the appropriate cooking method should be considered an important factor to preserve the health-promoting effects in these trending Brassica. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods of Plant Origin)
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Open AccessArticle
Retention of Pro-Vitamin A Content in Products from New Biofortified Cassava Varieties
Foods 2019, 8(5), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8050177 - 24 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Plant breeding efforts in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have produced biofortified cassava with high carotenoid content to address vitamin A deficiencies (VAD). Since carotenoids in foods are easily depleted during processing, the retention of β-carotene in some newly released cassava varieties is under query. [...] Read more.
Plant breeding efforts in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have produced biofortified cassava with high carotenoid content to address vitamin A deficiencies (VAD). Since carotenoids in foods are easily depleted during processing, the retention of β-carotene in some newly released cassava varieties is under query. From four of these new varieties, two commonly consumed products (gari and its dough) were processed according to standard methods. Retention of β-carotene was then probed after applying fermentation periods of a day and three days. The possible contribution of the products to Vitamin A intake in children, adolescents, and women was also assessed. The concentration of β-carotene in fresh Cassava roots ranged from 5.32 to 7.81 µg/g. The percentage retention ranged from 14.4 to 29.3% and 10 to 21.7% in gari fermented for one and three days respectively. The impact of varietal difference and length of fermentation was significant on retention in the intermediate and final products (p < 0.001). When compared with dietary intake data, cooking biofortified gari into its dough reduced Vitamin A intake in most varieties. We conclude that processing Cassava into gari (especially its dough) could hinder the retention of β-carotene however some varieties have retention advantage over others irrespective of the initial concentration in their fresh roots. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods of Plant Origin)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Breadfruit Flour Pasta Product
Foods 2019, 8(3), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8030110 - 26 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) is grown throughout the tropics. Processing the perishable starchy fruit into flour provides a means to expand the use of the fruit. The flour can be used to develop new value-added products for local use and potential export. The [...] Read more.
Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) is grown throughout the tropics. Processing the perishable starchy fruit into flour provides a means to expand the use of the fruit. The flour can be used to develop new value-added products for local use and potential export. The purpose of this investigation was to develop a pasta product using breadfruit flour, test the sensory qualities of the breadfruit pasta product by sensory evaluation, and evaluate the nutritional composition. ‘Ma’afala’, a popular and widely distributed Polynesian cultivar was used for the study. Nutritional labeling shows that the breadfruit pasta product is high in carbohydrates (73.3%/100 g) and low in fat (8.33/100 g). Sensory evaluation indicates that 80.3% of the panelists (n = 71) found the pasta acceptable while 18.3% disliked the pasta. The breadfruit pasta product can provide a nutritious, appealing and inexpensive gluten-free food source based on locally available breadfruit in areas of the world where it can be easily grown. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods of Plant Origin)
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Open AccessArticle
Amaranth Leaves and Skimmed Milk Powders Improve the Nutritional, Functional, Physico-Chemical and Sensory Properties of Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato Flour
Foods 2019, 8(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8010013 - 04 Jan 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) and under nutrition are major public health concerns in developing countries. Diets with high vitamin A and animal protein can help reduce the problem of VAD and under nutrition respectively. In this study, composite flours were developed from orange [...] Read more.
Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) and under nutrition are major public health concerns in developing countries. Diets with high vitamin A and animal protein can help reduce the problem of VAD and under nutrition respectively. In this study, composite flours were developed from orange fleshed sweet potato (OFSP), amaranth leaves and skimmed milk powders; 78:2:20, 72.5:2.5:25, 65:5:30 and 55:10:35. The physico-chemical characteristics of the composite flours were determined using standard methods while sensory acceptability of porridges was rated on a nine-point hedonic scale using a trained panel. Results indicated a significant (p < 0.05) increase in protein (12.1 to 19.9%), iron (4.8 to 97.4 mg/100 g) and calcium (45.5 to 670.2 mg/100 g) contents of the OFSP-based composite flours. The vitamin A content of composite flours contributed from 32% to 442% of the recommended dietary allowance of children aged 6–59 months. The composite flours showed a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in solubility, swelling power and scores of porridge attributes with increase in substitution levels of skimmed milk and amaranth leaf powder. The study findings indicate that the OFSP-based composite flours have the potential to make a significant contribution to the improvement in the nutrition status of children aged 6–59 months in developing countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods of Plant Origin)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Bioactive Compounds, Nutritional Value, and Potential Health Benefits of Indigenous Durian (Durio Zibethinus Murr.): A Review
Foods 2019, 8(3), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8030096 - 13 Mar 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Durian (Durio zibethinus Murr.) is an energy-dense seasonal tropical fruit grown in Southeast Asia. It is one of the most expensive fruits in the region. It has a creamy texture and a sweet-bitter taste. The unique durian flavour is attributable to the [...] Read more.
Durian (Durio zibethinus Murr.) is an energy-dense seasonal tropical fruit grown in Southeast Asia. It is one of the most expensive fruits in the region. It has a creamy texture and a sweet-bitter taste. The unique durian flavour is attributable to the presence of fat, sugar, and volatile compounds such as esters and sulphur-containing compounds such as thioacetals, thioesters, and thiolanes, as well as alcohols. This review shows that durian is also rich in flavonoids (i.e., flavanols, anthocyanins), ascorbic acid, and carotenoids. However, limited studies exist regarding the variation in bioactive and volatile components of different durian varieties from Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia. Experimental animal models have shown that durian beneficially reduces blood glucose and cholesterol levels. Durian extract possesses anti-proliferative and probiotics effects in in vitro models. These effects warrant further investigation in human interventional studies for the development of functional food. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods of Plant Origin)
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