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Electronics, Volume 8, Issue 4 (April 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The assessment of the energy potential of offshore wind turbines for specific sites is the key [...] Read more.
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
A PLL-Based Online Estimation of Induction Motor Consumption Without Electrical Measurement
Electronics 2019, 8(4), 469; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8040469
Received: 6 October 2018 / Revised: 14 April 2019 / Accepted: 17 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
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Abstract
This work is supported by a company wishing to develop new products in the field of energy monitoring in industry. It concerns the real-time estimation of the electrical consumption of an asynchronous motor without electrical measurement. The challenge consists of estimating the characteristic [...] Read more.
This work is supported by a company wishing to develop new products in the field of energy monitoring in industry. It concerns the real-time estimation of the electrical consumption of an asynchronous motor without electrical measurement. The challenge consists of estimating the characteristic quantities of the motor (speed, torque, powers, efficiency) with only one vibratory measurement, information on the nameplate and commercial documentation available online. To obtain a real-time estimate, traditional FFT analysis is replaced by a PLL initially designed for power grid analysis. So, the second challenge is to modify this PLL for use with vibratory measurement characterized by a low signal-to-noise ratio, amplitude variations and a non-stationary behavior. A complete design and experimental tests are presented to validate the proposed approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Computer Science & Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Intelligent Micro Energy Grid in 5G Era: Platforms, Business Cases, Testbeds, and Next Generation Applications
Electronics 2019, 8(4), 468; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8040468
Received: 15 April 2019 / Accepted: 23 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
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Abstract
As fifth-generation mobile communication systems give rise to new smart grid technologies, such as distributed energy resources, advanced communication systems, the Internet of Things, and big data analytics, the development of novel platforms and business models that ensure reliability and profitability of microgrid [...] Read more.
As fifth-generation mobile communication systems give rise to new smart grid technologies, such as distributed energy resources, advanced communication systems, the Internet of Things, and big data analytics, the development of novel platforms and business models that ensure reliability and profitability of microgrid operations become increasingly important. In this study, we introduce an open micro energy grid platform to operate the widely distributed microgrids in Korea. Subsequently, we present commercial microgrid business models supported by the open micro energy grid platform equipped with an artificial intelligence engine and provide test results from testbeds connected to the platform. In contrast to the existing microgrid business models in the market, we propose a universal architecture and business model of the future microgrid, comprising (i) an energy robot-management operation business model, (ii) electric vehicle-based demand response, (iii) blockchain technology for energy trading, and (iv) a service-oriented business model. Finally, we propose a new business model for an intelligent virtual power plant (VPP) operator along with the architecture of the VPP and its proof of concept (PoC). We expect the proposed business model to provide energy solution providers with guidelines to develop various VPP services. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT in 5G)
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel EMR Integrity Management Based on a Medical Blockchain Platform in Hospital
Electronics 2019, 8(4), 467; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8040467
Received: 27 March 2019 / Revised: 11 April 2019 / Accepted: 18 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
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Abstract
Recent advancements in information and communication technology is enabling a significant revolution in e-Health research and industry. In the case of personal medical data sharing, data security and convenience are crucial requirements to the interaction and collaboration of electronic medical record (EMR) systems. [...] Read more.
Recent advancements in information and communication technology is enabling a significant revolution in e-Health research and industry. In the case of personal medical data sharing, data security and convenience are crucial requirements to the interaction and collaboration of electronic medical record (EMR) systems. However, it’s hard for current systems to meet these requirements as they have inconsistent structures in terms of security policies and access control models. A new solution direction is essential to enhance data-accessing while regulating it with government mandates in privacy and security to ensure the accountability of the medical usage data. Blockchain seems to pave the way for revolution in the conventional healthcare industry benefiting by its unique features such as data privacy and transparency. In this paper, a blockchain-based medical platform using a smart contract is proposed to secure the EMR management. This approach provides patients a comprehensive, immutable log and easy access to their medical information across different departments within the hospital. A case study for hospital is built on a permissioned network, and a series of experimental tests are performed to demonstrate the usability and efficiency of the designed platform. Lastly, a benchmark study by leveraging various performance metrics is made and the outcomes indicate that the designed platform surpasses the ability of existing works in various aspects. The results of this work reveal that the proposed solution has the great potential to accelerate the development of a decentralized digital healthcare ecosystem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Computer Science & Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis and Design of a ZVT Resonant Boost Converter Using an Auxiliary Resonant Circuit
Electronics 2019, 8(4), 466; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8040466
Received: 2 April 2019 / Revised: 14 April 2019 / Accepted: 22 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
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Abstract
In this paper, a new zero voltage transition (ZVT) resonant boost converter is proposed. A typical boost converter generates switching losses at turning on and turning off, and these losses cause a reduction in the efficiency of the whole system. This proposed ZVT [...] Read more.
In this paper, a new zero voltage transition (ZVT) resonant boost converter is proposed. A typical boost converter generates switching losses at turning on and turning off, and these losses cause a reduction in the efficiency of the whole system. This proposed ZVT resonant boost converter utilizes a soft switching method, using an auxiliary circuit with a resonant inductor, capacitor, and two auxiliary switches. Therefore, it can reduce switching losses more so than the conventional hard switching converter. Also, the conduction period of the resonant inductor current is reduced by using a modified circuit. An experiment is conducted with the converter, which steps up the voltage from 200 V to 380 V and its switching frequency and output power are 30 kHz and 4 kW, respectively. It is confirmed that the experimental results and simulation results are the same and the validity of this proposed converter is verified. The conventional converter and proposed converter are analyzed by comparing the experimental results of two converters under the same conditions. It is confirmed that all switches can achieve soft switching and the proposed converter improves on the conventional converter by measuring the efficiency of two converters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Power Conversion Technologies)
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Open AccessEditorial
Applications of Power Electronics
Electronics 2019, 8(4), 465; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8040465
Received: 19 April 2019 / Accepted: 22 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
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Abstract
Power electronics technology is still an emerging technology, and it has found its way into many applications, from renewable energy generation (i [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
Open AccessArticle
A 3GS/s 12-bit Current-Steering Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC) in 55 nm CMOS Technology
Electronics 2019, 8(4), 464; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8040464
Received: 19 March 2019 / Revised: 17 April 2019 / Accepted: 23 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
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Abstract
A 3GS/s 12-bit current-steering digital-to-analog converter (DAC) fabricated in 55 nm complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) technology has been presented. A partial randomization dynamic element matching (PRDEM) method based on switching sequence optimization is proposed to mitigate the mismatch effect and suppress the harmonic distortion [...] Read more.
A 3GS/s 12-bit current-steering digital-to-analog converter (DAC) fabricated in 55 nm complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) technology has been presented. A partial randomization dynamic element matching (PRDEM) method based on switching sequence optimization is proposed to mitigate the mismatch effect and suppress the harmonic distortion with low hardware complexity. In the switching current cell, the cascode structure together with “always-ON” small current sources are used to keep the output impedance high and uniform. A compact layout of the switching current array is carefully designed, featuring short wires routing and small parasitic capacitance. According to the measured results at 3GS/s, this DAC demonstrates a spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) of 74.64 dBc at low frequency and 50 dBc at 1.5 GHz output. The chip occupies an active area of 0.2 × 0.48 mm2 and consumes a total power of 495 mW. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Semiconductors and Quantum)
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Open AccessArticle
A Rapid Accurate Recognition System for Radar Emitter Signals
Electronics 2019, 8(4), 463; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8040463
Received: 2 April 2019 / Revised: 17 April 2019 / Accepted: 22 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
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Abstract
Radar signal recognition is an indispensable part of an electronic countermeasure system. In order to solve the problem that the current techniques have, which is a low recognition rate and a slow recognition speed for radar signals, a rapid accurate recognition system is [...] Read more.
Radar signal recognition is an indispensable part of an electronic countermeasure system. In order to solve the problem that the current techniques have, which is a low recognition rate and a slow recognition speed for radar signals, a rapid accurate recognition system is proposed, especially for when multiple signals arrive at the receiver. The proposed system can recognize eight types of radar signals while separating signals: binary phase shift keying (BPSK), linear frequency modulation (LFM), Costas, Frank code, and P1–P4 codes. Regression variational mode decomposition (RVMD) is explored to separate the received signals, which saves time for parameter optimization of variational mode decomposition (VMD). Furthermore, signal separation and a noise removal technique based on VMD and the first component recognition technique based on a deep belief network (DBN) are proposed. In addition, in order to overcome the loss of the secondary component caused by signal separation, a fusion network is explored to increase the recognition rate of the secondary component in a short time. The simulation results show that the recognition system achieves an overall recognition rate of 99.5% and 94% at a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 0 dB when receiving single signals and double signals, while spending 0.8 s and 2.23 s, respectively. The proposed system can also be used to recognize medical and mechanical signals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Circuit and Signal Processing)
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Open AccessArticle
On Secrecy Performance of the Strong User in MISO-NOMA Visible Light Communication System
Electronics 2019, 8(4), 462; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8040462
Received: 24 March 2019 / Revised: 24 April 2019 / Accepted: 24 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
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Abstract
Since successive interference cancellation in non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) is enabled at the strong user to remove the signal of the weak user, if the information safety of the strong user cannot be ensured, neither can the weak user. The physical-layer security of [...] Read more.
Since successive interference cancellation in non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) is enabled at the strong user to remove the signal of the weak user, if the information safety of the strong user cannot be ensured, neither can the weak user. The physical-layer security of the strong user in a two-user multiple-input single-output (MISO)-NOMA visible light communication (VLC) system in the presence of a passive eavesdropper was studied, with multiple light-emitting diodes (LEDs) transmitting and a photodiode (PD) receiver receiving. To demonstrate the superiority of the MISO-NOMA VLC system over the SISO-NOMA VLC system, numerical simulations were made, and results show that the secrecy outage probability (SOP) performance of the strong user in the MISO-NOMA VLC system is superior to that in the SISO-NOMA VLC system. Furthermore, the SOP of the strong user depends highly on the room arrangement, the difference between the legitimate channel and eavesdropper channel, and the properties of the LEDs and PD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Visible Light (VLC) and Camera Communication)
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Open AccessArticle
Active-Model-Based Control for the Quadrotor Carrying a Changed Slung Load
Electronics 2019, 8(4), 461; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8040461
Received: 19 March 2019 / Revised: 17 April 2019 / Accepted: 18 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
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Abstract
In this paper, a simple active-model-based control scheme is developed for the quadrotor slung load (QSL) system. The scheme works to improve the rejection of the influences caused by the abruptly changed load as a complementary enhancement while maintaining the structure and parameters [...] Read more.
In this paper, a simple active-model-based control scheme is developed for the quadrotor slung load (QSL) system. The scheme works to improve the rejection of the influences caused by the abruptly changed load as a complementary enhancement while maintaining the structure and parameters of the original controller. A linearized model is first constructed with respect to the hovering state of a quadrotor. Modeling error is then introduced to describe the uncertainties caused by the load change and the simplified model. The modeling error is actively estimated by a Kalman filter (KF), while the estimation is further integrated into a normal controller, to enhance its performance of disturbance rejection. Experiments are conducted on a quadrotor controlled by the Pixhawk, which is one of the most popular controllers commercially available on the market. The improvements of the proposed scheme are shown by the comparisons between the controls with and without the active-model-based enhancement. The experiments also indicate that, with its simple structure and less computational algorithm, this active-model-based enhancement would be a feasible approach to enhance the commercial UAV controller to handle more uncertainties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Autonomous Navigation Systems for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles)
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Open AccessArticle
An INS/Geomagnetic Integrated Navigation Algorithm Based on Matching Strategy and Hierarchical Filtering
Electronics 2019, 8(4), 460; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8040460
Received: 11 March 2019 / Revised: 20 April 2019 / Accepted: 22 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
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Abstract
To improve the positioning accuracy of an inertial/geomagnetic integrated navigation algorithm, a combined navigation method based on matching strategy and hierarchical filtering is proposed. First, the PDA-ICCP geomagnetic matching algorithm is improved. On basis of evaluating the distribution of magnetic measurements, a number [...] Read more.
To improve the positioning accuracy of an inertial/geomagnetic integrated navigation algorithm, a combined navigation method based on matching strategy and hierarchical filtering is proposed. First, the PDA-ICCP geomagnetic matching algorithm is improved. On basis of evaluating the distribution of magnetic measurements, a number of controllable magnetic values are regenerated to participate in the geomagnetic matching algorithm (GMA). As a result, accuracy of the matching algorithm is ensured and its efficiency is improved. Secondly, the integrated navigation filter is designed based on the hierarchical filtering strategy, in which the navigation information of the geomagnetic matching module and inertial navigation module are respectively filtered and fused in the main filter. In this way, the shortcoming that GMA is unable to provide continuous and real-time navigation information is overcome. Meanwhile, precision of the inertial/geomagnetic integrated navigation algorithm is improved. Finally, the feasibility and validity of the proposed algorithm are verified by simulation and physical experiments. Compared with the integrated filtering algorithm which directly uses the error equation of inertial navigation system (INS) as the state equation, the proposed hierarchical filtering algorithm can achieve higher positioning precision. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microwave and Wireless Communications)
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Open AccessArticle
AN-Aided Secure Beamforming in Power-Splitting-Enabled SWIPT MIMO Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks
Electronics 2019, 8(4), 459; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8040459
Received: 4 March 2019 / Revised: 8 April 2019 / Accepted: 17 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
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Abstract
In this paper, we investigate the physical layer security in a two-tier heterogeneous wireless sensor network (HWSN) depending on simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) approach for multiuser multiple-input multiple-output wiretap channels with artificial noise (AN) transmission, where a more general system [...] Read more.
In this paper, we investigate the physical layer security in a two-tier heterogeneous wireless sensor network (HWSN) depending on simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) approach for multiuser multiple-input multiple-output wiretap channels with artificial noise (AN) transmission, where a more general system framework of HWSN only includes a macrocell and a femtocell. For the sake of implementing security enhancement and green communications, the joint optimization problem of the secure beamforming vector at the macrocell and femtocell, the AN vector, and the power splitting ratio is modeled to maximize the minimal secrecy capacity of the wiretapped macrocell sensor nodes (M-SNs) while considering the fairness among multiple M-SNs. To reduce the performance loss of the rank relaxation from the SDR technique while solving the non-convex max–min program, we apply successive convex approximation (SCA) technique, first-order Taylor series expansion and sequential parametric convex approximation (SPCA) approach to transform the max–min program to a second order cone programming (SOCP) problem to iterate to a near-optimal solution. In addition, we propose a novel SCA-SPCA-based iterative algorithm while its convergence property is proved. The simulation shows that our SCA-SPCA-based method outperforms the conventional methods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Narrowband Interference Separation for Synthetic Aperture Radar via Sensing Matrix Optimization-Based Block Sparse Bayesian Learning
Electronics 2019, 8(4), 458; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8040458
Received: 28 March 2019 / Revised: 22 April 2019 / Accepted: 23 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
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Abstract
High-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) operating with a large bandwidth is subject to impacts from various kinds of narrowband interference (NBI) in complex electromagnetic environments. Recently, many radio frequency interference (RFI) suppression approaches for SAR based on sparse recovery have been proposed and [...] Read more.
High-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) operating with a large bandwidth is subject to impacts from various kinds of narrowband interference (NBI) in complex electromagnetic environments. Recently, many radio frequency interference (RFI) suppression approaches for SAR based on sparse recovery have been proposed and demonstrated to outperform traditional ones in preserving the signal of interest (SOI) while suppressing the interference by exploiting their intrinsic structures. In particular, the joint recovery strategy of SOI and NBI with a cascaded dictionary, which eliminates the steps of NBI reconstruction and time-domain cancellation, can further reduce unnecessary system complexity. However, these sparsity-based approaches hardly work effectively for signals from an extended target or NBI with a certain bandwidth, since neither of them is sparse in a prescient domain. Moreover, sub-dictionaries corresponding to different components in the cascaded matrix are not strictly independent, which severely limits the performance of separated reconstruction. In this paper, we present an enhanced NBI separation algorithm for SAR via sensing matrix optimization-based block sparse Bayesian learning (SMO-BSBL) to solve these problems above. First, we extend the block sparse Bayesian learning framework to a complex-valued domain for the convenience of radar signal processing with lower computation complexity and modify it to deal with the separation problem of NBI in the contaminated echo. For the sake of improving the separated reconstruction performance, we propose a new block coherence measure by defining the external and internal block structure, which is used for optimizing the observation matrix. The optimized observation matrix is then employed to reconstruct SOI and NBI simultaneously under the modified BSBL framework, given a known and fixed cascaded dictionary. Numerical simulation experiments and comparison results demonstrate that the proposed SMO-BSBL is effective and superior to other advanced algorithms in NBI suppression for SAR. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Simplified Optimal-Switching-Sequence MPC with Finite-Control-Set Moving Horizon Optimization for Grid-Connected Inverter
Electronics 2019, 8(4), 457; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8040457
Received: 15 March 2019 / Revised: 13 April 2019 / Accepted: 22 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
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Abstract
Optimal-switching-sequence model-predictive-control (OSS-MPC) strategy, a popular kind of continuous-control-set MPC (CCS-MPC), has been used to address the variable frequency of finite-control-set MPC (FCS-MPC). Since the digital signal processor (DSP) does not have a dedicated divider, it requires a large amount of computation for [...] Read more.
Optimal-switching-sequence model-predictive-control (OSS-MPC) strategy, a popular kind of continuous-control-set MPC (CCS-MPC), has been used to address the variable frequency of finite-control-set MPC (FCS-MPC). Since the digital signal processor (DSP) does not have a dedicated divider, it requires a large amount of computation for the division operations in OSS searching. Here, a simplified OSS-MPC absorbing the merits of FCS-MPC is proposed to reduce the computational burden of conventional OSS-MPC. The proposed method uses a novel cost function whose candidates are the finite center vectors instead of switching sequences, which can avoid duty cycle computation and convert the moving horizon optimization of CCS-MPC into that of FCS-MPC. Besides, the derivatives of the active and reactive powers are divided into the constant terms and variable terms. The constant terms are extracted from the cost function. Experimental and simulation results show that the computational amount of the proposed algorithm is only 36.34% of that of the conventional OSS-MPC. Meanwhile, the simplified OSS-MPC still maintains the excellent dynamic and steady state performance of conventional OSS-MPC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Power Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle
Control of Internal Dynamics of Grid-Connected Modular Multilevel Converter Using an Integral Backstepping Controller
Electronics 2019, 8(4), 456; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8040456
Received: 13 March 2019 / Revised: 11 April 2019 / Accepted: 20 April 2019 / Published: 24 April 2019
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Abstract
The modular multilevel converter (MMC) has significant applications in power systems due to its promising features, such as modularity, reliability, scalability, and low harmonic distortion. One of the challenges in the operation of MMC is to regulate the circulating current in its phase [...] Read more.
The modular multilevel converter (MMC) has significant applications in power systems due to its promising features, such as modularity, reliability, scalability, and low harmonic distortion. One of the challenges in the operation of MMC is to regulate the circulating current in its phase leg and sub module (SM) capacitor voltage. This paper presents the control of internal dynamics, i.e., circulating current and submodule capacitor voltage, of the MMC using an integral backstepping algorithm. The design of the controller is based on Lyapunov stability function. The backstepping control ensures the convergence of the error signal to zero. Additionally, the integral action in the control law increases the robustness and reliability of the system against the external disturbances and model uncertainties. Moreover, the integral term in the controller eliminates the residual steady-state error. The Lyapunov function-based design of the backstepping controller guarantees the convergence of circulating current as well as submodule capacitor voltage for any possible initial condition. Moreover, the performance of the proposed integral backstepping controller is compared with the proportional resonant (PR) controller. The proposed backstepping control scheme for three-phase MMC has been implemented in MATLAB/Simulink. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Quality in Smart Grids)
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Open AccessArticle
Secure Intelligent Vehicular Network Using Fog Computing
Electronics 2019, 8(4), 455; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8040455
Received: 16 February 2019 / Revised: 16 April 2019 / Accepted: 18 April 2019 / Published: 24 April 2019
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Abstract
VANET (vehicular ad hoc network) has a main objective to improve driver safety and traffic efficiency. The intermittent exchange of real-time safety message delivery in VANET has become an urgent concern due to DoS (denial of service) and smart and normal intrusions (SNI) [...] Read more.
VANET (vehicular ad hoc network) has a main objective to improve driver safety and traffic efficiency. The intermittent exchange of real-time safety message delivery in VANET has become an urgent concern due to DoS (denial of service) and smart and normal intrusions (SNI) attacks. The intermittent communication of VANET generates huge amount of data which requires typical storage and intelligence infrastructure. Fog computing (FC) plays an important role in storage, computation, and communication needs. In this research, fog computing (FC) integrates with hybrid optimization algorithms (OAs) including the Cuckoo search algorithm (CSA), firefly algorithm (FA), firefly neural network, and the key distribution establishment (KDE) for authenticating both the network level and the node level against all attacks for trustworthiness in VANET. The proposed scheme is termed “Secure Intelligent Vehicular Network using fog computing” (SIVNFC). A feedforward back propagation neural network (FFBP-NN), also termed the firefly neural, is used as a classifier to distinguish between the attacking vehicles and genuine vehicles. The SIVNFC scheme is compared with the Cuckoo, the FA, and the firefly neural network to evaluate the quality of services (QoS) parameters such as jitter and throughput. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicular Networks and Communications)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Modulation Strategy with a Minimal Number of Commutations for a Five-Level H-Bridge NPC Inverter
Electronics 2019, 8(4), 454; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8040454
Received: 13 February 2019 / Revised: 17 April 2019 / Accepted: 18 April 2019 / Published: 23 April 2019
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Abstract
In this paper, a so-called OPTimized Pulse Width Modulation (OPT-PWM) strategy with a minimal number of commutations for a multilevel converter (MC) is proposed. The principle is based on the reduction of the number of switch commutations by removing the unnecessary ones for [...] Read more.
In this paper, a so-called OPTimized Pulse Width Modulation (OPT-PWM) strategy with a minimal number of commutations for a multilevel converter (MC) is proposed. The principle is based on the reduction of the number of switch commutations by removing the unnecessary ones for each voltage level transition. The OPT-PWM strategy is applied to a five-level H-Bridge Neutral Point Clamped (HB-5L-NPC) inverter. A specific block based on a state machine is added to conventional modulation techniques to perform the transitions from a given voltage level to another one via the best trajectory with a minimal number of commutations. The principle of this additional block can be applied to any modulation technique. In this paper, the proposed strategy is validated first by simulation and then through experimental tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Converters in Power Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle
A Vehicle Type Dependent Car-following Model Based on Naturalistic Driving Study
Electronics 2019, 8(4), 453; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8040453
Received: 8 March 2019 / Revised: 17 April 2019 / Accepted: 19 April 2019 / Published: 23 April 2019
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Abstract
In this paper, a car-following model considering the preceding vehicle type is proposed to describe the longitudinal driving behavior closer to reality. Based on the naturalistic driving data sampled in real traffic for more than half a year, the relation between ego vehicle [...] Read more.
In this paper, a car-following model considering the preceding vehicle type is proposed to describe the longitudinal driving behavior closer to reality. Based on the naturalistic driving data sampled in real traffic for more than half a year, the relation between ego vehicle velocity and relative distance was analyzed by a multi-variable Gaussian Mixture model, from which it is found that the driver following behavior is influenced by the type of leading vehicle. Then a Hidden Markov model was designed to identify the vehicle type. This car-following model was trained and tested by using the naturalistic driving data. It can identify the leading vehicle type, i.e., passenger car, bus, and truck, and predict the ego vehicle velocity and relative distance based on a series of limited historical data in real time. The experimental validation results show that the identification accuracy of vehicle type under the static and dynamical conditions are 96.6% and 83.1%, respectively. Furthermore, comparing the results with the well-known collision avoidance model and intelligent driver model show that this new model is more accurate and can be used to design advanced driver assist systems for better adaptability to traffic conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS))
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Open AccessFeature PaperEditorial
Autonomous Control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
Electronics 2019, 8(4), 452; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8040452
Received: 12 April 2019 / Accepted: 15 April 2019 / Published: 22 April 2019
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Abstract
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are being increasingly used in different applications in both military and civilian domains [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Autonomous Control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles)
Open AccessArticle
Multi-Channel Optoelectronic Measurement System for Soil Nutrients Analysis
Electronics 2019, 8(4), 451; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8040451
Received: 18 March 2019 / Revised: 17 April 2019 / Accepted: 18 April 2019 / Published: 20 April 2019
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Abstract
To solve the problems that occur when farmers overuse chemical fertilizers, it is necessary to develop rapid and efficient portable measurement systems for the detection and quantification of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) in soil. Challenges arise from the use of [...] Read more.
To solve the problems that occur when farmers overuse chemical fertilizers, it is necessary to develop rapid and efficient portable measurement systems for the detection and quantification of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) in soil. Challenges arise from the use of currently available portable instruments which only have a few channels, namely measurement and the reference channels. We report on a home-built, multichannel, optoelectronic measurement system with automatically switching light sources for the detection of N, P, K content in soil samples. This optoelectronic measurement system consists of joint LED light sources with peak emission wavelengths of 405 nm, 660 nm, and 515 nm, a photodiode array, a circuit board with a microcontroller unit (MCU), and a liquid-crystal display (LCD) touch screen. The straightforward principle for rapid detection of the extractable nutrients (N, P, K) was well-established, and characterization of the designed measurement system was done. Using this multi-channel measurement system, available nutrients extracted from six soil samples could be measured simultaneously. The absorbance compensation, concentration calibration, and nutrition measurements were performed automatically to achieve high consistency across six channels. The experimental results showed that the cumulative relative standard deviations of 1.22%, 1.27%, and 1.00% were obtained from six channels with known concentrations of standard solutions, respectively. The coefficients of correlation for the detection of extracted nutrients of N, P, K content in soil samples using both the proposed method and conventional lab-based method were 0.9010, 0.9471, and 0.8923, respectively. Experimental results show that this optoelectronic measurement system can perform the measurement of N, P, K contents of six soil samples simultaneously and may be used as an actual tool in determining nutrients in soil samples with an improvement in detection efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Biometrics and its Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
A Privacy-Preserving Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme with Deniability for IoT
Electronics 2019, 8(4), 450; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8040450
Received: 23 March 2019 / Revised: 13 April 2019 / Accepted: 15 April 2019 / Published: 19 April 2019
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Abstract
User authentication for the Internet of Things (IoT) is a vital measure as it consists of numerous unattended connected devices and sensors. For security, only the user authenticated by the gateway node can access the real-time data gathered by sensor nodes. In this [...] Read more.
User authentication for the Internet of Things (IoT) is a vital measure as it consists of numerous unattended connected devices and sensors. For security, only the user authenticated by the gateway node can access the real-time data gathered by sensor nodes. In this article, an efficient privacy-preserving authentication and key agreement scheme for IoT is developed which enables the user, the gateway node and sensor nodes to authenticate with each other. Only the trusted gateway node can determine the real identity of user; however, no other entities can get information about user’ identity by just intercepting all exchanged messages during authentication phase. The gateway cannot prove the received messages from the sender to a third party, and thus preserving the privacy of the sender. The correctness of the proposed scheme is proved to be feasible by using BAN logic, and its security is proved under the random oracle model. The execution time of the proposed scheme is evaluated and compared with existing similar schemes, and the results demonstrate that our proposed scheme is more efficient and applicable for IoT applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT in 5G)
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Open AccessArticle
A Capacitor Voltage Balancing Approach Based on Mapping Strategy for MMC Applications
Electronics 2019, 8(4), 449; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8040449
Received: 20 March 2019 / Revised: 13 April 2019 / Accepted: 15 April 2019 / Published: 19 April 2019
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Abstract
This paper proposes a new strategy to achieve balanced capacitor voltages in modular multilevel converters. Among the possible solutions, centralized arm control approaches are often adopted. These methods require a balancing technique based on a sorted list of the sub-modules according to their [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a new strategy to achieve balanced capacitor voltages in modular multilevel converters. Among the possible solutions, centralized arm control approaches are often adopted. These methods require a balancing technique based on a sorted list of the sub-modules according to their capacitor voltages. In order to achieve the aforementioned sorted list, different algorithms have been proposed in literature, such as: Sorting algorithms, max/min approaches, etc. However, the sorting algorithms require a long execution time, while the max/min approaches affect the converter dynamic response during faults. To overcome these issues, a new mapping strategy providing a quasi-sorted list is proposed in this paper. The suggested method is compared in simulation with both the classical bubble sorting algorithm, and the max/min method during both normal and faulty conditions. Moreover, the three methods have been implemented in a Xilinx Zynq-7000 System-on-Chip (SoC) device, in order to analyze the corresponding execution time and the required computational effort. Hardware-in-the-loop results are presented for demonstrating the superior performance of the proposed balancing strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Power Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle
Performance Analysis of a User Selection Protocol in Cooperative Networks with Power Splitting Protocol-Based Energy Harvesting Over Nakagami-m/Rayleigh Channels
Electronics 2019, 8(4), 448; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8040448
Received: 27 February 2019 / Revised: 7 April 2019 / Accepted: 15 April 2019 / Published: 19 April 2019
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Abstract
In this work, the system performance analysis of cooperative networks with power splitting protocol-based energy harvesting (EH) over Nakagami-m/Rayleigh channels is proposed. The exact-form expressions of the outage probability (OP) and ergodic capacity (EC) is demonstrated and derived. Using the proposed probabilistic models [...] Read more.
In this work, the system performance analysis of cooperative networks with power splitting protocol-based energy harvesting (EH) over Nakagami-m/Rayleigh channels is proposed. The exact-form expressions of the outage probability (OP) and ergodic capacity (EC) is demonstrated and derived. Using the proposed probabilistic models for wireless channels, we derive OP and EC as a research result. Finally, we conduct Monte Carlo simulations to verify a system performance analysis of the proposed system. The research results demonstrate the effectiveness of EH in the network over Nakagami-m/Rayleigh channels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Networks)
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Open AccessArticle
Rolling 3D Laplacian Pyramid Video Fusion
Electronics 2019, 8(4), 447; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8040447
Received: 25 January 2019 / Revised: 23 March 2019 / Accepted: 1 April 2019 / Published: 19 April 2019
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Abstract
In this paper, we present a novel algorithm for video fusion of multi-sensor sequences applicable to real-time night vision systems. We employ the Laplacian pyramid fusion of a block of successive frames to add temporal robustness to the fused result. For the fusion [...] Read more.
In this paper, we present a novel algorithm for video fusion of multi-sensor sequences applicable to real-time night vision systems. We employ the Laplacian pyramid fusion of a block of successive frames to add temporal robustness to the fused result. For the fusion rule, we first group high and low frequency levels of the decomposed frames in the block from both input sensor sequences. Then, we define local space-time energy measure to guide the selection based fusion process in a manner that achieves spatio-temporal stability. We demonstrate our approach on several well-known multi-sensor video fusion examples with varying contents and target appearance and show its advantage over conventional video fusion approaches. Computational complexity of the proposed methods is kept low by the use of simple linear filtering that can be easily parallelised for implementation on general-purpose graphics processing units (GPUs). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Signal Processing and Analysis of Electrical Circuit)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Using Different Ions in the Hydrothermal Method to Enhance the Photoluminescence Properties of Synthesized ZnO-Based Nanowires
Electronics 2019, 8(4), 446; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8040446
Received: 18 March 2019 / Revised: 12 April 2019 / Accepted: 16 April 2019 / Published: 18 April 2019
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Abstract
ZnO films with a thickness of ~200 nm were deposited on SiO2/Si substrates as the seed layer. Then Zn(NO3)2-6H2O and C6H12N4 containing different concentrations of Eu(NO3)2-6H [...] Read more.
ZnO films with a thickness of ~200 nm were deposited on SiO2/Si substrates as the seed layer. Then Zn(NO3)2-6H2O and C6H12N4 containing different concentrations of Eu(NO3)2-6H2O or In(NO3)2-6H2O were used as precursors, and a hydrothermal process was used to synthesize pure ZnO as well as Eu-doped and In-doped ZnO nanowires at different synthesis temperatures. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to analyze the crystallization properties of the pure ZnO and the Eu-doped and In-doped ZnO nanowires, and field emission scanning electronic microscopy (FESEM) was used to analyze their surface morphologies. The important novelty in our approach is that the ZnO-based nanowires with different concentrations of Eu3+ and In3+ ions could be easily synthesized using a hydrothermal process. In addition, the effect of different concentrations of Eu3+ and In3+ ions on the physical and optical properties of ZnO-based nanowires was well investigated. FESEM observations found that the undoped ZnO nanowires could be grown at 100 °C. The third novelty is that we could synthesize the Eu-doped and In-doped ZnO nanowires at temperatures lower than 100 °C. The temperatures required to grow the Eu-doped and In-doped ZnO nanowires decreased with increasing concentrations of Eu3+ and In3+ ions. XRD patterns showed that with the addition of Eu3+ (In3+), the diffraction intensity of the (002) peak slightly increased with the concentration of Eu3+ (In3+) ions and reached a maximum at 3 (0.4) at%. We show that the concentrations of Eu3+ and In3+ ions have considerable effects on the synthesis temperatures and photoluminescence properties of Eu3+-doped and In3+-doped ZnO nanowires. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Electronic Devices)
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Open AccessArticle
Area-Efficient Embedded Resistor-Triggered SCR with High ESD Robustness
Electronics 2019, 8(4), 445; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8040445
Received: 21 March 2019 / Revised: 13 April 2019 / Accepted: 17 April 2019 / Published: 18 April 2019
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Abstract
The trigger voltage of the direct-connected silicon-controlled rectifier (DCSCR) was effectively reduced for electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection. However, a deep NWELL (DNW) is required to isolate PWELL from P-type substrate (PSUB) in DCSCR, which wastes part of the layout area. An area-efficient embedded [...] Read more.
The trigger voltage of the direct-connected silicon-controlled rectifier (DCSCR) was effectively reduced for electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection. However, a deep NWELL (DNW) is required to isolate PWELL from P-type substrate (PSUB) in DCSCR, which wastes part of the layout area. An area-efficient embedded resistor-triggered silicon-controlled rectifier (ERTSCR) is proposed in this paper. As verified in a 0.3-μm CMOS process, the proposed ERTSCR exhibits lower triggering voltage due to series diode chains and embedded deep n-well resistor in the trigger path. Additionally, the proposed ERTSCR has a failure current of more than 5 A and a corresponding HBM ESD robustness of more than 8 KV. Furthermore, compared with the traditional DCSCR, to sustain the same ESD protection capability, the proposed ERTSCR will consume 10% less silicon area by fully utilizing the lateral dimension in the deep n-well extension region, while the proposed ERTSCR has a larger top metal width. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microelectronics and Optoelectronics)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Early Output Quasi-Delay-Insensitive Array Multipliers
Electronics 2019, 8(4), 444; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8040444
Received: 15 March 2019 / Revised: 10 April 2019 / Accepted: 16 April 2019 / Published: 18 April 2019
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Abstract
Multiplication is a widely used arithmetic operation in microprocessing and digital signal processing applications, and multiplication is realized using a multiplier. This article presents the quasi-delay-insensitive (QDI) early output versions of recently reported indicating asynchronous array multipliers. Delay-insensitive dual-rail encoding is used for [...] Read more.
Multiplication is a widely used arithmetic operation in microprocessing and digital signal processing applications, and multiplication is realized using a multiplier. This article presents the quasi-delay-insensitive (QDI) early output versions of recently reported indicating asynchronous array multipliers. Delay-insensitive dual-rail encoding is used for data representation and processing, and 4-phase return-to-zero (RTZ) and return-to-one (RTO) handshake protocols are used for data communication. Many QDI array multipliers were realized using a 32/28 nm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. Compared to the optimum indicating array multiplier, the proposed optimum early output array multiplier achieves a 6.2% reduction in cycle time and a 7.4% reduction in power-cycle time product (PCTP) with respect to RTZ handshaking, and a 7.6% reduction in cycle time and an 8.8% reduction in PCTP with respect to RTO handshaking without an increase in the area. The simulation results also convey that the RTO handshaking is preferable to the RTZ handshaking for the optimum implementation of QDI array multipliers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microelectronics and Optoelectronics)
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Open AccessArticle
A Hierarchical Cooperative Mission Planning Mechanism for Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
Electronics 2019, 8(4), 443; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8040443
Received: 15 March 2019 / Revised: 7 April 2019 / Accepted: 12 April 2019 / Published: 18 April 2019
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Abstract
In this paper, the cooperative multi-task online mission planning for multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) is studied. Firstly, the dynamics of unmanned aerial vehicles and the mission planning problem are studied. Secondly, a hierarchical mechanism is proposed to deal with the complex multi-UAV [...] Read more.
In this paper, the cooperative multi-task online mission planning for multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) is studied. Firstly, the dynamics of unmanned aerial vehicles and the mission planning problem are studied. Secondly, a hierarchical mechanism is proposed to deal with the complex multi-UAV multi-task mission planning problem. In the first stage, the flight paths of UAVs are generated by the Dubins curve and B-spline mixed method, which are defined as “CBC)” curves, where “C” stands for circular arc and “B” stands for B-spline segment. In the second stage, the task assignment problem is solved as multi-base multi-traveling salesman problem, in which the “CBC” flight paths are used to estimate the trajectory costs. In the third stage, the flight trajectories of UAVs are generated by using Gaussian pseudospectral method (GPM). Thirdly, to improve the computational efficiency, the continuous and differential initial trajectories are generated based on the “CBC” flight paths. Finally, numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the proposed approach, the designed initial solution search algorithm is compared with existing methods. These results indicate that the proposed hierarchical mission planning method can produce satisfactory mission planning results efficiently. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Motion Planning and Control for Robotics)
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Approach towards Resource Auto-Registration and Discovery of Embedded Systems Based on DNS
Electronics 2019, 8(4), 442; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8040442
Received: 23 March 2019 / Revised: 9 April 2019 / Accepted: 13 April 2019 / Published: 17 April 2019
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Abstract
The Internet of Things (IoT) is expected to deliver a whole range of new services to all parts of our society, and improve the way we work and live. The challenges within the Internet of Things are often related to interoperability, device resource [...] Read more.
The Internet of Things (IoT) is expected to deliver a whole range of new services to all parts of our society, and improve the way we work and live. The challenges within the Internet of Things are often related to interoperability, device resource constraints, a device to device connection and security. One of the essential elements of identification for each Internet of Things devices is the naming system and addresses. With this naming system, Internet of Things devices can be able to be discoverable by users. In this paper, we propose the IoT resource auto-registration and accessing indoor services based on Domain Name System (DNS) in the Open Connectivity Foundation (OCF) environment. We have used the Internet of Things Platform and DNS server for IoT Resource auto-registration and discovery in the Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4). An existing system called Domain Name Auto-Registration in Internet Protocol version 6 can be used for Internet of Things devices for auto-registration and resource discovery. However, this system is not acceptable in the existing internet networks, because the highest percentage of the networks on the Internet are configured in Internet Protocol version 4. Through the proposed auto-registration system, clients can be able to discover the resources and access the services in the OCF network. Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) is utilized for the IoT device auto-registration and accessing the services in the OCF network. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Networks)
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Open AccessArticle
WSMS: Wearable Stress Monitoring System Based on IoT Multi-Sensor Platform for Living Sheep Transportation
Electronics 2019, 8(4), 441; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8040441
Received: 19 February 2019 / Revised: 11 April 2019 / Accepted: 15 April 2019 / Published: 17 April 2019
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Abstract
Farming herdsmen, sheep dealers, and veterinarians are increasingly interested in continuously monitoring sheep basic physiological characteristics (such as the heart rate and skin temperature) outside the laboratory environment, with the aim of identifying the physiological links between stress, uncomfortable, excitement, and other pathological [...] Read more.
Farming herdsmen, sheep dealers, and veterinarians are increasingly interested in continuously monitoring sheep basic physiological characteristics (such as the heart rate and skin temperature) outside the laboratory environment, with the aim of identifying the physiological links between stress, uncomfortable, excitement, and other pathological states. This paper proposes a non-invasive Wearable Stress Monitoring System (WSMS) with PhotoPlethysmoGram (PPG), Infrared Temperature Measurement (ITM), and Inertial Measurement Units (IMU) that aimed to remotely and continuously monitor the stress signs of sheep during transportation. The purpose of this study was implemented by following the multi-dimensional sensing platform to identify more pressure information. The designed WSMS showed sufficient robustness in recording and transmitting sensing data of physiology and environment during transport. The non-contact and non-destructive monitoring method that was proposed in this paper was helpful in minimizing the effects of sheep stress load. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wearable Electronic Devices)
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Open AccessArticle
A Compact Wideband SIW Bandpass Filter with Wide Stopband and High Selectivity
Electronics 2019, 8(4), 440; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8040440
Received: 11 March 2019 / Revised: 8 April 2019 / Accepted: 15 April 2019 / Published: 17 April 2019
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Abstract
A novel method to design a wideband substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) bandpass filter (BPF) with compact size, wide stopband and high selectivity is presented. In this method some unique electromagnetic band-gap (EBG) cells are periodically etched on the top layer of SIW to [...] Read more.
A novel method to design a wideband substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) bandpass filter (BPF) with compact size, wide stopband and high selectivity is presented. In this method some unique electromagnetic band-gap (EBG) cells are periodically etched on the top layer of SIW to realize a wide passband propagating below the equivalent waveguide cutoff frequency. By changing the configuration of EBG cells, undesired harmonics in upper stopband can be suppressed and a wideband BPF with wide stopband can be obtained. By symmetrically loading two complementary split ring resonators (CSRRs) on the tapered gradient lines of the input/output ports, a transmission zero near the passband can be introduced, and it makes the frequency selectivity of upper sideband improve significantly. As a verification, a wideband SIW BPF with a 3.02 GHz absolute bandwidth (ABW) and a 64.7% fractional bandwidth (FBW) centered at 4.67 GHz is designed, simulated, manufactured, and measured. The results of the experiment and simulation are in good agreement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microwave and Wireless Communications)
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