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Foods, Volume 12, Issue 17 (September-1 2023) – 185 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In this study, fiber-spinning technology was used to spin a protein fiber mimicking the structural element of meat muscle for the purpose of developing plant-based meat analogs. Overall, this approach involved extruding fine fibers, and then assembling them into hierarchical fibrous structures resembling those found in whole-muscle meat products. Considering the nutritional facts and to help build muscle fiber, soy protein, polysaccharide, plasticizer, and water were used in the formulations to spin into fibers using an extruder with circular orifice dies. Extrudability and thermal and rheological properties were assessed to characterize the properties of the spun fiber. The extrusion trials showed that the presence of the polysaccharides increased the cohesiveness of the fibers. View this paper
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70 pages, 4830 KiB  
Review
The Spirit of Cachaça Production: An Umbrella Review of Processes, Flavour, Contaminants and Quality Improvement
by Nicolas Ratkovich, Christian Esser, Ana Maria de Resende Machado, Benjamim de Almeida Mendes and Maria das Graças Cardoso
Foods 2023, 12(17), 3325; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12173325 - 4 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2499
Abstract
This review provides a comprehensive analysis of the production, classification, and quality control of cachaça, a traditional Brazilian sugarcane spirit with significant cultural importance. It explores the fermentation and distillation of sugarcane juice, the ageing process in wooden containers, and the regulatory aspects [...] Read more.
This review provides a comprehensive analysis of the production, classification, and quality control of cachaça, a traditional Brazilian sugarcane spirit with significant cultural importance. It explores the fermentation and distillation of sugarcane juice, the ageing process in wooden containers, and the regulatory aspects of cachaça labelling. It emphasises the role of quality control in maintaining the spirit’s integrity, focusing on monitoring copper levels in distillation stills. Ethyl carbamate (EC), a potential carcinogen found in cachaça, is investigated, with the study illuminating factors influencing its formation and prevalence and the importance of its vigilant monitoring for ensuring safety and quality. It also underscores the control of multiple parameters in producing high-quality cachaça, including raw material selection, yeast strains, acidity, and contaminants. Further, the impact of ageing, wood cask type, and yeast strains on cachaça quality is examined, along with potential uses of vinasse, a cachaça by-product, in yeast cell biomass production and fertigation. A deeper understanding of the (bio)chemical and microbiological reactions involved in cachaça production is essential to facilitate quality control and standardisation of sensory descriptors, promoting global acceptance of cachaça. Continued research will address safety concerns, improve quality, and support the long-term sustainability and success of the cachaça industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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4 pages, 178 KiB  
Editorial
Editorial to Special Issue—Food Brewing Technology and Brewing Microorganisms
by Yanru Chen, Guiming Fu, Jinjing Wang and Wenqin Cai
Foods 2023, 12(17), 3324; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12173324 - 4 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1118
Abstract
Food brewing technology is an important technology in the modern worldwide food industry, which uses the specific traits of microorganisms to produce food by traditional or modern engineering techniques [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Brewing Technology and Brewing Microorganisms)
27 pages, 2813 KiB  
Article
Research on the Influencing Factors of Sustainable Supply Chain Development of Agri-Food Products Based on Cross-Border Live-Streaming E-Commerce in China
by Gaofeng Wang, Zihao Zhang, Shuai Li and Changhoon Shin
Foods 2023, 12(17), 3323; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12173323 - 4 Sep 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3869
Abstract
The organization and coordination of cross-border e-commerce platforms in agricultural product trading are continuously increasing, and the involvement of digital platforms has driven the integration and development of cross-border agricultural product supply chains with live-streaming e-commerce, effectively facilitating the comprehensive development of producers, [...] Read more.
The organization and coordination of cross-border e-commerce platforms in agricultural product trading are continuously increasing, and the involvement of digital platforms has driven the integration and development of cross-border agricultural product supply chains with live-streaming e-commerce, effectively facilitating the comprehensive development of producers, sellers, and professional service providers within the ecosystem. However, despite the growing importance of this integration model in the market, there are still numerous unresolved issues from a supply chain perspective, and existing research provides relatively limited guidance on the effective operation of this integrated supply chain model. To address this gap in theoretical research, this study first delves into the essence and fundamental characteristics of sustainable cross-border agricultural product supply chains in the context of live streaming. Secondly, employing grounded theory as the primary research method and combining platform theory and ecosystem theory, an influencing factor system and an impact model for the development of sustainable cross-border agricultural product supply chains in the context of live streaming are constructed to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the complexity of this integrated supply chain model. Finally, from the perspectives of government agencies and practitioners, development pathways for sustainable cross-border agricultural product supply chains in the context of live-streaming e-commerce are proposed, aiming to enhance existing research and provide decision-making support for relevant stakeholders in formulating development strategies. The findings of this study contribute to expanding the research perspective on the ecosystem of live-streaming e-commerce and sustainable cross-border agricultural product supply chains, providing theoretical support for the establishment and operation of sustainable cross-border agricultural product supply chains in the context of live streaming. Additionally, it offers important references for promoting the sustainable development of live-streaming e-commerce and cross-border agricultural product supply chains, facilitating industry upgrading, global agricultural trade, and achieving mutually beneficial outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Food Systems and Food Market)
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16 pages, 3197 KiB  
Article
Ethanolic Extract from Seed Residues of Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) Ameliorates Oxidative Stress Damage and Prevents Apoptosis in Murine Cell and Aging Animal Models
by Zhongjie Hua, Jiachan Zhang, Wenjing Cheng, Changtao Wang and Dan Zhao
Foods 2023, 12(17), 3322; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12173322 - 4 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1203
Abstract
Hippophae rhamnoides L. has been widely used in research and application for almost two decades. While significant progress was achieved in the examination of its fruits and seeds, the exploration and utilization of its by-products have received relatively less attention. This study aims [...] Read more.
Hippophae rhamnoides L. has been widely used in research and application for almost two decades. While significant progress was achieved in the examination of its fruits and seeds, the exploration and utilization of its by-products have received relatively less attention. This study aims to address this research gap by investigating the effects and underlying mechanisms of sea buckthorn seed residues both in vitro and in vivo. The primary objective of this study is to assess the potential of the hydroalcoholic extract from sea buckthorn seed residues (HYD-SBSR) to prevent cell apoptosis and mitigate oxidative stress damage. To achieve this, an H2O2-induced B16F10 cell model and a D-galactose-induced mouse model were used. The H2O2-induced oxidative stress model using B16F10 cells was utilized to evaluate the cellular protective and reparative effects of HYD-SBSR. The results demonstrated the cytoprotective effects of HYD-SBSR, as evidenced by reduced apoptosis rates and enhanced resistance to oxidative stress alongside moderate cell repair properties. Furthermore, this study investigated the impact of HYD-SBSR on antioxidant enzymes and peroxides in mice to elucidate its reparative potential in vivo. The findings revealed that HYD-SBSR exhibited remarkable antioxidant performance, particularly at low concentrations, significantly enhancing antioxidant capacity under oxidative stress conditions. To delve into the mechanisms underlying HYD-SBSR, a comprehensive proteomics analysis was conducted to identify differentially expressed proteins (DEPs). Additionally, a Gene Ontology (GO) analysis and an Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway cluster analysis were performed to elucidate the functional roles of these DEPs. The outcomes highlighted crucial mechanistic pathways associated with HYD-SBSR, including the PPAR signaling pathway, fat digestion and absorption, glycerophospholipid metabolism, and cholesterol metabolism. The research findings indicated that HYD-SBSR, as a health food supplement, exhibits favorable effects by promoting healthy lipid metabolism, contributing to the sustainable and environmentally friendly production of sea buckthorn and paving the way for future investigations and applications in the field of nutraceutical and pharmaceutical research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Foods)
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14 pages, 2123 KiB  
Article
Chenopodium quinoa’s Ingredients Improve Control of the Hepatic Lipid Disturbances Derived from a High-Fat Diet
by Aurora Garcia Tejedor, Claudia Monika Haros and José Moisés Laparra Llopis
Foods 2023, 12(17), 3321; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12173321 - 4 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1187
Abstract
This study explored the effects of Chenopodium quinoa’s ingredients on the major lipids’ hepatic profile and the functional selective differentiation of monocyte-derived macrophages and innate lymphoid cells in mice on a high-fat diet. Six-week-old Rag2-/- and Rag2-/-Il2-/- mice [...] Read more.
This study explored the effects of Chenopodium quinoa’s ingredients on the major lipids’ hepatic profile and the functional selective differentiation of monocyte-derived macrophages and innate lymphoid cells in mice on a high-fat diet. Six-week-old Rag2-/- and Rag2-/-Il2-/- mice received (12 days) a low-molecular-weight protein fraction (LWPF) or the lipid fraction (qLF) obtained from the cold pressing of C. quinoa’s germen. At the end of the experiment, mouse serum and liver tissue were collected. The differences in triglycerides, phospholipids, and the major lipids profile were analyzed. Infiltrated monocyte-derived macrophages and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and the expression of liver metabolic stress-related mRNA were measured. In the Rag2-/- mice, feeding them LWPF appeared to improve, to a larger extent, their hepatic capacity to utilize fatty acids in comparison to the qLF by preventing the overwhelming of triglycerides (TGs), despite both reducing the hepatic lipid accumulation. An analysis of the hepatic major lipids profile revealed significant increased variations in the PUFAs and phospholipid composition in the Rag2-/- mice fed with the LWPF or LF. The Rag2-/-Il2-/- mice, lacking innate and adaptive lymphocytes, seemed resistant to mobilizing hepatic TGs and unresponsive to lipid accumulation when fed with the LF. Notably, only the Rag2-/- mice fed with the LWPF showed an increased proportion of hepatic CD68+F4/80+ cells population, with a better controlled expression of the innate immune ‘Toll-like’ receptor (TLR)-4. These changes were associated with an oriented expansion of pluripotential CD117+ cells towards ILC2s (CD117+KLRG1+). Thus, C. quinoa’s ingredients resulted in being advantageous for improving the mechanisms for controlling the hepatic lipotoxicity derived from a high-fat diet, promoting liver macrophage and ILCs expansion to a selective functional differentiation for the control of HFD-driven immune and metabolic disturbances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Biological Activities of Functional Food)
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14 pages, 1661 KiB  
Article
Walnut Flour as an Ingredient for Producing Low-Carbohydrate Bread: Physicochemical, Sensory, and Spectroscopic Characteristics
by Monika Wójcik, Dariusz Dziki, Arkadiusz Matwijczuk and Urszula Gawlik-Dziki
Foods 2023, 12(17), 3320; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12173320 - 4 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1853
Abstract
Walnut flour (WF) is a nutrient-rich source that can be used as an alternative for individuals on a gluten-free diet. This study aimed to assess the physical, chemical, and sensory changes in low-carbohydrate bread when supplemented with WF. Molecular-level changes were also examined [...] Read more.
Walnut flour (WF) is a nutrient-rich source that can be used as an alternative for individuals on a gluten-free diet. This study aimed to assess the physical, chemical, and sensory changes in low-carbohydrate bread when supplemented with WF. Molecular-level changes were also examined using ATR-FTIR spectra. The bread recipe, containing buckwheat and flaxseed, was enriched with WF at levels ranging from 5% to 20%. The addition of WF resulted in increased loaf volume and decreased baking loss. Enriched bread samples showed higher protein content, while fat and available carbohydrate content decreased. Additionally, WF incorporation led to a decrease in crumb brightness and an increase in redness (from 23.1 to 25.4) and yellowness (from 23.8 to 26.7). WF also increased crumb hardness and chewiness. Moreover, the tested additives primarily influenced the intensity of FTIR spectra, indicating changes in protein, carbohydrate, and fat content, with increased band intensity observed in the protein region. We particularly recommend bread with a WF content of 15%. This type of bread is characterized by high consumer acceptance. Furthermore, compared to bread without the addition of WF, it has a higher content of phenolic compounds, protein, and fat by approximately 40%, 8%, and 4%, respectively. The antioxidant activity of this bread, determined using the ABTS and DPPH methods, is also significantly higher compared to the control bread. Full article
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14 pages, 6188 KiB  
Article
A Multi-Enzyme Cascade Response for the Colorimetric Recognition of Organophosphorus Pesticides Utilizing Core-Shell Pd@Pt Nanoparticles with High Peroxidase-like Activity
by Zainabu Majid, Qi Zhang, Zhansen Yang, Huilian Che and Nan Cheng
Foods 2023, 12(17), 3319; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12173319 - 4 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1368
Abstract
In modern agricultural practices, organophosphorus pesticides or insecticides (OPs) are regularly used to restrain pests. Their limits are closely monitored since their residual hinders the capability of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and brings out a threatening accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh), which affects human [...] Read more.
In modern agricultural practices, organophosphorus pesticides or insecticides (OPs) are regularly used to restrain pests. Their limits are closely monitored since their residual hinders the capability of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and brings out a threatening accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh), which affects human well-being. Therefore, spotting OPs in food and the environment is compulsory to prevent human health. Several techniques are available to identify OPs but encounter shortcomings like time-consuming, operating costs, and slow results achievement, which calls for further solutions. Herein, we present a rapid colorimetric sensor for quantifying OPs in foods using TMB as a substrate, a multi-enzyme cascade system, and the synergistic property of core-shell Palladinum@Platinum (Pd@Pt) nanoparticles. The multi-enzyme cascade response framework is a straightforward and effective strategy for OPs recognition and can resolve the previously mentioned concerns. Numerous OPs, including Carbofuran, Malathion, Parathion, Phoxim, Rojor, and Phosmet, were successfully quantified at different concentrations. The cascade method established using Pd@Pt had a simple and easy operation, a lower detection limit range of (1–2.5 ng/mL), and a short detection time of about 50 min. With an R2 value of over 0.93, OPs showed a linear range of 10–200 ng/mL, portraying its achievement in quantifying pesticide residue. Lastly, the approach was utilized in food samples and recovered more than 80% of the residual OPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analytical Methods)
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12 pages, 1190 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of a Standardized Extract Obtained from Cashew Apple (Anacardium occidentale L.) Bagasse in DSS-Induced Mouse Colitis
by Gisele Goulart da Silva, Lucia Elaine de Oliveira Braga, Ellen Cristina Souza de Oliveira, João Ernesto de Carvalho, Josy Goldoni Lazarini, Pedro Luiz Rosalen, Ana Paula Dionísio and Ana Lucia Tasca Gois Ruiz
Foods 2023, 12(17), 3318; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12173318 - 4 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1284
Abstract
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) include Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Several studies relate eating habits to different aspects of IBD, such as progression and worsening of the clinical condition. Therefore, many natural products (NPs) such as polyphenols and carotenoids have been identified as [...] Read more.
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) include Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Several studies relate eating habits to different aspects of IBD, such as progression and worsening of the clinical condition. Therefore, many natural products (NPs) such as polyphenols and carotenoids have been identified as promising agents in supporting IBD. An interesting source for obtaining bioactive NPs is the by-products of the food industry. The present study evaluated the potential beneficial effect of a standardized extract (CAE) obtained from cashew apple bagasse in the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis model in mice. This was the first time that CAE had been evaluated in this experimental model. Chemical evaluation of CAE identified carotenoids (96.28 ± 0.15 mg/100 g), phenolic compounds (37.49 ± 0.64 mg/100 g), and a mixture of anacardic acids (C15:3 = 94.2 ± 0.6 mg/100 g; C15:2 = 108.4 ± 0.1 mg/100 g; C15:1 = 214.8 ± 0.2 mg/100 g). Administration of CAE (500 mg/kg, 4 days, p.o.) after DSS challenge was more effective in delaying disease progression compared with prior treatment (500 mg/kg, 30 days, p.o.), according to the disease activity index. However, no treatment strategy with CAE was able to prevent or inhibit disease progression, since all parameters evaluated (macroscopic, biochemical, and histopathological) in CAE-treated animals were similar to those observed in DSS-challenged animals. Despite the high dose (500 mg/kg), the standardized extract (CAE) did not result in an effective concentration of carotenoids. Furthermore, as some anacardic acids have been reported as histone acetyltransferases inhibitors, there could be a possible antagonistic relationship between carotenoids and anacardic acids. Complementary research will be necessary to test the hypothesis of antagonism. Thus, an optimized extract, with an even higher concentration of carotenoids, obtained from cashew apple bagasse, can be developed as a possible adjuvant food supplement for inflammatory bowel diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Benefits of Food-Derived Bioactive Ingredients)
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14 pages, 3556 KiB  
Article
The Chemical Composition of Scaptotrigona mexicana Honey and Propolis Collected in Two Locations: Similarities and Differences
by Dessislava Gerginova, Milena Popova, Ralitsa Chimshirova, Boryana Trusheva, Maggie Shanahan, Miguel Guzmán, Erik Solorzano-Gordillo, Estefhanía López-Roblero, Marla Spivak, Svetlana Simova and Vassya Bankova
Foods 2023, 12(17), 3317; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12173317 - 3 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1269
Abstract
The chemical composition of stingless bee honey and propolis depends on the plant sources they are derived from, and thus reflects the flora available in the vicinity of the hives, the preferences of the bee species, and the climate (altitude and temperature). To [...] Read more.
The chemical composition of stingless bee honey and propolis depends on the plant sources they are derived from, and thus reflects the flora available in the vicinity of the hives, the preferences of the bee species, and the climate (altitude and temperature). To understand the relative influence of these factors, we studied the composition of honey and propolis of the stingless bee Scaptotrigona mexicana. Samples from 24 colonies were analyzed: 12 each from two S. mexicana meliponaries located in the state of Chiapas in southern Mexico, approximately 8.5 km apart, Tuxtla Chico and Cacahoatán. The chemical composition of honey and propolis was studied using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. The antioxidant activity of propolis was also studied. Chemometric analyses were applied. The Tuxtla Chico honey samples contained higher concentrations of glucose and fructose, while the Cacahoatán samples displayed a rich composition of di- and trisaccharides. These differences can be attributed to the distinct nectar sources utilized by the bees at each location. Propolis compositions in the two locations also demonstrated qualitative differences, indicating a specific choice of resins by the bees. The observed substantial variations in the chemical composition of propolis and honey of S. mexicana from two locations relatively close to each other supports the assumption that bee species cannot be considered the most important factor in determining their chemistry. Full article
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12 pages, 277 KiB  
Article
Proximate Composition and Bioactive Compounds of Cocoa Bean Shells as a By-Product from Cocoa Industries in Indonesia
by Mohamad Djali, Kimberly Santasa, Rossi Indiarto, Edy Subroto, Fetriyuna Fetriyuna and Elazmanawati Lembong
Foods 2023, 12(17), 3316; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12173316 - 3 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2205
Abstract
Cocoa bean shell (CBS) is a by-product from cocoa processing which is abundant in Indonesia, one of the largest cocoa-producing countries. It has a great potential for being processed into food ingredients due to its comparable composition to cocoa nibs. The present study [...] Read more.
Cocoa bean shell (CBS) is a by-product from cocoa processing which is abundant in Indonesia, one of the largest cocoa-producing countries. It has a great potential for being processed into food ingredients due to its comparable composition to cocoa nibs. The present study was conducted to identify the proximate composition and bioactive compounds in CBS produced at several cocoa industries in Indonesia utilizing different cocoa varieties (Criollo and Forastero) and processing techniques (fermented, non-fermented, pulp washing, and drying), which remain unknown. The results showed that the CBS derived from roasted Criollo cocoa pods in the Kendeng Lembu cocoa industry had ash and protein content of about 8.21% and 18.79%, respectively, which was higher than other industries. Additionally, the concentration of bioactive substances was higher here than it was elsewhere. This included total phenolic (136.2 mg GAE g−1) and theobromine (22.50 mg g−1). The lowest ash and protein concentration found in CBS was from Forastero cocoa pods, non-fermented like Sulawesi cocoa. These values were 6.48% and 15.70%, respectively. The concentration of theobromine (15.40 mg g−1) was also lower compared to other industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Security and Sustainability)
32 pages, 3695 KiB  
Review
Effects of Fermentation on Bioactivity and the Composition of Polyphenols Contained in Polyphenol-Rich Foods: A Review
by Fan Yang, Chao Chen, Derang Ni, Yubo Yang, Jinhu Tian, Yuanyi Li, Shiguo Chen, Xingqian Ye and Li Wang
Foods 2023, 12(17), 3315; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12173315 - 3 Sep 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3613
Abstract
Polyphenols, as common components with various functional activities in plants, have become a research hotspot. However, researchers have found that the bioavailability and bioactivity of plant polyphenols is generally low because they are usually in the form of tannins, anthocyanins and glycosides. Polyphenol-rich [...] Read more.
Polyphenols, as common components with various functional activities in plants, have become a research hotspot. However, researchers have found that the bioavailability and bioactivity of plant polyphenols is generally low because they are usually in the form of tannins, anthocyanins and glycosides. Polyphenol-rich fermented foods (PFFs) are reported to have better bioavailability and bioactivity than polyphenol-rich foods, because polyphenols are used as substrates during food fermentation and are hydrolyzed into smaller phenolic compounds (such as quercetin, kaempferol, gallic acid, ellagic acid, etc.) with higher bioactivity and bioavailability by polyphenol-associated enzymes (PAEs, e.g., tannases, esterases, phenolic acid decarboxylases and glycosidases). Biotransformation pathways of different polyphenols by PAEs secreted by different microorganisms are different. Meanwhile, polyphenols could also promote the growth of beneficial bacteria during the fermentation process while inhibiting the growth of pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, during the fermentation of PFFs, there must be an interactive relationship between polyphenols and microorganisms. The present study is an integration and analysis of the interaction mechanism between PFFs and microorganisms and is systematically elaborated. The present study will provide some new insights to explore the bioavailability and bioactivity of polyphenol-rich foods and greater exploitation of the availability of functional components (such as polyphenols) in plant-derived foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Polyphenols in Foods)
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14 pages, 3262 KiB  
Article
Dandelion (Taraxacum mongolicum) Extract Alleviated H2O2-Induced Oxidative Damage: The Underlying Mechanism Revealed by Metabolomics and Lipidomics
by Yannan Chen, Siyuan Fei, Xiaoting Yu and Mingqian Tan
Foods 2023, 12(17), 3314; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12173314 - 3 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1269
Abstract
Dandelion has received wide attention in food and medicine fields due to its excellent antioxidant properties. Nonetheless, the underlying mechanism of this action has not yet been fully clarified, particularly at the metabolic level. Herein, the effects of dandelion extract (DE) on H [...] Read more.
Dandelion has received wide attention in food and medicine fields due to its excellent antioxidant properties. Nonetheless, the underlying mechanism of this action has not yet been fully clarified, particularly at the metabolic level. Herein, the effects of dandelion extract (DE) on H2O2-induced oxidative damage was investigated. The results indicate that the DE alleviated H2O2-induced cell damage (increased by 14.5% compared to H2O2 group), reduced the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level (decreased by 80.1% compared to H2O2 group), maintained the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) level, and increased antioxidant-related enzyme activities. Importantly, the metabolic response of PC12 cells indicates that H2O2 disturbed phospholipid metabolism and damaged cell membrane integrity. In addition, energy metabolism, the central nervous system, and the antioxidant-related metabolism pathway were perturbed. In contrast, DE rescued the H2O2-induced metabolic disorder and further alleviated oxidative damage. Collectively, these findings provide valuable stepping stones for a discussion of the mechanism and show the promise of DE as a suitable additive for functional food products. Full article
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22 pages, 2867 KiB  
Article
Fast and Simple UPLC–Q-TOF MS Method for Determination of Bitter Flavan-3-ols and Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins: Impact of Vegetable Protein Fining Agents on Red Wine Composition
by Lara Dias, Juliana Milheiro, Miguel Ribeiro, Cristina Fernandes, Nuno Neves, Luís Filipe-Ribeiro, Fernanda Cosme and Fernando M. Nunes
Foods 2023, 12(17), 3313; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12173313 - 2 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1432
Abstract
Wine phenolic compounds, particularly proanthocyanidins (PAs), play a significant role in wine sensory characteristics, specifically bitterness and astringency. Although not consensual, flavan-3-ols and oligomeric PAs are generally considered the primary contributors to wine bitterness. Patatin, a vegetable protein fining agent, has been explored [...] Read more.
Wine phenolic compounds, particularly proanthocyanidins (PAs), play a significant role in wine sensory characteristics, specifically bitterness and astringency. Although not consensual, flavan-3-ols and oligomeric PAs are generally considered the primary contributors to wine bitterness. Patatin, a vegetable protein fining agent, has been explored as an alternative to animal and synthetic fining agents for reducing wine bitterness. However, contradictory results exist regarding its effectiveness in removing flavan-3-ols and oligomeric PAs in red wines. In this work, a UPLC–Q-TOF MS/MS method was optimized and validated for accurately measuring flavan-3-ols, as well as dimeric and trimeric PAs, in red wines. The MS/MS analysis of flavan-3-ols, in addition to the typical fragmentation described in the literature, revealed an intense mass fragment resulting from the loss of C3O2 and C3O2 + H2O from the parent ion. It was observed that flavan-3-ols and PAs undergo oxidation during sample preparation, which was reversed by the addition of 5 g/L of ascorbic acid. The method demonstrated good linearity range (2 mg/L to 20 mg/L), detection limit (0.3 mg/L to 0.7 mg/L), quantification limit (0.8 mg/L to 2.2 mg/L), precision (repeatability 2.2% to 7.3%), and accuracy (recovery 98.5% to 100.5%). The application of patatin at different doses (5 g/L to 30 g/L) in two different red wine matrices did not reduce the levels of monomeric, dimeric, and trimeric PAs in red wines. However, similar behaviors were observed for pea protein and gelatin. Therefore, wine fining trials and efficiency measurements of the treatments in each matrix are strongly advised. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Drinks and Liquid Nutrition)
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18 pages, 4981 KiB  
Article
Chestnut Shell Polyphenols Inhibit the Growth of Three Food-Spoilage Bacteria by Regulating Key Enzymes of Metabolism
by Xinfang Wang, Yue Li, Suwen Liu, Hao Wang, Xuedong Chang and Jingzheng Zhang
Foods 2023, 12(17), 3312; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12173312 - 2 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1398
Abstract
The microbial contamination of food poses a threat to human health. Chestnut shells, which are byproducts of chestnut processing, contain polyphenols that exert various physiological effects, and thus have the potential to be used in food preservation. This study investigates the bacteriostatic effect [...] Read more.
The microbial contamination of food poses a threat to human health. Chestnut shells, which are byproducts of chestnut processing, contain polyphenols that exert various physiological effects, and thus have the potential to be used in food preservation. This study investigates the bacteriostatic effect and mechanism(s) of the action of chestnut shell polyphenols (CSPs) on three food-spoilage bacteria, namely Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas fragi, and Escherichia coli. To this end, the effect of CSPs on the ultrastructure of each bacterium was determined using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, gene expression was analyzed using RT-qPCR. Subsequent molecular docking analysis was employed to elucidate the mechanism of action employed by CSPs via the inhibition of key enzymes. Ultrastructure analysis showed that CSPs damaged the bacterial cell wall and increased permeability. At 0.313 mg/mL, CSPs significantly increased the activity of alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase, as well as protein leakage (p < 0.05), whereas the activity of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzymes, isocitrate dehydrogenase and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, were inhibited (p < 0.05). The expression levels of the TCA-related genes gltA, icd, sucA, atpA, citA, odhA, IS178_RS16090, and IS178_RS16290 are also significantly downregulated by CSP treatment (p < 0.05). Moreover, CSPs inhibit respiration and energy metabolism, including ATPase activity and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis (p < 0.05). Molecular docking determined that proanthocyanidins B1 and C1, the main components of CSPs, are responsible for the antibacterial activity. Therefore, as natural antibacterial substances, CSPs have considerable potential for development and application as natural food preservatives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
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16 pages, 509 KiB  
Article
Low-Temperature Vacuum Drying on Broccoli: Enhanced Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Properties Regarding Other Drying Methods
by Antonio Vega-Galvez, Elsa Uribe, Alexis Pasten, Javiera Camus, Michelle Rojas, Vivian Garcia, Michael Araya, Gabriela Valenzuela-Barra, Angara Zambrano and Maria Gabriela Goñi
Foods 2023, 12(17), 3311; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12173311 - 2 Sep 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1780
Abstract
Low-temperature vacuum drying (LTVD) has shown great potential for drying vegetables. It could avoid excessive degradations of active compounds with potential therapeutic agents. In this study, the effect on several relevant bioactive compounds, anti-inflammatory activity, and anti-proliferative activity of broccoli (Brassica oleracea [...] Read more.
Low-temperature vacuum drying (LTVD) has shown great potential for drying vegetables. It could avoid excessive degradations of active compounds with potential therapeutic agents. In this study, the effect on several relevant bioactive compounds, anti-inflammatory activity, and anti-proliferative activity of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) were evaluated. Effects of other drying methods, including vacuum drying (VD), convective drying (CD), infrared drying (IRD), and freeze drying (FD), were also comparatively evaluated. The results of all dried samples showed high polyunsaturated fatty acid contents (of up to 71.3%) and essential amino acid contents (of up to 8.63%). The LTVD method stands out above the other drying methods, since it obtained the highest content of total phenols, chlorogenic acid, and ferulic acid. Both the LTVD and CD samples demonstrated high anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities. These CD and LTVD samples were also the most active against the breast carcinoma MDA-MB-23 cell line. Due to the good retention of bioactive compounds via LTVD, the obtained dried broccoli here can be used in a near time as an ingredient for the development of novel natural products with anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Bioactive Compounds from Food on Human Health)
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16 pages, 1378 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Impact of Human–Animal Connections and Trust in Labeling Consumers’ Intentions to Buy Cage-Free Eggs: Findings from Taiwan
by Min-Yen Chang, Ching-Tzu Chao and Han-Shen Chen
Foods 2023, 12(17), 3310; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12173310 - 2 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1852
Abstract
Recently, interest in animal welfare has steadily increased, driven by a growing focus on environmental, social, and governance (ESG) issues. This trend aligns with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) set by the United Nations. This underscores the importance of comprehending consumer attitudes towards [...] Read more.
Recently, interest in animal welfare has steadily increased, driven by a growing focus on environmental, social, and governance (ESG) issues. This trend aligns with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) set by the United Nations. This underscores the importance of comprehending consumer attitudes towards products that are respectful to animal welfare. This research aims to employ the Value-Attitude-Behavior (VAB) model as a theoretical basis to explore the behavioral intentions of Taiwanese consumers to buy cage-free eggs. To provide comprehensive insights into consumer behavior in this domain, the study examines key variables such as ‘human–nature connectedness’, ‘trust in labels’, and ‘attitude towards animal welfare’. By addressing an existing research gap in the literature and exploring consumer behavior in relation to animal welfare-friendly products, the research contributes to an area that has received limited attention. We gathered a total of 341 valid questionnaires for this research. Employing Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) along with Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE), we investigated the causal connections between variables. The study presents three key observations: First, consumers who value sustainability and ethics tend to maintain a positive perspective on free-range eggs. Second, a favorable stance towards cage-free eggs directly correlates with positive future behaviors. Lastly, label trustworthiness and a supportive view towards animal welfare heavily affect behavioral intentions in consumers. Given these insights and the growing significance of animal welfare in consumer choices, we recommend that participants in the food and livestock sector earnestly advocate for and back practices that prioritize animal well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insights into Food Perception and Consumer Behavior)
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13 pages, 2419 KiB  
Article
Heme Oxygenase 1-Mediated Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Extract from the Aerial Part of Heracleum moellendorffii Hance
by Hyun Young Jang and Syng-Ook Lee
Foods 2023, 12(17), 3309; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12173309 - 2 Sep 2023
Viewed by 913
Abstract
In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of a methanolic extract from the aerial part of Heracleum moellendorffii Hance (HmAPE) and its underlying mechanisms were investigated. HmAPE demonstrated a significant reduction in nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells, and HmAPE [...] Read more.
In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of a methanolic extract from the aerial part of Heracleum moellendorffii Hance (HmAPE) and its underlying mechanisms were investigated. HmAPE demonstrated a significant reduction in nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells, and HmAPE decreased the protein and mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Further mechanistic studies on inflammatory signaling pathways revealed that HmAPE-mediated downregulation of inflammatory gene expressions was not associated with mitogen-activated protein kinases or nuclear factor-κB signaling pathways. However, HmAPE treatment activated nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and upregulated heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression, which is known to suppress pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Additionally, treatment with a selective HO-1 inhibitor, tin protoporphyrin IX, partially reversed the effects of HmAPE in LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells, indicating that HmAPE inhibited LPS-induced NO production, at least in part, through induction of Nrf2-mediated HO-1 expression. These findings suggest that HmAPE could serve as a potential edible source with anti-inflammatory properties, and further studies are required to ascertain its anti-inflammatory efficacy in vivo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Development of New Functional Foods and Ingredients)
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23 pages, 793 KiB  
Review
Edible Coatings and Future Trends in Active Food Packaging–Fruits’ and Traditional Sausages’ Shelf Life Increasing
by Catarina Nunes, Mafalda Silva, Diana Farinha, Hélia Sales, Rita Pontes and João Nunes
Foods 2023, 12(17), 3308; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12173308 - 2 Sep 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 5852
Abstract
The global food production industry faces environmental concerns exacerbated by substantial food waste. European countries are striving to reduce food waste towards a circular bioeconomy and sustainable development. To address environmental issues and reduce plastic waste, researchers are developing sustainable active packaging systems, [...] Read more.
The global food production industry faces environmental concerns exacerbated by substantial food waste. European countries are striving to reduce food waste towards a circular bioeconomy and sustainable development. To address environmental issues and reduce plastic waste, researchers are developing sustainable active packaging systems, including edible packaging made from industry residues. These innovations aim to increase food safety and quality, extend shelf life, and reduce plastic and food waste. Particularly important in the context of the growing demand for fresh and minimally processed fruits, edible coatings have emerged as a potential solution that offers numerous advantages in maintaining fruit quality. In addition to fruit, edible coatings have also been investigated for animal-based foods to meet the demand for high-quality, chemical-free food and extended shelf life. These products globally consumed can be susceptible to the growth of harmful microorganisms and spoilage. One of the main advantages of using edible coatings is their ability to preserve meat quality and freshness by reducing undesirable physicochemical changes, such as color, texture, and moisture loss. Furthermore, edible coatings also contribute to the development of a circular bioeconomy, promoting sustainability in the food industry. This paper reviews the antimicrobial edible coatings investigated in recent years in minimally processed fruits and traditional sausages. It also approaches bionanocomposites as a recently emerged technology with potential application in food quality and safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Packaging and Preservation)
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16 pages, 2184 KiB  
Review
The Principle of Steam Explosion Technology and Its Application in Food Processing By-Products
by Changrong Wang, Mengfan Lin, Qingyu Yang, Chenying Fu and Zebin Guo
Foods 2023, 12(17), 3307; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12173307 - 2 Sep 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2064
Abstract
Steam explosion technology is an emerging pretreatment method that has shown great promise for food processing due to its ability to efficiently destroy the natural barrier structure of materials. This narrative review summarizes the principle of steam explosion technology, its similarities and differences [...] Read more.
Steam explosion technology is an emerging pretreatment method that has shown great promise for food processing due to its ability to efficiently destroy the natural barrier structure of materials. This narrative review summarizes the principle of steam explosion technology, its similarities and differences with traditional screw extrusion technology, and the factors that affect the technology. In addition, we reviewed the applications in food processing by-products in recent years. The results of the current study indicate that moderate steam explosion treatment can improve the quality and extraction rate of the target products. Finally, we provided an outlook on the development of steam explosion technology with a reference for a wider application of this technology in the food processing field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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16 pages, 321 KiB  
Article
Effect of Germination on Fatty Acid Composition in Cereal Grains
by Fadwa Al-Taher and Boris Nemzer
Foods 2023, 12(17), 3306; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12173306 - 2 Sep 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1982
Abstract
Sprouted grains are gaining popularity as functional food ingredients. This study aimed to evaluate the lipid and fatty acid composition of eight sprouted grains (millet, amaranth, quinoa, wheat, rye, barley, buckwheat, and oat). The method used was germination for up to 72 h [...] Read more.
Sprouted grains are gaining popularity as functional food ingredients. This study aimed to evaluate the lipid and fatty acid composition of eight sprouted grains (millet, amaranth, quinoa, wheat, rye, barley, buckwheat, and oat). The method used was germination for up to 72 h at temperatures ranging from 19–23 °C. In general, the lipid content increased in the various grains sprouted, providing a rich source of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The % oil yield ranged from 1.17 ± 0.02% in sprouted rye to 5.71 ± 0.26% in sprouted amaranth. Germinated oat showed the greatest increase in fat content, 54.3%, compared to the control. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were more prevalent in whole grains (46.9–75.6%) than saturated fatty acids (10.1–25.9%) and increased with sprouting. The primary fatty acids detected in the grains, in order of abundance, were linoleic, oleic, palmitic, linolenic, and stearic acids. Millet sprouts contained the lowest total saturated fatty acids and the highest polyunsaturated fatty acids. Amaranth had the highest amount of saturated fatty acids, while buckwheat contained the lowest quantity of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The lowest omega-6/omega-3 ratio was 7 to 1 in sprouted rye and 8 to 1 in sprouted barley. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Lipids — Chemistry, Nutrition and Biotechnology)
14 pages, 2742 KiB  
Article
Aerotolerance and Multi-Locus Sequence Typing of Campylobacter jejuni Isolated from Commercial Broiler Processing Plants
by Diksha Pokhrel, Hudson T. Thames, Li Zhang, Thu Dinh, M. Wes Schilling, Shecoya White, Reshma Ramachandran and Anuraj T. Sukumaran
Foods 2023, 12(17), 3305; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12173305 - 2 Sep 2023
Viewed by 810
Abstract
Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading causes of acute diarrhea in the United States. Despite being a microaerophilic pathogen, C. jejuni continues to endure within the domain of food production, especially in poultry processing. Recent research on aerotolerance indicates that close monitoring [...] Read more.
Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading causes of acute diarrhea in the United States. Despite being a microaerophilic pathogen, C. jejuni continues to endure within the domain of food production, especially in poultry processing. Recent research on aerotolerance indicates that close monitoring of this pathogen is necessary. A total of 40 C. jejuni isolates previously obtained from commercial broiler processing plants were analyzed for aerotolerance and genetic diversity. In addition, the effect of aerotolerance and storage time (days) on the survival of C. jejuni on broiler drumsticks at refrigeration (4 °C) and freezing conditions (−20 °C) was also evaluated. Out of 40 isolates, 25 (62.5%) were aero-sensitive (AS), 10 (25%) were intermediately aerotolerant (IAT), and 5 (12.5%) were hyper aerotolerant (HAT). The isolates belonged to four clonal complexes (CCs) and six sequence types, with the majority of isolates assigned to the CC–353 clonal complex. C. jejuni counts were reduced by 0.40 log CFU/g after 7 days at 4 °C and by 1.50 log CFU/g after 14 days at −20 °C, respectively, irrespective of aerotolerance (p < 0.001). At both refrigeration (p < 0.013) and freezing (p < 0.001), HAT showed greater reductions as compared to AS and IAT. These findings suggest that both refrigeration and freezing reduce C. jejuni counts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
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13 pages, 708 KiB  
Article
Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome According to Physical Activity, Dietary Habits, Mental Status, Social Status, Health Behavior, and Obesity Phenotypes in Korean Adolescents: 2016–2021
by Xiangxiang Dou, Yonghwan Kim and Hyunsik Chu
Foods 2023, 12(17), 3304; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12173304 - 2 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1460
Abstract
Environmental factors play a role in increasing or decreasing the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adolescents. We analyzed the impact of physical activity (PA), dietary habits, and mental and socioeconomic status on MetS prevalence in 2143 (boys: 1113, girls: 1030, age: 13–18 [...] Read more.
Environmental factors play a role in increasing or decreasing the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adolescents. We analyzed the impact of physical activity (PA), dietary habits, and mental and socioeconomic status on MetS prevalence in 2143 (boys: 1113, girls: 1030, age: 13–18 years) Korean middle- and high-school students. Metabolically healthy obesity and metabolically unhealthy normal weight were also evaluated. MetS occurred in 215 participants (10.0%), and boys had a higher MetS rate than girls. There was no significant difference in alcohol consumption and smoking experience between individuals with and those without MetS. The odds ratio (OR) for high-school students was 1.33 (95%CI, 1.001–1.789, p = 0.043) times that of middle-school students. Depression, low aerobic PA, and high sedentary time increased the ORs to 1.64 (95%CI, 1.059–2.539, p = 0.020), 1.52 (95%CI, 1.092–2.203, p = 0.003), and 1.86 (95%CI, 1.342–2.587, p < 0.001), respectively. Higher energy intake and low weekly breakfast consumption frequency yielded ORs of 1.46 (95%CI, 1.046–2.555, p = 0.025) and 1.70 (95%CI, 1.244–2.339, p = 0.011), respectively. Strength training, stress, suicidal ideation, dining out frequency, and household income did not impact MetS prevalence. Despite obesity, MetS decreased by 29.7% with high aerobic PA and 37.9% with high weekly breakfast consumption frequency. In conclusion, MetS risk was higher for men, individuals with depression, and high-school students. Low aerobic activity, high calorie intake, and low weekly breakfast consumption frequency increased MetS risk. Despite obesity, high aerobic activity, low sedentary time, and breakfast consumption was associated with lower MetS risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
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16 pages, 2861 KiB  
Article
Proteomic Identification and Characterization of Collagen from Bactrian Camel (Camelus bactrianus) Hoof
by Yingli Wang, Le Song, Chengcheng Guo and Rimutu Ji
Foods 2023, 12(17), 3303; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12173303 - 2 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1150
Abstract
With the development of camel-derived food and pharmaceutical cosmetics, camel hoof, as a unique by-product of the camel industry, has gradually attracted the attention of scientific researchers in the fields of nutrition, health care, and biomaterial development. In this study, the protein composition [...] Read more.
With the development of camel-derived food and pharmaceutical cosmetics, camel hoof, as a unique by-product of the camel industry, has gradually attracted the attention of scientific researchers in the fields of nutrition, health care, and biomaterial development. In this study, the protein composition and collagen type of Bactrian camel hoof collagen extract (CHC) were analyzed by LC-MS/MS, and the functional properties of CHC were further investigated, including its rheological characteristics, emulsification and emulsion stability, and hygroscopicity and humectancy. Proteomic identification confirmed that CHC had 13 collagen subunits, dominated by type I collagen (α1, α2), with molecular weights mainly in the 100–200 KDa range and a pI of 7.48. An amino acid study of CHC revealed that it carried the standard amino acid profile of type I collagen and was abundant in Gly, Pro, Glu, Ala, and Arg. Additionally, studies using circular dichroism spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that CHC contains a collagen-like triple helix structure that is stable and intact. Different concentrations of CHC solutions showed shear-thinning flow behavior. Its tan δ did not differ much with increasing concentration. The CHC has good emulsifying ability and stability, humectancy, and hygroscopicity. This study provides a basis for utilizing and developing Bactrian camel hoof collagen as a functional ingredient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Foodomics)
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14 pages, 2924 KiB  
Article
Investigating Structural Defects in Extra Hard Cheese Produced from Low-Temperature Centrifugation of Milk
by Luca Bettera, Marcello Alinovi, Paolo D’Incecco, Monica Gatti, Eleonora Carini, Luisa Pellegrino and Elena Bancalari
Foods 2023, 12(17), 3302; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12173302 - 2 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1140
Abstract
The present study investigated some physico-chemical and microbiological traits of 20-month ripened hard cheeses produced from low-temperature high-speed centrifuged raw milk that developed a structural defect consisting of eyes or slits in the paste. Cheeses obtained using the same process and that did [...] Read more.
The present study investigated some physico-chemical and microbiological traits of 20-month ripened hard cheeses produced from low-temperature high-speed centrifuged raw milk that developed a structural defect consisting of eyes or slits in the paste. Cheeses obtained using the same process and that did not develop the defect were used as controls. The colour, texture, moisture, water activity, proton molecular mobility, microstructure, extent of proteolysis, and viable microorganisms have been evaluated in all the cheese samples, and the significant differences between the defective and non-defective cheeses have been critically discussed. At a microstructural level, the defects caused fat coalescence and an unevenly organised protein matrix with small cracks in the proximity of the openings. The different fat organisation was correlated to a different transverse relaxation time of 1H population relaxing at higher times. The textural and colour features were not different from those of the control cheeses and were comparable with those reported in the literature for other long-ripened hard cheeses. On the other hand, the defective cheeses showed a higher moisture level and lower lactobacilli and total mesophilic bacteria concentrations, but the microbial origin of the defect remains an open hypothesis that deserves further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dairy)
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24 pages, 768 KiB  
Article
Factors Influencing Consumption Intention of Insect-Fed Fish among Italian Respondents
by Luca Mulazzani, Brunella Arru, Luca Camanzi, Roberto Furesi, Giulio Malorgio, Pietro Pulina and Fabio A. Madau
Foods 2023, 12(17), 3301; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12173301 - 2 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1821
Abstract
The rise in the world’s demand for fish is increasingly met by aquaculture. However, this sector still shows various criticalities in terms of sustainability of practices, first and foremost, that of feed availability. Nowadays, the use of insect meal represents one of the [...] Read more.
The rise in the world’s demand for fish is increasingly met by aquaculture. However, this sector still shows various criticalities in terms of sustainability of practices, first and foremost, that of feed availability. Nowadays, the use of insect meal represents one of the potential sustainable solutions, but consumption intention of fish fed with insect meal and the factors affecting it have not yet been adequately understood. This study investigates 318 Italian consumers’ intentions to buy fish fed with insect meal using an extended version of the Theory of Planned Behavior, including consumers’ moral attitude and sustainability consciousness as additional constructs. The results of structural equation models show that consumers’ high sustainability consciousness (6.16 on a scale from 1 to 7) does not influence their consumption intention of this product. Also, the two moderating variables involved in the model, i.e., the country of origin and price sensitivity, do not significantly affect consumers’ intentions. Since the analysis demonstrates that, for consumers, insect meal-fed fish conforms to their moral principles and a significant positive attitude toward this practice it could be argued that fish fed with insect meal can match the demand from consumers who feel responsible for their consumer behavior. Although the limited area of investigations and the high education of interviewed do not allow for generalizing of the results, this paper provides pivotal food for thought for companies, policymakers, and academics responding to previous research calls on understanding the role of some constructs of consumption intention and highlighting the levers on which to act to foster the consumption intention of insect-fed fish. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Security and Sustainability)
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13 pages, 1450 KiB  
Article
Toxic Elements in Beans from Zhejiang, Southeast China: Distribution and Probabilistic Health Risk Assessment
by Sha Yu, Xiao-Dong Pan and Jian-Long Han
Foods 2023, 12(17), 3300; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12173300 - 2 Sep 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1435
Abstract
This study described the distribution of As, Cd, Cr, Hg, and Pb in 692 bean samples from Zhejiang province, southeast China, and estimated the health risk using Monte Carlo simulation. The average levels of As, Cd, Cr, Hg, and Pb were 0.0349, 0.0379, [...] Read more.
This study described the distribution of As, Cd, Cr, Hg, and Pb in 692 bean samples from Zhejiang province, southeast China, and estimated the health risk using Monte Carlo simulation. The average levels of As, Cd, Cr, Hg, and Pb were 0.0349, 0.0379, 0.246, 0.0019, and 0.0246 mg kg−1. Correlation analyses showed very strong positive correlations for Cd-Pb in kidney beans and mung beans, Cd-As in black beans, and Pb-As in red beans. The target hazard quotients (THQs) were adopted for non-carcinogenic risk assessment, and THQs at the 50th percentile were all less than 1, indicating that there are no deleterious effects from rice exposure to these elements. When evaluating THQ for multiple elements, the certainty with a hazard index (HI) greater than 1 for children was 12.64%, for teens 11.54%, and for adults 1.01%. The sensitivity analysis reveals that the concentration of Cd in beans and ED (exposure duration) are the main principal factors that contributed to the total risk. The mean carcinogenic risks for children, teens, and adults were all less than 1 × 10−4, indicating no potential carcinogenic risk. Despite that, the routine monitoring of these elements, especially for Cd should be continued. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Risk Assessment and Control of Food Hazards)
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12 pages, 1260 KiB  
Article
Application of Static Headspace GC-MS Method for Selective 1,4-Dioxane Detection in Food Additives
by Myung-Chan Kim, Su-Yeon Park, Seo-Yeon Kwon, Yu-Kyeong Kim, Yeong-In Kim, Yong-Soo Seo, Sueng-Mok Cho, Eui-Cheol Shin, Jin Hong Mok and Yang-Bong Lee
Foods 2023, 12(17), 3299; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12173299 - 2 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1474
Abstract
Efficient detection methods must be developed for 1,4-dioxane due to its suspected status as a human carcinogen, which is highly mobile in food and environmental resources. In this regard, this experiment has been conducted to develop reliable and selective detection and measurement methods [...] Read more.
Efficient detection methods must be developed for 1,4-dioxane due to its suspected status as a human carcinogen, which is highly mobile in food and environmental resources. In this regard, this experiment has been conducted to develop reliable and selective detection and measurement methods by using static headspace (SH) isolation, followed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A new method was developed for determining the spiked 1,4-dioxane contents in a polyethylene glycol 600 (PEG 600). The optimal condition for SH-GC-MS was discussed. The representative ions of 1,4-dioxane and 1,4-dioxane-d8 in the SIM mode of MS are 88 and 96, respectively, and the peaks of the SIM mode were separated and confirmed. The linear range for the method covers 0.25 to 100 mg/L with a coefficient of determination (R2)  ≥  0.999. The method applicability was demonstrated by spike recovery across a variety of food additives (i.e., chlorine bitartrate, choline chloride, polysorbate 20 and 60, and PEG 1000). All spike recovery from the tested samples was in the range of 89.50–102.68% with a precision of 0.44–11.22%. These findings suggest a new analytical method for food safety inspection, and could be applicable for ensuring the safety of foods and environmental and public health on a broad scale. Full article
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18 pages, 2383 KiB  
Article
Understanding Global Rice Trade Flows: Network Evolution and Implications
by Wei Chen and Xiquan Zhao
Foods 2023, 12(17), 3298; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12173298 - 2 Sep 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2418
Abstract
Rice holds a significant position as one of the world’s most important food crops, and international trade plays a crucial role in regulating rice supply and demand. Analyzing the structural evolution of the global rice trade from a network perspective is paramount for [...] Read more.
Rice holds a significant position as one of the world’s most important food crops, and international trade plays a crucial role in regulating rice supply and demand. Analyzing the structural evolution of the global rice trade from a network perspective is paramount for understanding the global rice-trade supply chain and ensuring global food security. This study utilizes international rice-trade data from 2000 to 2021 and employs various network analysis methods to depict the spatial and temporal patterns of the global rice trade, examines the network topologies of the global rice trade, and reveals the impacts of its evolution on food security. The research findings are as follows: (1) Global rice-trade scale has increased over time, indicating a relatively stable development with the gradual formation of complex rice-trade networks. Since 2000, the global rice-trade networks have shown increasing density characterized by Asia as the primary export source and Africa as an important import market. (2) Network analysis indicators demonstrate a growing trend in the size and density of the global rice-trade networks, along with increasingly optimized network structures and improved network connectivity efficiency. Core positions in the networks are occupied by Thailand, Vietnam, India, China, Pakistan, and the United States, while import partners in European and American countries, such as Germany, France, UK, Canada, The Netherlands, and Belgium, show greater diversification. Asia, Europe, and North America form agglomeration regions for rice-exporting countries. Additionally, importing and exporting countries in the global rice-trade networks exhibit certain geographical concentrations. (3) The network backbones of the global rice trade are continuously evolving and being refined, characterized by dominant large rice-exporting countries in Asia and prominent developed countries in Europe and North America. The backbone structures revolve around India as the core, Thailand and Pakistan as the second cores, and critical nodes represented by Italy, the United States, China, and Vietnam. Regional backbone networks have also formed in Asia and Europe. Based on these findings, this paper clarifies the complex network characteristics of the global rice trade and offers insights to promote international rice-trade cooperation and safeguard global food security. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Insecurity: Causes, Consequences and Remedies)
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12 pages, 274 KiB  
Article
Examining Safe Food-Handling Knowledge, Behaviour, and Related Psychological Constructs among Individuals at Higher Risk of Food Poisoning and the General Population
by Jessica Charlesworth and Barbara A. Mullan
Foods 2023, 12(17), 3297; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12173297 - 2 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1164
Abstract
Safe food-handling knowledge and behaviour are low across the general population. This raises concerns about whether individuals at higher risk of food poisoning have sufficient safe food-handling knowledge and engage in safe food-handling practices. The aim of this study was to explore safe [...] Read more.
Safe food-handling knowledge and behaviour are low across the general population. This raises concerns about whether individuals at higher risk of food poisoning have sufficient safe food-handling knowledge and engage in safe food-handling practices. The aim of this study was to explore safe food-handling knowledge, behaviour, and related psychological constructs among individuals at higher risk of food poisoning and compare the results to the general population. Participants (N = 169) completed measures of safe food-handling knowledge, intention, habit strength, perceived risk, self-efficacy, subjective norms, and behaviour. A series of multivariate analyses of variance were conducted to determine differences in these measures between participants at higher risk of food poisoning and the general population. No significant differences in knowledge, intention, habit strength, self-efficacy, subjective norms, and behaviour were found between individuals at higher risk of food poisoning and the general population. However, individuals at higher risk of food poisoning appeared to have stronger risk perceptions across safe food-handling behaviours compared with the general population. This study demonstrated that individuals at higher risk of food poisoning do not have higher safe food-handling knowledge than the general population, and despite having higher risk perceptions around some safe food-handling behaviours, they do not differ in engagement in safe food-handling behaviours or the majority of related psychological constructs. Implications of these findings relate to the need to target other psychological constructs, not just risk perceptions, in order to see safer food-handling behaviours in high-risk populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk Perception, Communication and Behavior on Food Safety Issues)
15 pages, 3134 KiB  
Article
Recovery of Phenolic Compounds from Jackfruit Seeds Using Subcritical Water Extraction
by Ravshanbek Sultanbekovich Alibekov, Siti Mazlina Mustapa Kamal, Farah Saleena Taip, Alifdalino Sulaiman, Abdugani Mutalovich Azimov and Klara Abdyrazahovna Urazbayeva
Foods 2023, 12(17), 3296; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12173296 - 2 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1636
Abstract
Jackfruit is one of the major fruits cultivated in many Asian countries. Jackfruit seeds are generally disposed of into the environment, which causes an environmental concern that leads to biowaste accumulation. The seeds have excellent nutritional value, such as carbohydrates, protein, fats, minerals, [...] Read more.
Jackfruit is one of the major fruits cultivated in many Asian countries. Jackfruit seeds are generally disposed of into the environment, which causes an environmental concern that leads to biowaste accumulation. The seeds have excellent nutritional value, such as carbohydrates, protein, fats, minerals, and bioactive compounds. Bioactive compounds, such as phenolic, can be recovered from jackfruit seeds that could add value to the food and pharmaceutical industry. Thus, this study focused on utilizing subcritical water to extract the phenolic compounds from jackfruit seeds and correlate them with antioxidant activity (AA). The extraction of phenolic compounds was studied at different temperatures and extraction times. The highest total phenolic compounds (TPC) and AA were obtained by treating the jackfruit seed powder at 210 °C, 30 min, and 15% solid loading under subcritical water extraction (SWE) with 1.84 mg GAE/100 g (TPC) and 86% (AA). High correlation between the extracted TPC and AA of the jackfruit seed extracts was obtained (R2 = 0.96), indicating a significant positive relationship between TPC and AA. A higher amount of TPC was obtained via SWE as compared to Soxhlet extraction (1 h:0.53 mg GAE/100 g and 4 h:1.20 mg GAE/100 g). More pores were detected on the surface of the sample treated by SWE than using Soxhlet extraction. Thus, jackfruit seed extracts can be potentially beneficial in the fortification of fermented dairy or meat products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Green Extraction Technology for Foods)
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