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Foods, Volume 8, Issue 1 (January 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The 2011 Great East Japan earthquake was a large-scale disaster which involved both natural and [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Assessment of Ready-to-Use Freeze-dried Immobilized Biocatalysts as Innovative Starter Cultures in Sourdough Bread Making
Received: 5 December 2018 / Revised: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 19 January 2019 / Published: 21 January 2019
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Abstract
In the present study the effect of innovative biocatalysts as starter cultures in sourdough bread making was explored. The biocatalysts consisted of Lactobacillus paracasei K5 and Lactobacillus bulgaricus ATCC 11842 (in single and mixed form), immobilized on delignified wheat bran (DWB), and freeze [...] Read more.
In the present study the effect of innovative biocatalysts as starter cultures in sourdough bread making was explored. The biocatalysts consisted of Lactobacillus paracasei K5 and Lactobacillus bulgaricus ATCC 11842 (in single and mixed form), immobilized on delignified wheat bran (DWB), and freeze dried without cryoprotectants. The parameters monitored were physicochemical characteristics, mold and rope spoilage appearance, volatile composition, and organoleptic characteristics. Results obtained showed that both biocatalysts exhibit good fermentative activity. However, the best results were achieved when freeze-dried immobilized L. paracasei K5 was applied as a single culture. In particular, the produced bread had a higher acidity (8.67 mL 0.1 N NaOH) and higher organic load (2.90 g/kg lactic acid and 1.11 g/kg acetic acid). This outcome was the main reason why this bread was preserved more regarding mold spoilage (14 days) and rope spoilage (12 days), respectively. In addition, the employment of freeze-dried immobilized L. paracasei K5 led to bread with better aromatic profile in terms of concentrations and number of volatile compounds produced as gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis proved. Finally, no significant differences were observed through sensorial tests. Last but not least, it should be highlighted that the used microorganisms were cultured in cheese whey, minimizing the cost of the proposed biotechnological procedure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Value of Innovative Functional Foods)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Soluble Solids and High Pressure Treatment on Rheological Properties of Protein Enriched Mango Puree
Received: 29 December 2018 / Revised: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 16 January 2019 / Published: 21 January 2019
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Abstract
The effects of high pressure treatment on the rheological properties of protein enriched mango puree were evaluated. In the first part, the original soluble solids in mango puree (28° Brix) was lowered to 26, 23 and 20° Brix, and each was supplemented with [...] Read more.
The effects of high pressure treatment on the rheological properties of protein enriched mango puree were evaluated. In the first part, the original soluble solids in mango puree (28° Brix) was lowered to 26, 23 and 20° Brix, and each was supplemented with 2, 5 and 8% of whey protein to assess the influence of added protein. The samples were then evaluated by dynamic rheology. Pressure treatment resulted in a progressive increase in elastic (G′) and viscous modulii (G″) as well as complex viscosity (η*). Values of G′ were higher than G″ demonstrating that the product behaved more like a gel. Additional tests were carried out by simultaneously varying protein and soluble solids contents, and keeping the total solids at 28%. In this case, the effects of pressure levels and holding times were similar to previous results. However, the positive effects of higher protein were negated by the negative effects of lower soluble solids, resulting in an overall decreasing effect on rheology. The developed models effectively predicted the combined influence of protein and soluble solid concentrations on rheological parameters (R2 > 0.85). Sensory evaluation of 2% and 5% protein supplemented and pressure treated (500 MPa/3 min) mango puree yielded acceptable sensory qualities, resulting in a product with enriched protein content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of High-Pressure Technologies in Food Processing)
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Open AccessArticle Discrimination of Chinese Liquors Based on Electronic Nose and Fuzzy Discriminant Principal Component Analysis
Received: 18 December 2018 / Revised: 15 January 2019 / Accepted: 18 January 2019 / Published: 21 January 2019
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Abstract
The detection of liquor quality is an important process in the liquor industry, and the quality of Chinese liquors is partly determined by the aromas of the liquors. The electronic nose (e-nose) refers to an artificial olfactory technology. The e-nose system can quickly [...] Read more.
The detection of liquor quality is an important process in the liquor industry, and the quality of Chinese liquors is partly determined by the aromas of the liquors. The electronic nose (e-nose) refers to an artificial olfactory technology. The e-nose system can quickly detect different types of Chinese liquors according to their aromas. In this study, an e-nose system was designed to identify six types of Chinese liquors, and a novel feature extraction algorithm, called fuzzy discriminant principal component analysis (FDPCA), was developed for feature extraction from e-nose signals by combining discriminant principal component analysis (DPCA) and fuzzy set theory. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA), DPCA, K-nearest neighbor (KNN) classifier, leave-one-out (LOO) strategy and k-fold cross-validation (k = 5, 10, 20, 25) were employed in the e-nose system. The maximum classification accuracy of feature extraction for Chinese liquors was 98.378% using FDPCA, showing this algorithm to be extremely effective. The experimental results indicate that an e-nose system coupled with FDPCA is a feasible method for classifying Chinese liquors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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Open AccessReview The Demographic Diversity of Food Intake and Prevalence of Kidney Stone Diseases in the Indian Continent
Received: 27 September 2018 / Revised: 23 December 2018 / Accepted: 24 December 2018 / Published: 21 January 2019
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Abstract
Food intake plays a pivotal role in human growth, constituting 45% of the global economy and wellbeing in general. The consumption of a balanced diet is essential for overall good health, and a lack of equilibrium can lead to malnutrition, prenatal death, obesity, [...] Read more.
Food intake plays a pivotal role in human growth, constituting 45% of the global economy and wellbeing in general. The consumption of a balanced diet is essential for overall good health, and a lack of equilibrium can lead to malnutrition, prenatal death, obesity, osteoporosis and bone fractures, coronary heart diseases (CHD), idiopathic hypercalciuria, diabetes, and many other conditions. CHD, osteoporosis, malnutrition, and obesity are extensively discussed in the literature, although there are fragmented findings in the realm of kidney stone diseases (KSD) and their correlation with food intake. KSD associated with hematuria and renal failure poses an increasing threat to healthcare infrastructures and the global economy, and its emergence in the Indian population is being linked to multi-factorial urological disorder resulting from several factors. In this realm, epidemiological, biochemical, and macroeconomic situations have been the focus of research, even though food intake is also of paramount importance. Hence, in this article, we review the corollary associations with the consumption of diverse foods and the role that these play in KSD in an Indian context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle Preventive Effect of Alkaloids from Lotus plumule on Acute Liver Injury in Mice
Received: 19 December 2018 / Revised: 15 January 2019 / Accepted: 16 January 2019 / Published: 19 January 2019
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Abstract
Lotus plumule is a traditional Chinese food that can be used as a beverage. In this study, three kinds of Lotus plumules from different regions of China were selected to observe the preventive effects of extracted alkaloids on CCl4-induced liver injuries. [...] Read more.
Lotus plumule is a traditional Chinese food that can be used as a beverage. In this study, three kinds of Lotus plumules from different regions of China were selected to observe the preventive effects of extracted alkaloids on CCl4-induced liver injuries. Animal experiments revealed that alkaloids extracted from Lotus plumules decreased the serum AST (aspartate aminotransferase), ALT (alanine aminotransferase), and TBIL (total bilirubin) levels, enhanced SOD (superoxide dismutase) activity, and reduced MDA (malondialdehyde) level in the liver tissues of mice with liver injury. H&E observation confirmed that alkaloids from Lotus plumules could alleviate CCl4-induced injuries of liver tissues and inhibit the inflammatory effect on hepatocytes. Further qPCR experiments also demonstrated that alkaloids from Lotus plumules upregulated the expression of IκB-α (inhibitor of NF-κB alpha), Cu/Zn-SOD (copper/zinc superoxide dismutase), Mn-SOD (manganese superoxide dismutase), and CAT (catalase) mRNA and downregulated TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor alpha) and NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa B) expression in the liver tissues of mice with liver injury. All three kinds of alkaloids from Lotus plumules could prevent CCl4-induced liver injuries by regulating the levels of oxidative stress and inflammation in mice, and the therapeutic effect was comparable to that of silymarin, the medicine commonly used in the treatment of liver diseases. In summary, alkaloids from Lotus plumules contain bioactive substances with hepatic protective efficacy and possess potential application value in the field of functional food. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Provitamin A Carotenoids, Tocopherols, Ascorbic Acid and Minerals in Indigenous Leafy Vegetables from Tanzania
Received: 4 December 2018 / Revised: 24 December 2018 / Accepted: 27 December 2018 / Published: 19 January 2019
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Abstract
The essential micronutrients in indigenous leafy vegetables (ILVs) could substantially contribute to the micronutrient supply in rural communities in Tanzania, but concentrations differ between species. Provitamin A carotenoids, tocopherols, ascorbic acid, minerals, and phytate were analysed in 13 different species using HPLC-, ICP-OES, [...] Read more.
The essential micronutrients in indigenous leafy vegetables (ILVs) could substantially contribute to the micronutrient supply in rural communities in Tanzania, but concentrations differ between species. Provitamin A carotenoids, tocopherols, ascorbic acid, minerals, and phytate were analysed in 13 different species using HPLC-, ICP-OES, and photometric techniques. Eight of the 13 ILVs, including Amaranthus ssp. and Sesamum angustifolium, had high β-carotene concentrations (2.91–4.84 mg/100 g fresh weight), which could provide ≥50% of vitamin A’s recommended nutrient intake (RNI). Six ILVs including Cleome hirta and Sonchus luxurians had high iron contents (34.5–60.4 mg/100 g, >50% RNI); Amaranthus ssp. represented the ILV with high calcium, magnesium and zinc contents (85%, 207% and 21% of RNI per 100 g); Cleome hirta and Cleome gynandra had high ascorbic acid contents (>15 mg/100 g, 34–35% of RNI), while Sesamum angustifolium was the only ILV with a high tocopherol content (7.34 mg α-TE/100 g). The highest phytate concentration was found in Amaranthus ssp., which could negatively affect its role as a very good source of minerals. Results indicate that the analysed ILVs could make a substantial contribution to the vitamin A and iron supply in the diets of rural Tanzanian populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analytical Methods)
Open AccessArticle Separation and Enrichment of Antioxidant Peptides from Whey Protein Isolate Hydrolysate by Aqueous Two-Phase Extraction and Aqueous Two-Phase Flotation
Received: 19 December 2018 / Revised: 12 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
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Abstract
At present, peptides are separated by molecular exclusion chromatography and liquid chromatography. A separation method is needed in any case, which can be scaled up for industrial scale. In this study, aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) and aqueous two-phase flotation (ATPF) were applied to [...] Read more.
At present, peptides are separated by molecular exclusion chromatography and liquid chromatography. A separation method is needed in any case, which can be scaled up for industrial scale. In this study, aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) and aqueous two-phase flotation (ATPF) were applied to separate and enrich antioxidant peptides from trypsin hydrolysates of whey protein isolates (WPI). The best experimental conditions were investigated, and the results were evaluated using the 2,2′-Azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS) free radical scavenging activity of the peptides-per-unit concentration and the recovery rate (Y) of peptides in the top phase of both ATPE and ATPF. Under optimal conditions, the Y and ABTS free radical scavenging activity per unit concentration in top phase of ATPE could reach 38.75% and 12.94%, respectively, and in ATPF could reach 11.71% and 29.18%, respectively. The purified peptides were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). PeptideCutter and PeptideMass were applied to analyze and calculate the peptide sequencing. KILDKVGINYWLAHK, VGINYWLAHKALCSEK, and TPEVDDEALEKFDKALK sequences having antioxidant activity were detected in the top phase of ATPE, and VGINYWLAHKALCSEK, KILLDKVGINYWLAHK, ILLDKVGINYWLAHK, IIAEKTKIPAVFK, KIIAEKTKIPAVFK, and VYVEELKPTPEGDLEILLQK sequences having antioxidant activity were detected in the top phase of ATPF. In conclusion, antioxidant peptides were successfully separated from the WPI hydrolysate by ATPE and ATPF; compared with ATPE, ATPF has superior specificity in separating antioxidant peptides. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Apricot Fibre on the Physicochemical Characteristics, the Sensory Properties and Bacterial Viability of Nonfat Probiotic Yoghurts
Received: 25 December 2018 / Revised: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
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Abstract
In this study, the physical, chemical, rheological, and microbiological characteristics and the sensory properties of nonfat probiotic yoghurt produced at two different concentrations of apricot fibre (1% and 2%, w/v) and three different types of probiotic culture (Lactobacillus ( [...] Read more.
In this study, the physical, chemical, rheological, and microbiological characteristics and the sensory properties of nonfat probiotic yoghurt produced at two different concentrations of apricot fibre (1% and 2%, w/v) and three different types of probiotic culture (Lactobacillus (L.) acidophilus LA-5, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 (Bifidobacterium BB-12), and their mixtures) were investigated. As the fibre content increased, the rheological, structural, and sensory properties of probiotic yoghurt were negatively affected, while counts of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus LA-5, and Bifidobacterium BB-12 increased. When all the results were evaluated, the best results were obtained by using L. acidophilus LA-5 as probiotic culture and adding 1% (w/v) apricot fibre. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processing and Technology of Dairy Products)
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Open AccessEditorial Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Foods in 2018
Published: 17 January 2019
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Abstract
Rigorous peer-review is the corner-stone of high-quality academic publishing [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle Characterization, Antimicrobial Properties and Coatings Application of Gellan Gum Oxidized with Hydrogen Peroxide
Received: 19 December 2018 / Revised: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 14 January 2019 / Published: 17 January 2019
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Abstract
The effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidation on the physicochemical, gelation and antimicrobial properties of gellan gum was studied. The oxidized gellan gum (OGG) was characterized by measuring the carboxyl/carbonyl group contents, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and proton [...] Read more.
The effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidation on the physicochemical, gelation and antimicrobial properties of gellan gum was studied. The oxidized gellan gum (OGG) was characterized by measuring the carboxyl/carbonyl group contents, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy. The H2O2 oxidation resulted in a large increase in the carboxyl groups in gellan gum. The OGG lost gelation ability by oxidation even in the presence of metal ions. The antimicrobial activities of the OGG against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus), Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli), and fungal (Aspergillus niger) were tested. The OGG could inhibit the growth of both bacteria and fungal, and the activity was improved with an increase in the oxidation level. Finally, the application of the OGG as an active coatings material to extend the storage of apples was tested. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Relationship between Water Activity and Moisture Content in Floral Honey
Received: 24 December 2018 / Revised: 11 January 2019 / Accepted: 11 January 2019 / Published: 16 January 2019
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Abstract
The water activity (Aw) and moisture content (MC) data of floral honey at five temperatures were determined using the Aw method and it was found that temperature significantly affected the Aw/MC data. The linear equation could be used to express the relationship between [...] Read more.
The water activity (Aw) and moisture content (MC) data of floral honey at five temperatures were determined using the Aw method and it was found that temperature significantly affected the Aw/MC data. The linear equation could be used to express the relationship between Aw and MC of honeys. The empirical regression equations between parameters and temperature were established. To evaluate the factors affecting the Aw/MC data, we used categorical tests of regression analysis to assess the effect of the correlation between Aw and MC of honey and examined the factors affecting the regression parameters. Six datasets from five countries were selected from the literature. The significance of the levels of qualitative categories was tested by t-test. The slope of the relationship between Aw and MC was affected by the state of honey (liquid and crystallized). The intercepts were significantly affected by honey type (flower or honeydew), harvesting year, geographical collection site, botanical source and other factors. The outliers in the datasets significantly affected the results. With modern regression analysis, useful information on the correlation between Aw and MC could be found. The results indicated that no universal linear equation for Aw and MC could be used. The Aw value could be used as a criterion for the honey industry; then, the MC of honey could be calculated by the specific linear equation between Aw and MC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rapid Methods for Assessing Food Safety and Quality)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Harvest Time on the Aroma of White Wines Made from Cold-Hardy Brianna and Frontenac Gris Grapes Using Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Olfactometry
Received: 20 December 2018 / Revised: 2 January 2019 / Accepted: 10 January 2019 / Published: 16 January 2019
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Abstract
The Midwest wine industry has shown a marked increase in growers, hectares planted, wineries, and wine production. This growth coincides with the release of cold-hardy cultivars such as Brianna and Frontenac gris, in 2001 and 2003, respectively. These white grape varieties account for [...] Read more.
The Midwest wine industry has shown a marked increase in growers, hectares planted, wineries, and wine production. This growth coincides with the release of cold-hardy cultivars such as Brianna and Frontenac gris, in 2001 and 2003, respectively. These white grape varieties account for one-third of the total area grown in the state of Iowa. It is generally accepted that the wine aroma profile plays a crucial role in developing a local, sustainable brand. However, the identity of Brianna/Frontenac Gris-based wine aromas and their link to the grape berry chemistry at harvest is unknown. This study aims to preliminarily characterize key odor-active compounds that can influence the aroma profile in wines made from Brianna and Frontenac gris grapes harvested at different stages of ripening. Brianna and Frontenac gris grapes were harvested approximately 7 days apart, starting at 15.4 °Brix (3.09 pH) and 19.5 °Brix (3.00 pH), respectively. Small batch fermentations were made for each time point with all juices adjusted to the same °Brix prior to fermentation. Odor-active compounds were extracted from wine headspace using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and simultaneous olfactometry (O). Over 30 odor-active compounds were detected. Aromas in Brianna wines developed from “cotton candy” and “floral”, to “banana” and “butterscotch”, then finally to “honey”, “caramel” and an unknown neutral aroma. Frontenac gris wines changed from an unknown neutral aroma to “fruity” and “rose”. Results from the lay audiences’ flavor and aroma descriptors also indicate a shift with harvest date and associated °Brix. To date, this is the first report of wine aromas from Brianna and Frontenac gris by GC-MS-O. Findings from this research support the hypothesis that aroma profiles of Brianna and Frontenac gris wines can be influenced by harvesting the grapes at different stages of ripening. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Food Aroma)
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Open AccessArticle Advances in the Dereplication of Aroma Precursors from Grape Juice by Pretreatment with Lead Acetate and Combined HILIC- and RP-HPLC Methods
Received: 3 December 2018 / Revised: 21 December 2018 / Accepted: 11 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
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Abstract
Glycosidic aroma precursors (GAPs) contribute to the varietal flavor of wine. Researchers have applied various sample preparation and analytical methods in attempts to achieve their separation and identification. However, mass spectrometric methods still fail to unequivocally define their structures. We have previously reported [...] Read more.
Glycosidic aroma precursors (GAPs) contribute to the varietal flavor of wine. Researchers have applied various sample preparation and analytical methods in attempts to achieve their separation and identification. However, mass spectrometric methods still fail to unequivocally define their structures. We have previously reported the separation of GAPs in their natural form and elucidated their structures by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In this study, we confirm the effectiveness of our established procedure and present methodological improvements. Grape juice was treated with lead (II) acetate and repeatedly chromatographed to give seven pure GAPs. Their chemical structures were characterized by MSn fragmentations and 1D- and 2D-NMR spectra. Ten GAPs were analyzed by both hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) to compare the two chromatograms. A selection of known phenols was treated with lead (II) acetate in order to check its binding properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Composition and Quality Analysis)
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Open AccessReview The Importance of Sensory Lexicons for Research and Development of Food Products
Received: 28 December 2018 / Revised: 8 January 2019 / Accepted: 10 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
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Abstract
A lexicon is a set of standardized vocabularies developed by highly trained panelists for describing a wide array of sensory attributes present in a product. A number of lexicons have been developed to document and describe sensory perception of a variety of food [...] Read more.
A lexicon is a set of standardized vocabularies developed by highly trained panelists for describing a wide array of sensory attributes present in a product. A number of lexicons have been developed to document and describe sensory perception of a variety of food categories.The current review provides examples of recently developed sensory lexicons for fruits and vegetables; grains and nuts; beverages; bakery, dairy, soy and meat products; and foods for animals. Applications of sensory lexicons as an effective communication tool and a guidance tool for new product development processes, quality control, product improvement, measuring changes during product shelf life, and breeding new plant cultivars are also discussed and demonstrated through research in the field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Sensory Properties in Foods)
Open AccessArticle The Effect of Increasing Levels of Dehulled Faba Beans (Vicia faba L.) on Extrusion and Product Parameters for Dry Expanded Dog Food
Received: 15 November 2018 / Revised: 14 December 2018 / Accepted: 3 January 2019 / Published: 12 January 2019
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Abstract
The growing pet food market is continuously in search for novel ingredients. Legumes such as faba beans are increasingly popular in human nutrition but have not yet been explored in pet foods. Extruded dog diets were produced with 0, 10, 20, and 30% [...] Read more.
The growing pet food market is continuously in search for novel ingredients. Legumes such as faba beans are increasingly popular in human nutrition but have not yet been explored in pet foods. Extruded dog diets were produced with 0, 10, 20, and 30% dehulled faba bean (DFB) inclusion (FB0, FB10, FB20, and FB30, respectively) in exchange for rice and corn gluten meal. Fixed processing inputs were extruder screw configuration, die size (5.2 mm diameter), dry feed rate (237 kg/h), extruder water and steam (0%), and die knife speed (1100 rpm). Variable inputs were managed by an operator with the goal to obtain similar kibble bulk density at the extruder die (OE) across treatments. Output parameters were measured at the pre-conditioner, extruder, and kibble. Measurements were collected at uniform time increments during production of each experimental diet and considered treatment replicates. Single degree of freedom contrasts were analyzed on extrusion and product outputs. The target of producing diets with similar wet bulk density was achieved, with moderate modifications at the pre-conditioner (PC) and extruder. As DFB increased, diets had increased retention time and water at the PC to improve starch hydration and swelling. The FB20 and FB30 required a more restricted flow to improve kibble expansion. After drying, the FB20 and FB30 diets were denser, harder and tougher (p < 0.05) than FB0 and FB10. The increasing levels of DFB up to 30% can be effectively controlled in an extruded pet food application with modest changes to extrusion parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Exclusive Olive Oil Consumption on Successful Aging: A Combined Analysis of the ATTICA and MEDIS Epidemiological Studies
Received: 11 December 2018 / Revised: 8 January 2019 / Accepted: 9 January 2019 / Published: 12 January 2019
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Abstract
The consumption of dietary fats, which occur naturally in various foods, poses important impacts on health. The aim of this study was to elucidate the association of exclusive use of olive oil for culinary purposes with successful aging in adults aged >50 years [...] Read more.
The consumption of dietary fats, which occur naturally in various foods, poses important impacts on health. The aim of this study was to elucidate the association of exclusive use of olive oil for culinary purposes with successful aging in adults aged >50 years old and residing in Greece. Use of olive oil in food preparation and bio-clinical characteristics of the Greek participants enrolled in the ATTICA (n = 1128 adults from Athens metropolitan area) and the MEDiterranean Islands Study (MEDIS) (n = 2221 adults from various Greek islands and Mani) studies, were investigated in relation to successful aging (SA). Participants were divided into the following three categories: (a) no olive oil consumption; (b) combined consumption of olive oil and other dietary fats; and (c) exclusive olive oil consumption. The SA was measured using the previously validated successful aging index (SAI). After adjusting for age, sex, and smoking habits, combined consumption of olive oil and other fats (vs. no olive oil use) was not significantly associated with SAI levels (p = 0.114). However, exclusive olive oil intake (vs. no use of olive oil) was significantly associated with SAI (p = 0.001), particularly among those aged older than 70 years. Therefore, the exclusive consumption of olive oil, as opposed to either combined or no olive oil consumption, beneficially impacts successful aging, particularly among individuals over 70 years of age. Primary public health prevention strategies should seek to encourage the enhanced adoption of such dietary practices in order to promote healthy aging and longevity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Olive Oil: Processing, Characterization, and Health Benefits)
Open AccessBrief Report Characterisation of Uruguayan Honeys by Multi-Elemental Analyses as a Basis to Assess Their Geographical Origin
Received: 10 December 2018 / Revised: 7 January 2019 / Accepted: 9 January 2019 / Published: 11 January 2019
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Abstract
In this work, we evaluated the possibility of predicting the geographic origin of Uruguayan honeys using discriminant analysis (DA) on mineral concentration. Although the DA results appeared to discriminate between honeys from the south, central and north, the subsequent cross-validation analysis did not [...] Read more.
In this work, we evaluated the possibility of predicting the geographic origin of Uruguayan honeys using discriminant analysis (DA) on mineral concentration. Although the DA results appeared to discriminate between honeys from the south, central and north, the subsequent cross-validation analysis did not confirm this result. We also compared honeys from Uruguay and the Buenos Aires province (Argentina) using DA on mineral composition data. In this case, a clear difference between these two origins was observed. It seems possible to differentiate between Uruguayan honeys and those produced in a neighbouring country based on multivariate statistical methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analytical Methods)
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Open AccessArticle The Determination of Some Microbiological and Chemical Features in Herby Cheese
Received: 7 December 2018 / Revised: 25 December 2018 / Accepted: 7 January 2019 / Published: 11 January 2019
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Abstract
The objective of this study is to measure the amounts of biogenic amines, microbial counts, values of pH, titratable acidity, dry matter, and salt (%) in herby cheese, a very popular staple in the Turkish diet, and to evaluate the concentration of biogenic [...] Read more.
The objective of this study is to measure the amounts of biogenic amines, microbial counts, values of pH, titratable acidity, dry matter, and salt (%) in herby cheese, a very popular staple in the Turkish diet, and to evaluate the concentration of biogenic amines in terms of public health risks. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was used for the determination of eight biogenic amines in 100 herby cheeses sold in the local markets of Van. The bacterial load of the herby cheeses ranged between 4.0 and 8.90 log CFU/g for viable total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TAMB), <1 and 7.0 log CFU/g for lactic bacteria (LAB), <1 and 6.08 log CFU/g for coliform bacteria, <1 and 5.81 log CFU/g for Enterobacteriaceae, <1 and 2.60 log CFU/g for Staphylococcus aureus, and 3.70 and 8.05 log CFU/g for yeasts and molds. The results obtained suggested significant changes in the pH, titratable acidity, dry matter, and salt contents of the examined herby cheese samples. The detection levels of biogenic amines in the samples ranged from <0.025 to 33.36 mg/kg for tryptamine, from <0.038 to 404.57 mg/kg for β-phenylethylamine, from 0.03 to 426.35 mg/kg for putrescine, from <0.039 to 1438.22 mg/kg for cadaverine, from <0.033 to 469 mg/kg for histamine, from <0.309 to 725.21 mg/kg for tyramine, from <0.114 to 1.70 mg/kg for spermidine, and from <0.109 to 1.88 mg/kg for spermine. As a result, these cheeses are fit for consumption in terms of the amounts of biogenic amines they contain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biogenic Amines on Food Safety)
Open AccessArticle Characterization of Sparkling Wines According to Polyphenolic Profiles Obtained by HPLC-UV/Vis and Principal Component Analysis
Received: 13 December 2018 / Revised: 4 January 2019 / Accepted: 8 January 2019 / Published: 10 January 2019
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Abstract
Cava is a sparkling wine obtained by a secondary fermentation in its own bottle. Grape skin contains several compounds, such as polyphenols, which act like natural protectors and provide flavor and color to the wines. In this paper, a previously optimized method based [...] Read more.
Cava is a sparkling wine obtained by a secondary fermentation in its own bottle. Grape skin contains several compounds, such as polyphenols, which act like natural protectors and provide flavor and color to the wines. In this paper, a previously optimized method based on reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet/visible (UV/Vis) detection has been applied to determine polyphenols in cava wines. Compounds have been separated in a C18 core-shell column using 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution and methanol as the components of the mobile phase. Chromatograms have been recorded at 280, 310 and 370 nm to gain information on the composition of benzoic acids, hidroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids, respectively. HPLC-UV/vis data consisting of compositional profiles of relevant analytes has been exploited to characterize cava wines produced from different base wine blends using chemometrics. Other oenological variables, such as vintage, aging or malolatic fermentation, have been fixed over all the samples to avoid their influence on the description. Principal component analysis and other statistic methods have been used to extract of the underlying information, providing an excellent discrimination of samples according to grape varieties and coupages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Liquid Chromatography in Food Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle Antihyperuricemia, Antioxidant, and Antibacterial Activities of Tridax procumbens L.
Received: 10 December 2018 / Revised: 1 January 2019 / Accepted: 7 January 2019 / Published: 10 January 2019
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Abstract
Tridax procumbens L. is a medicinal plant and used as a drink to treat bronchial catarrh, diarrhea, dysentery and liver diseases. In this study, we evaluated the potential use of T. procumbens to treat hyperuricemia, oxidative stress, and bacterial infection. Ethyl acetate extract [...] Read more.
Tridax procumbens L. is a medicinal plant and used as a drink to treat bronchial catarrh, diarrhea, dysentery and liver diseases. In this study, we evaluated the potential use of T. procumbens to treat hyperuricemia, oxidative stress, and bacterial infection. Ethyl acetate extract of this plant was separated to different fractions by column chromatography (CC) using chloroform and methanol as eluents and subjected to xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory, antioxidant, and antibacterial assays. The results showed that the F45–47 fraction exhibited the strongest XO inhibitory activity (IC50 = 133.17 µg/mL), while the F48–50 fraction possessed maximum antioxidant activity assessed by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2’-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assays (IC50 = 0.51 and 1.04 mg/mL, respectively). In addition, the F4–5 fraction presented the most effective inhibition on the growth of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Proteus mirabilis. Gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GS-MS) and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrophotometry (LC-ESI-MS) results revealed that fatty acids, glycerides, and flavonoids were the major compounds of the F45–47 fraction. Glycerides, triose sugar alcohols, and fatty acids were dominant compounds of the F48–50 fraction, while sterols were principal components of the F4–5 fraction. This study indicated that T. procumbens had potent inhibitory effects on XO inhibitory, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities. These biological activities may be attributed to the presence of fatty acids, flavonoids, and sterols in this plant. It is suggested that T. procumbens can be utilized as a healthy source to develop beverages and foods to treat antihyperuricemia, oxidative stress, and bacterial infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle Modeling of Osmotic Dehydration of Apples in Sugar Alcohols and Dihydroxyacetone (DHA) Solutions
Received: 18 December 2018 / Revised: 1 January 2019 / Accepted: 9 January 2019 / Published: 9 January 2019
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Abstract
The purpose of this paper is twofold: on the one hand, we verify effectiveness of alternatives solutes to sucrose solution as osmotic agents, while on the other hand we intend to analyze modeling transfer parameters, using different models. There has also been proposed [...] Read more.
The purpose of this paper is twofold: on the one hand, we verify effectiveness of alternatives solutes to sucrose solution as osmotic agents, while on the other hand we intend to analyze modeling transfer parameters, using different models. There has also been proposed a new mass transfer parameter—true water loss, which includes actual solid gain during the process. Additional consideration of a new ratio (Cichowska et al. Ratio) can be useful for better interpretation of osmotic dehydration (OD) in terms of practical applications. Apples v. Elise were dipped into 30% concentrated solutions of erythritol, xylitol, maltitol, and dihydroxyacetone (DHA) to remove some water from the tissue. To evaluate the efficiency of these solutes, 50% concentrated sucrose solution was used as a control. All of the tested osmotic agent, except maltitol, were effective in the process as evidenced by high values in the true water loss parameter. Solutions of erythritol and xylitol in 30% concentrate could be an alternative to sucrose in the process of osmotic dehydration. Peleg’s, Kelvin–Voigt, and Burgers models could fit well with the experimental data. modeling of mass transfer parameters, using Peleg’s model can be satisfactorily supplemented by Kelvin–Voigt and Burgers model for better prediction of OD within the particular periods of the process. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Long Term Exposure to Low Ethylene and Storage Temperatures Delays Calyx Senescence and Maintains ‘Afourer’ Mandarins and Navel Oranges Quality
Received: 13 December 2018 / Revised: 5 January 2019 / Accepted: 8 January 2019 / Published: 9 January 2019
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Abstract
Calyx browning and internal quality loss are major physiological causes for the loss of quality in citrus fruit during storage. While the symptoms of calyx senescence are only superficial, it can affect the appearance and consumer acceptability of citrus fruit. In this study, [...] Read more.
Calyx browning and internal quality loss are major physiological causes for the loss of quality in citrus fruit during storage. While the symptoms of calyx senescence are only superficial, it can affect the appearance and consumer acceptability of citrus fruit. In this study, continuous ethylene exposure at different storage temperatures was investigated to assess their effect on calyx senescence and internal qualities in ‘Afourer’ mandarin and Navel orange fruit during storage. ‘Afourer’ mandarin fruit were stored at ≤0.001 (equivalent to ethylene-free air), 0.01, 0.1 and 1 µL L−1 of ethylene at either 5, 10 or 20 °C, whilst in a parallel experiment, Navel oranges were exposed to ≤0.001, 0.1 and 1 µL L−1 ethylene at either 1 or 10 °C. Changes in external and internal postharvest quality parameters were assessed for up to 8 weeks for ‘Afourer’ mandarins and 10 weeks for Navel oranges. At all storage temperatures, high levels of ethylene were found to increase the level of calyx senescence, weight loss, loss of fruit firmness and respiration rates. Also, there were significant effects of ethylene and storage temperatures on total soluble solids (TSS) content, titratable acidity (TA), and ethanol accumulation in both citrus species. Continuous exposure to high ethylene also significantly reduced vitamin C and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) in ‘Afourer’ mandarins after 8 weeks of storage. Overall, ethylene treatments had a significant effect on both the external and internal qualities of the fruit during storage. The relationship between ethylene concentrations and storage temperatures demonstrate that lowering atmospheric ethylene levels at reduced storage temperatures maintain fruit quality during long term storage. Full article
Open AccessArticle Determination of Pigments in Virgin and Extra-Virgin Olive Oils: A Comparison between Two Near UV-Vis Spectroscopic Techniques
Received: 12 December 2018 / Revised: 2 January 2019 / Accepted: 2 January 2019 / Published: 7 January 2019
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Abstract
The colour of olive oil is due to the presence of natural pigments belonging to the class of carotenoids, chlorophylls, and their derivatives. These substances, other than being responsible for the colour, an important qualitative feature of the oil, have antioxidant and, more [...] Read more.
The colour of olive oil is due to the presence of natural pigments belonging to the class of carotenoids, chlorophylls, and their derivatives. These substances, other than being responsible for the colour, an important qualitative feature of the oil, have antioxidant and, more generally, nutraceutical properties and their quantification can be related to the product’s quality and authenticity. In this work, we have quantified the total amount of carotenoids and chlorophylls’ derivatives in several virgin and extra-virgin olive oils produced in Italy, by using two different methods that are based on near-ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy. The first method defines two indexes, K670 and K470, related to absorbance values of oil at wavelengths of 670 and 470 nm, respectively. The second method is based on the mathematical deconvolution of the whole absorption spectrum of the oil to obtain the concentrations of four main pigments present in olive oils: β-carotene, lutein, pheophytin A, and pheophytin B. The concentrations of the total carotenoids and total chlorophylls’ derivatives, as obtained by the two spectroscopic methods, are compared and the results are discussed in view of the practical usefulness of spectroscopic techniques for a fast determination of pigments in olive oil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Olive Oil: Processing, Characterization, and Health Benefits)
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Open AccessReview Biogenic Amine Production by Lactic Acid Bacteria: A Review
Received: 26 November 2018 / Revised: 18 December 2018 / Accepted: 2 January 2019 / Published: 7 January 2019
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Abstract
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are considered as the main biogenic amine (BA) producers in fermented foods. These compounds derive from amino acid decarboxylation through microbial activities and can cause toxic effects on humans, with symptoms (headache, heart palpitations, vomiting, diarrhea) depending also on [...] Read more.
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are considered as the main biogenic amine (BA) producers in fermented foods. These compounds derive from amino acid decarboxylation through microbial activities and can cause toxic effects on humans, with symptoms (headache, heart palpitations, vomiting, diarrhea) depending also on individual sensitivity. Many studies have focused on the aminobiogenic potential of LAB associated with fermented foods, taking into consideration the conditions affecting BA accumulation and enzymes/genes involved in the biosynthetic mechanisms. This review describes in detail the different LAB (used as starter cultures to improve technological and sensorial properties, as well as those naturally occurring during ripening or in spontaneous fermentations) able to produce BAs in model or in real systems. The groups considered were enterococci, lactobacilli, streptococci, lactococci, pediococci, oenococci and, as minor producers, LAB belonging to Leuconostoc and Weissella genus. A deeper knowledge of this issue is important because decarboxylase activities are often related to strains rather than to species or genera. Moreover, this information can help to improve the selection of strains for further applications as starter or bioprotective cultures, in order to obtain high quality foods with reduced BA content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biogenic Amines on Food Safety)
Open AccessReview Intelligent Packaging in the Food Sector: A Brief Overview
Received: 8 November 2018 / Revised: 2 January 2019 / Accepted: 3 January 2019 / Published: 7 January 2019
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Abstract
The trend towards sustainability, improved product safety, and high-quality standards are important in all areas of life sciences. In order to satisfy these requirements, intelligent packaging is used in the food sector. These systems can monitor permanently the quality status of a product [...] Read more.
The trend towards sustainability, improved product safety, and high-quality standards are important in all areas of life sciences. In order to satisfy these requirements, intelligent packaging is used in the food sector. These systems can monitor permanently the quality status of a product and share the information with the customer. In this way, food waste can be reduced and customer satisfaction can be optimized. Depending on the product, different types of intelligent packaging technologies are used and discussed in this review. The three main groups are: data carriers, indicators, and sensors. At this time, they are not that widespread, but their potential is already known. In which areas intelligent packaging should be implemented, how the systems work, and which values they offer are dealt in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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Open AccessReview Unravelling the Effects of Soluble Dietary Fibre Supplementation on Energy Intake and Perceived Satiety in Healthy Adults: Evidence from Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised-Controlled Trials
Received: 12 November 2018 / Revised: 27 December 2018 / Accepted: 2 January 2019 / Published: 6 January 2019
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Abstract
Consumption of soluble dietary fibre is recommended as part of a healthy diet. Evidence has shown that soluble dietary fibre slows gastric emptying, increases perceived satiety and plays a significant role in appetite regulation. This systematic review examined the effects of soluble dietary [...] Read more.
Consumption of soluble dietary fibre is recommended as part of a healthy diet. Evidence has shown that soluble dietary fibre slows gastric emptying, increases perceived satiety and plays a significant role in appetite regulation. This systematic review examined the effects of soluble dietary fibre using randomised-controlled trials (RCTs). Three different electronic databases were used, namely PubMed, Scopus® and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL). Effect size (Cohen’s d) was calculated based on the intergroup mean difference and standard deviation (SD) followed by Cochran’s Q and I2 determination. The effect size was statistically pooled in the meta-analyses and presented as a forest plot. The risk of bias was high for each study as assessed using the Jadad scale. Meta-analysis of statistically pooled data for guar gum showed a sizeable effect on post-meal energy intake, followed by β-glucan, alginate, polydextrose and pectin, with pooled effect sizes of −0.90, −0.44, −0.42, −0.36 and −0.26, respectively. Guar gum (5 g) effectively reduced energy intake when prepared in milk beverages compared with control milk (p < 0.001). Alginate, when prepared in liquid (5 g) or solid (9 g) meals, effectively reduced energy intake compared with control (p < 0.001). A high dose of polydextrose (25 g) prepared in liquid meal form significantly reduced energy intake (p = 0.01). This study suggests that soluble fibres are not all created equal. Further interventional studies are needed to determine whether combinations of these soluble fibres might have greater effects than individual fibres per se. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle Which Aspects of Food Value Promote Consumer Purchase Intent after a Disaster? A Case Study of Salmon Products in Disaster-Affected Areas of the Great East Japan Earthquake
Received: 26 November 2018 / Revised: 28 December 2018 / Accepted: 28 December 2018 / Published: 4 January 2019
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Abstract
This research examined post-disaster consumer perception of food value and their effects on purchase intent by focusing on Japanese seafood industry after the Great East Japan earthquake. Online surveys on consumers living in Tokyo and Osaka Prefectures were conducted to investigate consumer value [...] Read more.
This research examined post-disaster consumer perception of food value and their effects on purchase intent by focusing on Japanese seafood industry after the Great East Japan earthquake. Online surveys on consumers living in Tokyo and Osaka Prefectures were conducted to investigate consumer value perceptions of Miyagi salmon in 2012 and 2015. Multiple-group structural equation modeling (SEM) on the 2012 survey results showed that desire to contribute to restoration (social value) had the greatest positive influence on purchase intent in both regions. Concern about radiation threats (safety value) had a negative influence on purchase intent, with a stronger impact in Osaka than Tokyo. In comparison, the 2015 results revealed a reduction in the effects of these two potent factors (i.e., safety value and social value) on purchase intent only in Osaka. The beneficial value of seafood had a general positive influence on purchase intent, but its magnitude of effect differed by regional and chronological context. Among these three values, sales promotion with emphasis on social value is more effective than with other values. In cases of future disasters in a similar context, marketers are recommended to adopt different value transfer strategies according to geographical and temporal diversity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Amaranth Leaves and Skimmed Milk Powders Improve the Nutritional, Functional, Physico-Chemical and Sensory Properties of Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato Flour
Received: 16 November 2018 / Revised: 17 December 2018 / Accepted: 22 December 2018 / Published: 4 January 2019
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Abstract
Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) and under nutrition are major public health concerns in developing countries. Diets with high vitamin A and animal protein can help reduce the problem of VAD and under nutrition respectively. In this study, composite flours were developed from orange [...] Read more.
Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) and under nutrition are major public health concerns in developing countries. Diets with high vitamin A and animal protein can help reduce the problem of VAD and under nutrition respectively. In this study, composite flours were developed from orange fleshed sweet potato (OFSP), amaranth leaves and skimmed milk powders; 78:2:20, 72.5:2.5:25, 65:5:30 and 55:10:35. The physico-chemical characteristics of the composite flours were determined using standard methods while sensory acceptability of porridges was rated on a nine-point hedonic scale using a trained panel. Results indicated a significant (p < 0.05) increase in protein (12.1 to 19.9%), iron (4.8 to 97.4 mg/100 g) and calcium (45.5 to 670.2 mg/100 g) contents of the OFSP-based composite flours. The vitamin A content of composite flours contributed from 32% to 442% of the recommended dietary allowance of children aged 6–59 months. The composite flours showed a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in solubility, swelling power and scores of porridge attributes with increase in substitution levels of skimmed milk and amaranth leaf powder. The study findings indicate that the OFSP-based composite flours have the potential to make a significant contribution to the improvement in the nutrition status of children aged 6–59 months in developing countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods of Plant Origin)
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Open AccessArticle Safety of Yam-Derived (Dioscorea rotundata) Foodstuffs—Chips, Flakes and Flour: Effect of Processing and Post-Processing Conditions
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 20 December 2018 / Accepted: 28 December 2018 / Published: 3 January 2019
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Abstract
The production of yam-derived (Dioscorea rotundata) foodstuffs is mainly performed by small and medium scale processors that employ old traditional methods. This can lead to differences in quality from processor to processor, and from location to location, with consequent safety concerns. [...] Read more.
The production of yam-derived (Dioscorea rotundata) foodstuffs is mainly performed by small and medium scale processors that employ old traditional methods. This can lead to differences in quality from processor to processor, and from location to location, with consequent safety concerns. As such, the effects of processing and post-processing phases (i.e., storage, transport, etc.) on the safety of some yam-derived foodstuffs—namely chips, flakes, and flour—has been evaluated, with a focus on bacterial and fungal contamination, aflatoxins, pesticides, and heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Cd and Hg). Yams harvested and processed in Nigeria were screened, being that the country is the largest producer of the tuber, with 70–75% of the world production. Results highlighted no presence of pesticides, however, many samples showed high levels of bacterial and fungal contamination, together with heavy metal concentrations above the recommended safety levels. No trend was observed between the items considered; it was noticed, however, that samples purchased from the markets showed higher contamination levels than those freshly produced, especially regarding bacterial and aflatoxins presence. The processing stage was identified as the most critical, especially drying. Nonetheless, post-processing steps such as storage and handling at the point of sale also contributed for chemical contamination, such as aflatoxin and heavy metals. The results suggested that both the processing and post-processing phases have an impact on the safety of yam chips, flakes, and flour. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Isolation and Comparative Study on the Characterization of Guanidine Hydrochloride Soluble Collagen and Pepsin Soluble Collagen from the Body of Surf Clam Shell (Coelomactra antiquata)
Received: 6 December 2018 / Revised: 20 December 2018 / Accepted: 24 December 2018 / Published: 1 January 2019
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to characterize the collagens from the body of surf clam shell (Coelomactra antiquata). Guanidine hydrochloride and pepsin were used to extract collagens. Guanidine hydrochloride soluble collagen (GSC) and pepsin soluble collagen (PSC) were separately isolated [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to characterize the collagens from the body of surf clam shell (Coelomactra antiquata). Guanidine hydrochloride and pepsin were used to extract collagens. Guanidine hydrochloride soluble collagen (GSC) and pepsin soluble collagen (PSC) were separately isolated from the body of surf clam shell. Results showed that the moisture, protein, carbohydrate, and ash contents of the body of surf clam shell were 82.46%, 11.56%, 3.05%, and 2.38%, respectively, but the fat content was only 0.55%. The yields were 0.59% for GSC and 3.78% for PSC. Both GSC and PSC were composed of α1 and α2 chains and a β chain, however, GSC and PSC showed distinct differences from each other and the type I collagen from grass carp muscle on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). GSC and PSC contained glycine as the major amino acid and had imino acid of 150 and 155 residues/1000 residues, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra of GSC and PSC revealed the presence of a triple helix. The GSC appeared to have a dense sheet-like film linked by random-coiled filaments and PSC had fine globular filaments under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The maximum transition temperature (Tmax) of GSC and PSC was 33.05 °C and 31.33 °C, respectively. These results provide valuable scientific information for the texture study and development of surf clam shell or other bivalve mollusks. Full article
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