The trigger voltage of the direct-connected silicon-controlled rectifier (DCSCR) was effectively reduced for electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection. However, a deep NWELL (DNW) is required to isolate PWELL from P-type substrate (PSUB) in DCSCR, which wastes part of the layout area. An area-efficient embedded resistor-triggered silicon-controlled rectifier (ERTSCR) is proposed in this paper. As verified in a 0.3-μm CMOS process, the proposed ERTSCR exhibits lower triggering voltage due to series diode chains and embedded deep n-well resistor in the trigger path. Additionally, the proposed ERTSCR has a failure current of more than 5 A and a corresponding HBM ESD robustness of more than 8 KV. Furthermore, compared with the traditional DCSCR, to sustain the same ESD protection capability, the proposed ERTSCR will consume 10% less silicon area by fully utilizing the lateral dimension in the deep n-well extension region, while the proposed ERTSCR has a larger top metal width.
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