Special Issue "Analysis of Sensory Properties in Foods"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Sensory and Consumer Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2018).

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Edgar Chambers IV
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Distinguished Professor and Director, Sensory Analysis Center, Ice Hall, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
Tel. +17855320166
Interests: sensory quality; consumer acceptance; health aspects; product development; shelf-life; quality control
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The sensory properties of foods are the most important reason people eat the foods they eat.  What those properties are and how we best measure those properties are critical to understanding food and eating behaviour. Appearance, flavor, texture, and even the sounds of food can impart a desire to eat or cause us to dismiss the food as unappetizing, stale, or even inappropriate from a cultural standpoint.  This Special Issue will focus on the sensory properties of various foods, how those properties are measured, which properties might be most important in certain situations, and how consumers use sensory attributes to make decisions about what they will eat. Both research papers and review articles are welcome in this Special Issue of Foods.

Prof. Dr. Edgar Chambers IV
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Sensory
  • Attributes
  • Consumer
  • Methods
  • Descriptive
  • Eating
  • Appearance
  • Flavor
  • Texture

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Analysis of Sensory Properties in Foods: A Special Issue
Foods 2019, 8(8), 291; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080291 - 26 Jul 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The sensory properties of foods are the most important reason people eat the foods they eat. What those properties are and how we best measure those properties are critical to understanding food and eating behavior. Appearance, flavor, texture, and even the sounds of [...] Read more.
The sensory properties of foods are the most important reason people eat the foods they eat. What those properties are and how we best measure those properties are critical to understanding food and eating behavior. Appearance, flavor, texture, and even the sounds of food can impart a desire to eat or cause us to dismiss the food as unappetizing, stale, or even inappropriate from a cultural standpoint. This special issue focuses on how sensory properties, including consumer perceptions, are measured, the specific sensory properties of various foods, which properties might be most important in certain situations, and how consumers use sensory attributes and consumer information to make decisions about what they believe about food and what they will eat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Sensory Properties in Foods) Printed Edition available

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Monosodium Glutamate and Its Substitutes on Sensory Characteristics and Consumer Perceptions of Chicken Soup
Foods 2019, 8(2), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8020071 - 14 Feb 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Soup manufacturers are removing monosodium glutamate (MSG) to meet consumer demand for natural ingredients. This research investigated the influence of MSG and its substitutes (yeast extract: YE; mushroom concentrate: MC; tomato concentrate: TC) on clear chicken soup with 0.4% sodium chloride (salt) by [...] Read more.
Soup manufacturers are removing monosodium glutamate (MSG) to meet consumer demand for natural ingredients. This research investigated the influence of MSG and its substitutes (yeast extract: YE; mushroom concentrate: MC; tomato concentrate: TC) on clear chicken soup with 0.4% sodium chloride (salt) by comparing sensory attributes and consumer acceptability among each other, and to a chicken soup sample containing 0.5% salt (Salt 0.5%). The soup with 0.4% salt without enhancers was designated as the control. Corresponding list of ingredients was also presented to consumers to study the effects on consumer expectations about chicken soup products. Our results showed that MSG and its substitutes significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced the sensory properties of chicken soup. These flavor enhancers also achieved statistically same or stronger improvement in overall flavor, meaty flavor, chicken flavor and umami taste when compared to Salt 0.5% sample. Consumers significantly preferred MSG 0.1%, YE 0.025%, and Salt 0.5% samples than others. Compared to MC and TC samples, less consumers perceived MSG and YE samples as “free of artificial” and “natural” with lower consumption interest. Claims about artificial/natural ingredients were attractive selling points for chicken soups, but good sensory appealing was the most important attribute linearly affecting consumer satisfactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Sensory Properties in Foods) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Sensory Profile and Acceptability of HydroSOStainable Almonds
Foods 2019, 8(2), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8020064 - 12 Feb 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Fresh water availability is considered highly risky because it is a finite resource, and a deficiency in water leads to numerous economic and environmental issues. Agriculture is one of the main consumers of fresh water in practices such as irrigation and fertilization. In [...] Read more.
Fresh water availability is considered highly risky because it is a finite resource, and a deficiency in water leads to numerous economic and environmental issues. Agriculture is one of the main consumers of fresh water in practices such as irrigation and fertilization. In this context, the main objectives of this study were (i) to determine the descriptive sensory profiles of four almond types grown using different irrigation strategies and (ii) to study their acceptance in a cross-cultural study (Romania and Spain). Consumers’ willingness to pay for hydroSOS almonds was also evaluated. The four irrigation strategies evaluated were a control sample, two samples grown under regulated deficit irrigation strategies (RDI), and a sample grown under a sustained deficit irrigation strategy (SDI). The main conclusion was that neither descriptive nor affective sensory results showed significant differences among treatments. These findings should encourage farmers to reduce their water usage by demonstrating that sensory quality was not significantly affected by any of the studied treatments, compared to the control. Regarding willingness to pay, both Spanish and Romanian consumers were willing to pay a higher price for the hydroSOS almonds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Sensory Properties in Foods) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Novel Modelling Approaches to Characterize and Quantify Carryover Effects on Sensory Acceptability
Foods 2018, 7(11), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7110186 - 08 Nov 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Sensory biases caused by the residual sensations of previously served samples are known as carryover effects (COE). Contrast and convergence effects are the two possible outcomes of carryover. COE can lead to misinterpretations of acceptability, due to the presence of intrinsic psychological/physiological biases. [...] Read more.
Sensory biases caused by the residual sensations of previously served samples are known as carryover effects (COE). Contrast and convergence effects are the two possible outcomes of carryover. COE can lead to misinterpretations of acceptability, due to the presence of intrinsic psychological/physiological biases. COE on sensory acceptability (hedonic liking) were characterized and quantified using mixed and nonlinear models. N = 540 subjects evaluated grape juice samples of different acceptability qualities (A = good, B = medium, C = poor) for the liking of color (C), taste (T), and overall (OL). Three models were used to quantify COE: (1) COE as an interaction effect; (2) COE as a residual effect; (3) COE proportional to the treatment effect. For (1), COE was stronger for C than T and OL, although COE was minimal. For (2), C showed higher estimates (−0.15 to +0.10) of COE than did T and OL (−0.09 to +0.07). COE mainly took the form of convergence. For (3), the absolute proportionality parameter estimate (λ) was higher for C than for T and OL (−0.155 vs. −0.004 to −0.039), which represented −15.46% of its direct treatment effect. Model (3) showed a significant COE for C. COE cannot be ignored as they may lead to the misinterpretation of sensory acceptability results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Sensory Properties in Foods) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle
Temporal Drivers of Liking Based on Functional Data Analysis and Non-Additive Models for Multi-Attribute Time-Intensity Data of Fruit Chews
Foods 2018, 7(6), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7060084 - 03 Jun 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Conventional drivers of liking analysis was extended with a time dimension into temporal drivers of liking (TDOL) based on functional data analysis methodology and non-additive models for multiple-attribute time-intensity (MATI) data. The non-additive models, which consider both direct effects and interaction effects of [...] Read more.
Conventional drivers of liking analysis was extended with a time dimension into temporal drivers of liking (TDOL) based on functional data analysis methodology and non-additive models for multiple-attribute time-intensity (MATI) data. The non-additive models, which consider both direct effects and interaction effects of attributes to consumer overall liking, include Choquet integral and fuzzy measure in the multi-criteria decision-making, and linear regression based on variance decomposition. Dynamics of TDOL, i.e., the derivatives of the relative importance functional curves were also explored. Well-established R packages ‘fda’, ‘kappalab’ and ‘relaimpo’ were used in the paper for developing TDOL. Applied use of these methods shows that the relative importance of MATI curves offers insights for understanding the temporal aspects of consumer liking for fruit chews. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Sensory Properties in Foods) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessCommunication
What Temperature of Coffee Exceeds the Pain Threshold? Pilot Study of a Sensory Analysis Method as Basis for Cancer Risk Assessment
Foods 2018, 7(6), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7060083 - 01 Jun 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) evaluates “very hot (>65 °C) beverages” as probably carcinogenic to humans. However, there is a lack of research regarding what temperatures consumers actually perceive as “very hot” or as “too hot”. A method for sensory [...] Read more.
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) evaluates “very hot (>65 °C) beverages” as probably carcinogenic to humans. However, there is a lack of research regarding what temperatures consumers actually perceive as “very hot” or as “too hot”. A method for sensory analysis of such threshold temperatures was developed. The participants were asked to mix a very hot coffee step by step into a cooler coffee. Because of that, the coffee to be tasted was incrementally increased in temperature during the test. The participants took a sip at every addition, until they perceive the beverage as too hot for consumption. The protocol was evaluated in the form of a pilot study using 87 participants. Interestingly, the average pain threshold of the test group (67 °C) and the preferred drinking temperature (63 °C) iterated around the IARC threshold for carcinogenicity. The developed methodology was found as fit for the purpose and may be applied in larger studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Sensory Properties in Foods) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
What Is “Natural”? Consumer Responses to Selected Ingredients
Foods 2018, 7(4), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7040065 - 23 Apr 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
Interest in “natural” food has grown enormously over the last decade. Because the United States government has not set a legal definition for the term “natural”, customers have formed their own sensory perceptions and opinions on what constitutes natural. In this study, we [...] Read more.
Interest in “natural” food has grown enormously over the last decade. Because the United States government has not set a legal definition for the term “natural”, customers have formed their own sensory perceptions and opinions on what constitutes natural. In this study, we examined 20 ingredients to determine what consumers consider to be natural. Using a national database, 630 consumers were sampled (50% male and 50% female) online, and the results were analyzed using percentages and chi-square tests. No ingredient was considered natural by more than 69% of respondents. We found evidence that familiarity may play a major role in consumers’ determination of naturalness. We also found evidence that chemical sounding names and the age of the consumer have an effect on whether an ingredient and potentially a food is considered natural. Interestingly, a preference towards selecting GMO (genetically modified organisms) foods had no significant impact on perceptions of natural. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Sensory Properties in Foods) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Emulsion Intensity on Selected Sensory and Instrumental Texture Properties of Full-Fat Mayonnaise
Foods 2018, 7(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7010009 - 17 Jan 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Varying processing conditions can strongly affect the microstructure of mayonnaise, opening up new applications for the creation of products tailored to meet different consumer preferences. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of emulsification intensity on sensory and instrumental characteristics [...] Read more.
Varying processing conditions can strongly affect the microstructure of mayonnaise, opening up new applications for the creation of products tailored to meet different consumer preferences. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of emulsification intensity on sensory and instrumental characteristics of full-fat mayonnaise. Mayonnaise, based on a standard recipe, was processed at low and high emulsification intensities, with selected sensory and instrumental properties then evaluated using an analytical panel and a back extrusion method. The evaluation also included a commercial reference mayonnaise. The overall effects of a higher emulsification intensity on the sensory and instrumental characteristics of full-fat mayonnaise were limited. However, texture was affected, with a more intense emulsification resulting in a firmer mayonnaise according to both back extrusion data and the analytical sensory panel. Appearance, taste and flavor attributes were not affected by processing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Sensory Properties in Foods) Printed Edition available
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Application of Sensory Descriptive Analysis and Consumer Studies to Investigate Traditional and Authentic Foods: A Review
Foods 2019, 8(2), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8020054 - 02 Feb 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
As globalization progresses, consumers are readily exposed to many foods from various cultures. The need for studying specialty and unique food products, sometimes known as traditional, authentic, ethnic, exotic, or artisanal foods, is increasing to accommodate consumers’ growing demands. However, the number of [...] Read more.
As globalization progresses, consumers are readily exposed to many foods from various cultures. The need for studying specialty and unique food products, sometimes known as traditional, authentic, ethnic, exotic, or artisanal foods, is increasing to accommodate consumers’ growing demands. However, the number of studies conducted on these types of products with good quality sensory testing is limited. In this review, we analyzed and reviewed sensory and consumer research on specialty and unique food products. Various factors such as manufacturing, processing, or preparation methods of the samples influence the characteristics of food products and their acceptability. Sensory descriptive analysis can be used to distinguish characteristics that highlight these differences, and consumer research is used to identify factors that affect acceptability. Familiarity with product attributes contributes to consumer acceptance. When cross-cultural consumer research is conducted to support product market placement and expansion, sensory descriptive analysis should be conducted in parallel to define product characteristics. This allows better prediction of descriptors that influence consumer acceptability, leading to appropriate product modification and successful introduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Sensory Properties in Foods) Printed Edition available
Open AccessReview
The Importance of Sensory Lexicons for Research and Development of Food Products
Foods 2019, 8(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8010027 - 15 Jan 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
A lexicon is a set of standardized vocabularies developed by highly trained panelists for describing a wide array of sensory attributes present in a product. A number of lexicons have been developed to document and describe sensory perception of a variety of food [...] Read more.
A lexicon is a set of standardized vocabularies developed by highly trained panelists for describing a wide array of sensory attributes present in a product. A number of lexicons have been developed to document and describe sensory perception of a variety of food categories.The current review provides examples of recently developed sensory lexicons for fruits and vegetables; grains and nuts; beverages; bakery, dairy, soy and meat products; and foods for animals. Applications of sensory lexicons as an effective communication tool and a guidance tool for new product development processes, quality control, product improvement, measuring changes during product shelf life, and breeding new plant cultivars are also discussed and demonstrated through research in the field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Sensory Properties in Foods) Printed Edition available
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