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J. Mar. Sci. Eng., Volume 12, Issue 2 (February 2024) – 163 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Alternate stable states theory arose in the 1950s with debates about systems’ stability. Initially sketched out as “tipping points” (Grodzins 1957), it was formalized for low dimension ecological systems by Lewontin (1969) and May (1977), then extended to chaotic dynamics (Hastings et al. 1993). It crystallized around the use of Hill functions, garnering attention with iconic hysteresis curves (Scheffer et al. 2001). In parallel, Leibold et al. (2004) introduced new paradigms: metacommunities, rescue and mass effects. When Schroeder et al. (2005) highlighted the difficulties ecologists have matching theory with reality, Dudgeon et al. (2010) proposed “phase shifts” instead. A new critical review demonstrates alternate stable states can exist in metacommunity systems without a Hill function. The revised theory creates new challenges for management of fisheries and marine protected areas. View this paper
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17 pages, 108657 KiB  
Article
Types and Evolution of the Miocene Reefs Based on Seismic Data in the Beikang Basin, South China Sea
by Zhen Yang, Guozhang Fan, Wei Yan, Xuefeng Wang, Guoqing Zhang, Zhili Yang, Zuofei Zhu, Yuanze Zhang, Huai Cheng, Hongxun Tian, Li Li and Qiang Zhang
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(2), 360; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12020360 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 593
Abstract
During the Miocene, several reefs formed in the Beikang Basin, South China Sea, which may be potential targets for hydrocarbon exploration. This is due to the environment that developed as a result of the collision, splitting, and splicing of the Nansha Block, which [...] Read more.
During the Miocene, several reefs formed in the Beikang Basin, South China Sea, which may be potential targets for hydrocarbon exploration. This is due to the environment that developed as a result of the collision, splitting, and splicing of the Nansha Block, which was influenced by the Neogene expansion of the area. However, studies on the types, distribution, controlling factors, and evolution stages of these reefs are scarce. In this study, we used high-resolution seismic data and extensive well-drilling records to gain insights into the evolution of reefs in this particular area. Six distinct types of reefs, namely, the point reef, the platform-edge reef, the block reef, the bedded reef, the pinnacle reef, and the atoll reef, were identified based on our data. These reefs underwent four stages of development. During the initial stage, a few small-sized point reefs emerged in the basin and experienced significant growth during the early Middle Miocene. In the flourishing stage, the reefs predominantly thrived around the Central Uplift and Eastern Uplift areas. In the recession stage, the reefs began to deteriorate during the late Middle Miocene period as a result of the rapid increase in relative sea level caused by tectonic subsidence. In the submerged stage, since the Late Miocene, as the relative sea level continued to rise steadily over time, many reefs that had previously flourished surrounding the Central Uplift and Eastern Uplift areas became submerged underwater, with only a handful of atoll reefs surviving near islands located on the Eastern Uplift. This study indicated the presence of a significant number of well-preserved reefs in the Beikang Basin that have experienced minimal subsequent diagenesis and therefore exhibit high potential as reservoirs for oil and gas exploration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geological Oceanography)
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6 pages, 185 KiB  
Editorial
Advances in Offshore Wind
by Dongran Song, Tianhui Fan, Qingan Li and Young Hoon Joo
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(2), 359; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12020359 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 853
Abstract
Wind energy has emerged as one of the most effective solutions to address global energy crises and environmental degradation, owing to its clean and abundant resources [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Offshore Wind)
20 pages, 2751 KiB  
Article
Agent-Guided Non-Local Network for Underwater Image Enhancement and Super-Resolution Using Multi-Color Space
by Rong Wang, Yonghui Zhang and Yulu Zhang
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(2), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12020358 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 635
Abstract
The absorption and scattering of light in water usually result in the degradation of underwater image quality, such as color distortion and low contrast. Additionally, the performance of acquisition devices may limit the spatial resolution of underwater images, resulting in the loss of [...] Read more.
The absorption and scattering of light in water usually result in the degradation of underwater image quality, such as color distortion and low contrast. Additionally, the performance of acquisition devices may limit the spatial resolution of underwater images, resulting in the loss of image details. Efficient modeling of long-range dependency is essential for understanding the global structure and local context of underwater images to enhance and restore details, which is a challenging task. In this paper, we propose an agent-guided non-local attention network using a multi-color space for underwater image enhancement and super-resolution. Specifically, local features with different receptive fields are first extracted simultaneously in the RGB, Lab, and HSI color spaces of underwater images. Then, the designed agent-guided non-local attention module with high expressiveness and lower computational complexity is utilized to model long-range dependency. Subsequently, the results from the multi-color space are adaptively fused with learned weights, and finally, the reconstruction block composed of deconvolution and the designed non-local attention module is used to output enhanced and super-resolution images. Experiments on multiple datasets demonstrated that our method significantly improves the visual perception of degraded underwater images and efficiently reconstructs missing details, and objective evaluations confirmed the superiority of our method over other state-of-the-art methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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16 pages, 5850 KiB  
Article
Research on the Drift Prediction of Marine Floating Debris: A Case Study of the South China Sea Maritime Drift Experiment
by Lin Mu, Haiwen Tu, Xiongfei Geng, Fangli Qiao, Zhihui Chen, Sen Jia, Ruifei Zhu, Tianyu Zhang and Zhi Chen
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(2), 357; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12020357 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 755
Abstract
Annually, hundreds of individuals tragically lose their lives at sea due to shipwrecks or aircraft accidents. For search and rescue personnel, the task of locating the debris of a downed aircraft in the vastness of the ocean presents a formidable challenge. A primary [...] Read more.
Annually, hundreds of individuals tragically lose their lives at sea due to shipwrecks or aircraft accidents. For search and rescue personnel, the task of locating the debris of a downed aircraft in the vastness of the ocean presents a formidable challenge. A primary task these teams face is determining the search area, which is a critical step in the rescue operation. The movement of aircraft wreckage on the ocean surface is extremely complex, influenced by the combined effects of surface winds, waves, and currents. Establishing an appropriate drift motion prediction model is instrumental in accurately determining the search area for the wreckage. This article initially conducts maritime drift observation experiments on wreckage, and based on the results of these experiments, analyzes the drift characteristics and patterns of the debris. Subsequently, employing a wealth of observational experimental data, three types of drift prediction models for the wreckage are established using the least squares method. These models include the AP98 model, the dynamics model, and an improved model. In conclusion, the effectiveness and accuracy of the three models is evaluated and analyzed using Monte Carlo techniques. The results indicate that the probability of positive crosswind leeway (CWL) is 47.4%, while the probability of negative crosswind leeway (CWL) is 52.6%. The jibing frequency is 7.7% per hour, and the maximum leeway divergence angle observed is 40.4 degrees. Among the three drift prediction models, the refined AP98 drift model demonstrates the highest forecasting precision. The findings of this study offer a more accurate drift prediction model for the search of an aircraft lost at sea. These results hold significant guiding importance for maritime search and rescue operations in the South China Sea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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17 pages, 3182 KiB  
Article
Machine Learning-Based Approach to Identifying Fall Risk in Seafarers Using Wearable Sensors
by Jungyeon Choi, Brian A. Knarr, Jong-Hoon Youn and Kwang Yoon Song
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(2), 356; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12020356 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 738
Abstract
Falls on a ship cause severe injuries, and an accident falling off board, referred to as “man overboard” (MOB), can lead to death. Thus, it is crucial to accurately and timely detect the risk of falling. Wearable sensors, unlike camera and radar sensors, [...] Read more.
Falls on a ship cause severe injuries, and an accident falling off board, referred to as “man overboard” (MOB), can lead to death. Thus, it is crucial to accurately and timely detect the risk of falling. Wearable sensors, unlike camera and radar sensors, are affordable and easily accessible regardless of the weather conditions. This study aimed to identify the fall risk level (i.e., high and low risk) among individuals on board using wearable sensors. We collected walking data from accelerometers during the experiment by simulating the ship’s rolling motions using a computer-assisted rehabilitation environment (CAREN). With the best features selected by LASSO, eight machine learning (ML) models were implemented with a synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE) and the best-tuned hyperparameters. In all ML models, the performance in classifying fall risk showed overall a good accuracy (0.7778 to 0.8519), sensitivity (0.7556 to 0.8667), specificity (0.7778 to 0.8889), and AUC (0.7673 to 0.9204). Logistic regression showed the best performance in terms of the AUC for both training (0.9483) and testing (0.9204). We anticipate that this study will effectively help identify the risk of falls on ships and aid in developing a monitoring system capable of averting falls and detecting MOB situations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Advanced Technologies in Maritime Safety)
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5 pages, 163 KiB  
Editorial
Autonomous Marine Vehicle Operations
by Xiao Liang, Rubo Zhang and Xingru Qu
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(2), 355; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12020355 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 808
Abstract
The world has witnessed the rapid development of autonomous marine vehicles,
such as surface vehicles and underwater vehicles, which have created fruitful innovative approaches to previously unsolvable problems in marine and ocean engineering [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Autonomous Marine Vehicle Operations)
24 pages, 3785 KiB  
Review
Review on Sensors for Sustainable and Safe Maritime Mobility
by Giovanni Briguglio and Vincenzo Crupi
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(2), 353; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12020353 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1005
Abstract
The increasingly stringent requirements—in terms of limiting pollutants and the constant need to make maritime transport safer—generated the necessity to foresee different solutions that are original. According to the European Maritime Safety Agency, the total number of reported marine casualties and incidents is [...] Read more.
The increasingly stringent requirements—in terms of limiting pollutants and the constant need to make maritime transport safer—generated the necessity to foresee different solutions that are original. According to the European Maritime Safety Agency, the total number of reported marine casualties and incidents is 21.173 over the period 2014–2021, with a yearly average of 2.647 casualties and incidents. According to the same source, 495 cases of pollution were reported in the period from 2014 to 2021. Marine pollution by ships’ fuel and other pollutants is linked to 64.2% of all pollution. It is mandatory to offer a new kind of ship that can exploit new technologies to increase safety for people and onboard goods. It has been found that existing marine structures for maritime mobility do not have essential sensors for avoiding emergency situations such as flooding, oil spills, or health situations requiring efficient monitoring. In addition, there is a lack of legislation defining the insertion of unmanned vehicles into the actual marine infrastructure. This review highlighted the strengths and weaknesses of sensors in the maritime sector, intensifying areas of improvement for future challenges, such as sensor energy efficiency, data processing, sensor fusion methodologies, and accurate sea state description with environmental monitoring by means of unmanned vehicles. Full article
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16 pages, 3004 KiB  
Article
The Mediterranean Zoanthid Parazoanthus axinellae as a Novel Source of Antimicrobial Compounds
by Loredana Stabili, Stefano Piraino and Lucia Rizzo
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(2), 354; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12020354 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 643
Abstract
Marine bioprospecting is a dynamic research field that explores the oceans and their biodiversity as noteworthy sources of new bioactive compounds. Anthozoans are marine animals belonging to the Cnidaria phylum characterized by highly specialized mechanosensory cells used both for defence against predators and [...] Read more.
Marine bioprospecting is a dynamic research field that explores the oceans and their biodiversity as noteworthy sources of new bioactive compounds. Anthozoans are marine animals belonging to the Cnidaria phylum characterized by highly specialized mechanosensory cells used both for defence against predators and prey capture. Here, high concentration of cnidocysts have been isolated from the Mediterranean zoanthid coral Parazoanthus axinellae (Schmidt, 1862) and their antimicrobial potential has been investigated. The cnidocyst extract exerted significant antibacterial activity against some human pathogens capable of developing resistance to conventional antibiotics such as Streptococcus agalactiae and Coccus sp., and against several Vibrio species, including some microbial strains for humans and farmed fish, such as Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio anguillarum, Vibrio fischeri, Vibrio harveyi, and Vibrio vulnificus. Results have been discussed in light of both the ecological aspects and biotechnological value of the cnidocyst extract in the nutritional, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Marine Biology)
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16 pages, 13555 KiB  
Article
Sonar Image Target Detection Based on Simulated Stain-like Noise and Shadow Enhancement in Optical Images under Zero-Shot Learning
by Jier Xi and Xiufen Ye
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(2), 352; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12020352 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 635
Abstract
There are many challenges in using side-scan sonar (SSS) images to detect objects. The challenge of object detection and recognition in sonar data is greater than in optical images due to the sparsity of detectable targets. The complexity of real-world underwater scanning presents [...] Read more.
There are many challenges in using side-scan sonar (SSS) images to detect objects. The challenge of object detection and recognition in sonar data is greater than in optical images due to the sparsity of detectable targets. The complexity of real-world underwater scanning presents additional difficulties, as different angles produce sonar images of varying characteristics. This heterogeneity makes it difficult for algorithms to accurately identify and detect sonar objects. To solve these problems, this paper presents a novel method for sonar image target detection based on a transformer and YOLOv7. Thus, two data augmentation techniques are introduced to improve the performance of the detection system. The first technique applies stain-like noise to the training optical image data to simulate the real sonar image environment. The second technique adds multiple shadows to the optical image and 3D data targets to represent the direction of the target in the sonar image. The proposed method is evaluated on a public sonar image dataset, and the experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods in terms of accuracy and speed. The experimental results show that our method achieves better precision. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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14 pages, 4605 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Positioning Control of Large Ships in Rough Sea Based on an Improved Closed-Loop Gain Shaping Algorithm
by Chunyu Song, Teer Guo, Jianghua Sui and Xianku Zhang
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(2), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12020351 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 576
Abstract
In order to solve the problem of the dynamic positioning control of large ships in rough sea and to meet the need for fixed-point operations, this paper proposes a dynamic positioning controller that can effectively achieve large ships’ fixed-point control during Level 9 [...] Read more.
In order to solve the problem of the dynamic positioning control of large ships in rough sea and to meet the need for fixed-point operations, this paper proposes a dynamic positioning controller that can effectively achieve large ships’ fixed-point control during Level 9 sea states (wind force Beaufort No. 10). To achieve a better control effect, a large ship’s forward motion is decoupled to establish a mathematical model of the headwind stationary state. Meanwhile, the closed-loop gain shaping algorithm is combined with the exact feedback linearization algorithm to design the speed controller and the course-keeping controller. This effectively solves the problem of strong external interferences impacting the control system in rough seas and guarantees the comprehensive index of robustness performance. In this paper, three large ships—the “Mariner”, “Taian kou”, and “Galaxy”—are selected as the research objects for simulation research and the final fixing error is less than 10 m. It is proven that the method is safe, feasible, practical, and effective, and provides technical support for the design and development of intelligent marine equipment for use in rough seas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Motion Control and Path Planning of Marine Vehicles—2nd Edition)
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22 pages, 1754 KiB  
Article
Modelling the Dynamics of Outbreak Species: The Case of Ditrupa arietina (O.F. Müller), Gulf of Lions, NW Mediterranean Sea
by Jennifer Coston-Guarini, François Charles and Jean-Marc Guarini
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(2), 350; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12020350 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 939
Abstract
An outbreak species exhibits extreme, rapid population fluctuations that can be qualified as discrete events within a continuous dynamic. When outbreaks occur they may appear novel and disconcerting because the limiting factors of their dynamics are not readily identifiable. We present the first [...] Read more.
An outbreak species exhibits extreme, rapid population fluctuations that can be qualified as discrete events within a continuous dynamic. When outbreaks occur they may appear novel and disconcerting because the limiting factors of their dynamics are not readily identifiable. We present the first population hybrid dynamic model that combines continuous and discrete processes, designed to simulate marine species outbreaks. The deterministic framework was tested using the case of an unexploited benthic invertebrate species: the small, serpulid polychaete Ditrupa arietina. This species is distributed throughout the northeast Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea; it has a life cycle characterised by a pelagic dispersive larval stage, while juveniles and adults are sedentary. Sporadic reports of extremely high, variable densities (from <10 to >10,000 ind.m2) have attracted attention from marine ecologists for a century. However, except for one decade-long field study from the Bay of Banyuls (France, Gulf of Lions, Mediterranean Sea), observations are sparse. Minimal formulations quantified the processes governing the population dynamics. Local population continuous dynamics were simulated from a size-structured model with a null immigration–emigration flux balance. The mathematical properties, based on the derived hybrid model, demonstrated the possibilities of reaching an equilibrium for the population using a single number of recruits per reproducer. Two extrapolations were made: (1) local population dynamics were simulated over 180 years using North Atlantic Oscillation indices to force recruitment variability and (2) steady-state population densities over the Gulf of Lions were calculated from a connectivity matrix in a metapopulation. The dynamics reach a macroscopic stability in both extrapolations, despite the absence of density regulating mechanisms. This ensures the persistence of D. arietina, even when strong, irregular oscillations characteristic of an outbreak species are observed. The hybrid model suggests that a macroscopic equilibrium for a population with variable recruitment conditions can only be characterised for time periods which contain several outbreak occurrences distributed over a regional scale. Full article
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19 pages, 1807 KiB  
Article
Uncertainty Quantification of Neural Reflectance Fields for Underwater Scenes
by Haojie Lian, Xinhao Li, Leilei Chen, Xin Wen, Mengxi Zhang, Jieyuan Zhang and Yilin Qu
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(2), 349; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12020349 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 606
Abstract
Neural radiance fields and neural reflectance fields are novel deep learning methods for generating novel views of 3D scenes from 2D images. To extend the neural scene representation techniques to complex underwater environments, beyond neural reflectance fields underwater (BNU) was proposed, which considers [...] Read more.
Neural radiance fields and neural reflectance fields are novel deep learning methods for generating novel views of 3D scenes from 2D images. To extend the neural scene representation techniques to complex underwater environments, beyond neural reflectance fields underwater (BNU) was proposed, which considers the relighting conditions of on-aboard light sources by using neural reflectance fields, and approximates the attenuation and backscatter effects of water with an additional constant. Because the quality of the neural representation of underwater scenes is critical to downstream tasks such as marine surveying and mapping, the model reliability should be considered and evaluated. However, current neural reflectance models lack the ability of quantifying the uncertainty of underwater scenes that are not directly observed during training, which hinders their widespread use in the field of underwater unmanned autonomous navigation. To address this issue, we introduce an ensemble strategy to BNU that quantifies cognitive uncertainty in color space and unobserved regions with the expectation and variance of RGB values and termination probabilities along the ray. We also employ a regularization method to smooth the density of the underwater neural reflectance model. The effectiveness of the present method is demonstrated in numerical experiments. Full article
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29 pages, 8927 KiB  
Article
Adaptive Finite-Time Backstepping Integral Sliding Mode Control of Three-Degree-of-Freedom Stabilized System for Ship Propulsion-Assisted Sail Based on the Inverse System Method
by Sheng Liu, Jian Song, Lanyong Zhang and Yinchao Tan
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(2), 348; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12020348 - 17 Feb 2024
Viewed by 572
Abstract
The three-degree-of-freedom (3-DOF) stabilized control system for ship propulsion-assisted sails is used to control the 3-DOF motion of sails to obtain offshore wind energy. The attitude of the sail is adjusted to ensure optimal thrust along the target course. An adaptive finite-time backstepping [...] Read more.
The three-degree-of-freedom (3-DOF) stabilized control system for ship propulsion-assisted sails is used to control the 3-DOF motion of sails to obtain offshore wind energy. The attitude of the sail is adjusted to ensure optimal thrust along the target course. An adaptive finite-time backstepping integral sliding mode control based on the inverse system method (ABISMC-ISM) is presented for attitude tracking of the sail. Considering the nonlinear dynamics and strong coupling of the system, a decoupling strategy is established using the inverse system method (ISM). Constructing inverse dynamics to eliminate internal coupling, the system is transformed into independent pseudolinear subsystems. For the decoupled open-loop subsystems, an adaptive finite-time backstepping integral sliding mode control is designed to achieve closed-loop control. A backstepping-based integral sliding surface is proposed to eliminate the phase-reaching stage of the sliding surface. Considering the unmodelled dynamics and external disturbances, an adaptive extreme learning machine (AELM) was designed to estimate the disturbances. Furthermore, a sliding mode reaching law based on finite-time theory was employed to ensure that the system returns to the sliding surface in a finite time under chattering conditions. Experiments on a principle prototype demonstrate the effectiveness and energy-saving performance of the proposed method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Motion Control and Path Planning of Marine Vehicles—2nd Edition)
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21 pages, 3341 KiB  
Article
A Novel, Finite-Time, Active Fault-Tolerant Control Framework for Autonomous Surface Vehicle with Guaranteed Performance
by Xuerao Wang, Yuncheng Ouyang, Xiao Wang and Qingling Wang
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(2), 347; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12020347 - 17 Feb 2024
Viewed by 524
Abstract
In this paper, a finite-time, active fault-tolerant control (AFTC) scheme is proposed for a class of autonomous surface vehicles (ASVs) with component faults. The designed AFTC framework is based on an integrated design of fault detection (FD), fault estimation (FE), and controller reconfiguration. [...] Read more.
In this paper, a finite-time, active fault-tolerant control (AFTC) scheme is proposed for a class of autonomous surface vehicles (ASVs) with component faults. The designed AFTC framework is based on an integrated design of fault detection (FD), fault estimation (FE), and controller reconfiguration. First, a nominal controller based on the Barrier Lyapunov function is presented, which guarantees that the tracking error converges to the predefined performance constraints within a settling time. Then, a performance-based monitoring function with low complexity is designed to supervise the tracking behaviors and detect the fault. Different from existing results where the fault is bounded by a known scalar, the FE in this study is implemented by a finite-time estimator without requiring any prioir information of fault. Furthermore, under the proposed finite-time AFTC scheme, both the transient and steady-state performance of the ASV can be guaranteed regardless of the occurrence of faults. Finally, a simulation example on CyberShip II is given to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed AFTC method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maritime Autonomous Surface Ships)
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18 pages, 5182 KiB  
Article
Research on Three-Closed-Loop ADRC Position Compensation Strategy Based on Winch-Type Heave Compensation System with a Secondary Component
by Shizhen Li, Qinfeng Wu, Yufeng Liu, Longfei Qiao, Zimeng Guo and Fei Yan
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(2), 346; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12020346 - 17 Feb 2024
Viewed by 550
Abstract
To mitigate the interference of waves on an offshore operation ship, heave compensation systems find widespread application. The performance of heave compensation systems significantly influences the efficiency and safety of maritime operations. This study established a mathematical model for a winch-based active heave [...] Read more.
To mitigate the interference of waves on an offshore operation ship, heave compensation systems find widespread application. The performance of heave compensation systems significantly influences the efficiency and safety of maritime operations. This study established a mathematical model for a winch-based active heave compensation system. It introduced a three-loop active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) strategy that encompasses piston position control, winch speed control, and load-displacement control to enable the real-time estimation and compensation of system disturbances, thereby enhancing the performance of the heave compensation system. To assess the effectiveness of this control strategy, this study employed Matlab/Simulink and AMESim to construct a co-simulation model and conducted a comparative analysis with traditional proportional integral derivative (PID) control systems. The research findings indicate that the three-loop ADRC position control strategy consistently delivered superior compensation performance across various operational scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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16 pages, 3228 KiB  
Article
Multi-Attention Pyramid Context Network for Infrared Small Ship Detection
by Feng Guo, Hongbing Ma, Liangliang Li, Ming Lv and Zhenhong Jia
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(2), 345; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12020345 - 17 Feb 2024
Viewed by 502
Abstract
In the realm of maritime target detection, infrared imaging technology has become the predominant modality. Detecting infrared small ships on the sea surface is crucial for national defense and maritime security. However, the challenge of detecting infrared small targets persists, especially in the [...] Read more.
In the realm of maritime target detection, infrared imaging technology has become the predominant modality. Detecting infrared small ships on the sea surface is crucial for national defense and maritime security. However, the challenge of detecting infrared small targets persists, especially in the complex scenes of the sea surface. As a response to this challenge, we propose MAPC-Net, an enhanced algorithm based on an existing network. Unlike conventional approaches, our method focuses on addressing the intricacies of sea surface scenes and the sparse pixel occupancy of small ships. MAPC-Net incorporates a scale attention mechanism into the original network’s multi-scale feature pyramid, enabling the learning of more effective scale feature maps. Additionally, a channel attention mechanism is introduced during the upsampling process to capture relationships between different channels, resulting in superior feature representations. Notably, our proposed Maritime-SIRST dataset, meticulously annotated for infrared small ship detection, is introduced to stimulate advancements in this research domain. Experimental evaluations on the Maritime-SIRST dataset demonstrate the superiority of our algorithm over existing methods. Compared to the original network, our approach achieves a 6.14% increase in mIOU and a 4.41% increase in F1, while maintaining nearly unchanged runtime. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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14 pages, 3956 KiB  
Review
A Comprehensive Review of Climatic Threats and Adaptation of Marine Biodiversity
by Kaitano Dube
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(2), 344; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12020344 - 17 Feb 2024
Viewed by 851
Abstract
Oceans play a vital role in socioeconomic and environmental development by supporting activities such as tourism, recreation, and food provision while providing important ecosystem services. However, concerns have been raised about the threat that climate change poses to the functions of oceans. This [...] Read more.
Oceans play a vital role in socioeconomic and environmental development by supporting activities such as tourism, recreation, and food provision while providing important ecosystem services. However, concerns have been raised about the threat that climate change poses to the functions of oceans. This study examines the impacts, threats, and adaptation strategies of climate change and marine biodiversity. Using bibliometric and secondary data analysis, this study determines that climate change leads to rising sea temperatures, marine heatwaves, acidification, and increasing sea levels. These factors undermine the significance of ocean ecosystem services. This study also identifies the significant risks posed by climate change to marine species diversity and distribution, primarily through habitat degradation and shifts in species ranges. Scholarly focus on these challenges has grown over time, focusing on adaptation strategies and building resilience to mitigate adverse impacts. This study critically evaluates various adaptation measures, including nature-based and human-based solutions such as habitat restoration, policy and legislative frameworks, and their potential to protect marine ecosystems. It provides detailed discussions on the effectiveness of adaptation strategies such as marine protected areas (MPAs), mangrove and coral reef restoration, and species range shifts. This review also emphasises the significance of indigenous knowledge systems and community participation in marine conservation efforts to achieve holistic and sustainable management. It highlights the need for enhanced international cooperation and a transdisciplinary approach to address the complex interplay between climate change and marine biodiversity. Additionally, this study suggests that funding for research gaps and conservation can be secured through tourism revenue and other climate funding mechanisms. Full article
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20 pages, 9826 KiB  
Article
Coral Tissue Regeneration and Growth Is Associated with the Presence of Stem-like Cells
by Jonathan Levanoni, Amalia Rosner, Ziva Lapidot, Guy Paz and Baruch Rinkevich
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(2), 343; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12020343 - 17 Feb 2024
Viewed by 653
Abstract
Members of the Cnidaria phylum were studied for centuries to depict the source of their unprecedented regeneration capacity. Although adult stem cells (ASCs) have been recognized in tissue growth/regeneration in many hydrozoans, there has not been any evidence of them in the ancestral [...] Read more.
Members of the Cnidaria phylum were studied for centuries to depict the source of their unprecedented regeneration capacity. Although adult stem cells (ASCs) have been recognized in tissue growth/regeneration in many hydrozoans, there has not been any evidence of them in the ancestral Anthozoa class. This study sheds light on the development of epidermal epithelium expansion, akin to blastema, during tissue regeneration after small circular incisions (each 2.77 mm2) and during the natural expansion of tissue across a flat surface in the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata. Regeneration was completed within 9 days in 84.5% (n = 64) of the assays. About 35% of the samples regrew a single polyp, 60% showed no polyp regrowth, and approximately 6% exhibited multiple new polyps. We further used histological staining, pH3, Piwi immuno-histochemistry, and qPCR for eight stemness markers: Piwi-1, Nanos-1, Nanos-1-like, Tudor-5, Tudor-7, Boule, Sox-2, and Myc-1. The results revealed the formation of an “addendum”, an epidermal epithelium in the growing edges (in regenerating and normal-growing fronts) inhabited by a cluster of small cells featuring dense nuclei, resembling ASCs, many expressing pH3 as well as Piwi proteins. Most of the stemness genes tested were upregulated. These results indicate the participation of ASCs-like cells in tissue regeneration and growth in scleractinian corals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Marine Biology)
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22 pages, 7827 KiB  
Review
Wave Energy Conversion through Oscillating Water Columns: A Review
by R. Gayathri, Jen-Yi Chang, Chia-Cheng Tsai and Tai-Wen Hsu
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(2), 342; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12020342 - 17 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1077
Abstract
An oscillating water column (OWC) is designed for the extraction and conversion of wave energy into usable electrical power, rather than being a standalone renewable energy source. This review paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the mathematical modeling approaches employed in OWC systems, [...] Read more.
An oscillating water column (OWC) is designed for the extraction and conversion of wave energy into usable electrical power, rather than being a standalone renewable energy source. This review paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the mathematical modeling approaches employed in OWC systems, aiming to provide an in-depth understanding of the underlying principles and challenges associated with this innovative technology. A prominent classification within the realm of wave energy devices comprises OWC systems, which exhibit either fixed or floating configurations. OWC devices constitute a significant proportion of the wave energy converter prototypes currently operational offshore. Within an OWC system, a hollow structure, either permanently fixed or floating, extends below the water’s surface, creating an enclosed chamber where air is captured over the submerged inner free surface. This comprehensive study offers a thorough assessment of OWC technology in conjunction with air turbines. Additionally, the investigation delves into theoretical, computational, and experimental modeling techniques employed for analyzing OWC converters. Moreover, this review scrutinizes theoretical, computational, and experimental modeling methodologies, providing a holistic understanding of OWC converters. Ultimately, this work contributes a thorough assessment of OWC technology’s current state, accentuating its potential for efficient wave energy extraction and suggesting future research avenues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The 10th Anniversary of JMSE - Review Collection)
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17 pages, 6534 KiB  
Article
Numerical Simulation of Passenger Evacuation Process for a Cruise Ship Considering Inclination and Rolling
by Liyuan Wang, Pengfei Zhou, Jiayang Gu and Yapeng Li
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(2), 336; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12020336 - 17 Feb 2024
Viewed by 598
Abstract
This study focuses on a large-scale cruise ship as the subject of research, with a particular emphasis on conditions not covered in the MSC.1/Circ.1533 guidelines. The investigation explores the impact of specific motion states of the cruise ship, including rolling, heeling, and trimming, [...] Read more.
This study focuses on a large-scale cruise ship as the subject of research, with a particular emphasis on conditions not covered in the MSC.1/Circ.1533 guidelines. The investigation explores the impact of specific motion states of the cruise ship, including rolling, heeling, and trimming, on passenger evacuation times. Based on the maritimeEXODUS tool, simulations were conducted to replicate the evacuation process in these unique scenarios. The results of the simulations highlight a significant correlation between the cruise ship’s motion state and evacuation time. Specifically, under inclination conditions, evacuation times were extended, with bow trimming leading to a notable increase in the time. This study underscores the importance of considering the motion state of a cruise ship in evacuation procedures, confirming the validity of the numerical simulation for studying large-scale cruise ship evacuations under inclination and rolling conditions. The findings contribute valuable insights for enhancing safety protocols and optimizing ship arrangements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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20 pages, 9646 KiB  
Article
Study on Effect of Particle Size Distribution on Water-Retention Capacity of Coral Sand from Macro and Micro Perspective
by Hao Wu, Xuewen Lei, Xiang Chen, Jianhua Shen, Xinzhi Wang and Tiantian Ma
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(2), 341; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12020341 - 16 Feb 2024
Viewed by 512
Abstract
The reclamation coral sand (CS) layer is the survival environment for island reef vegetation in the South China Sea. The root system within the CS bed draws water necessary for vegetation growth, implying that the water-retention capacity of CS plays a pivotal role [...] Read more.
The reclamation coral sand (CS) layer is the survival environment for island reef vegetation in the South China Sea. The root system within the CS bed draws water necessary for vegetation growth, implying that the water-retention capacity of CS plays a pivotal role in determining vegetation viability. Particle size distribution (PSD) significantly influences the water-retention capacity of geomaterials. This study examines the impact of PSD on the water-retention capacity of CS from both macro (soil–water characteristic curve, SWCC) and micro (pore water distribution) perspectives using the pressure plate test and nuclear magnetic resonance technique, and an F&X model was used to analyze the SWCC of CS. The findings indicated that the F&X model aptly describes the SWCC of CS with different PSDs. Both the air entry value and residual water content rise with an increased content of fine grains (d < 0.25 mm), suggesting that the presence of fine grains augments the water-retention capacity of CS. It is considered that a size range of d = 0.075–0.25 mm predominantly impacts the water-retention capacity of CS. The PSD primarily influences the water-retention capacity by affecting the pore size distribution of CS. The volume of small pores swells with the surge of fine-grain content, while the maximum pore size contracts with increasing fine-grain content. Limited pore connectivity in CS means macropores can retain water even under high suction, bolstering the water-retention capacity of CS. These findings offer theoretical guidance for selecting gradation parameters for the planting layer on island reefs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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20 pages, 4327 KiB  
Article
Modeling and Improvement Strategies for Safety Resilience in Maritime Hazardous Chemical Transportation System Based on Dissipative Structure Theory and System Dynamics
by Changfeng Yuan, Xing Sun, Qing Zhang, Lulu Niu and Shasha Meng
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(2), 340; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12020340 - 16 Feb 2024
Viewed by 511
Abstract
Maritime hazardous chemical transportation accidents have the characteristics of strong suddenness, wide influence, and great harm. To analyze the ability of a maritime hazardous chemical transportation system (MHCTS) to cope with sudden disturbance events, “resilience” is introduced into MHCTS safety research. The key [...] Read more.
Maritime hazardous chemical transportation accidents have the characteristics of strong suddenness, wide influence, and great harm. To analyze the ability of a maritime hazardous chemical transportation system (MHCTS) to cope with sudden disturbance events, “resilience” is introduced into MHCTS safety research. The key to studying resilience is modeling its evolutionary process. Based on the dissipative structure theory, this study analyzes the entropy flow mechanism of MHCTS safety resilience evolution. Through a statistical analysis of 197 investigation reports on maritime hazardous chemical transportation accidents, the factors influencing the safety resilience of the MHCTS were determined. The entropy value and weight of each influencing factor were calculated using the entropy method and entropy weight method, respectively. Based on this, an entropy model of the safety resilience evolution of the MHCTS was established. The evolution process falls under four categories of disturbance strengths, which were simulated using the system dynamics method. The degree of contribution of absorptive, adaptive, and restorative capacities to the improvement of system safety resilience under four disturbance conditions and the sensitivity of each influencing factor to the absorptive, adaptive, and restorative capacities were analyzed. Based on the analyses, targeted resilience improvement strategies are proposed. The research results provide a theoretical reference for the study of safety resilience mechanisms and resilience management in the MHCTS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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14 pages, 4370 KiB  
Article
AI-Light Spectrum Replicator (LSR): A Novel Simulated In Situ Lab/On-Deck Incubator
by Staša Puškarić, Mateo Sokač, Živana Ninčević, Heliodor Prelesnik and Knut Yngve Børsheim
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(2), 339; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12020339 - 16 Feb 2024
Viewed by 466
Abstract
In this communication, we present the prototype of a new simulated in situ lab/on-deck incubator, the light spectrum replicator (LSR), and a method for simulating the measured in situ HOCR light spectrum curves in incubation chambers. We developed this system using AI and [...] Read more.
In this communication, we present the prototype of a new simulated in situ lab/on-deck incubator, the light spectrum replicator (LSR), and a method for simulating the measured in situ HOCR light spectrum curves in incubation chambers. We developed this system using AI and genetic algorithms in an iterative fashion to find the best-fitting light spectrum in situ irradiance at different depths. The HOCR light spectrum measured at the depth and time of sampling was processed immediately, so the incubator is in a stable and ready condition by the time the samples inoculated with 14C were placed in sample holders (10 min after sampling). This incubator is intended to provide a reliable, fast, and easy-to-use tool for studying primary production based on the evaluation of the photosynthetic uptake of 14C. This system enables short incubation periods for small samples: we tested incubations of 5 mL samples during 15 min incubation periods. Our initial measurements taken using the prototype revealed a sufficiently good correlation between the on-deck measurements and in situ incubations. This prototype can be improved, as discussed in this text. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Ecology Conservation: Analysis for Habitat and Species Studies)
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21 pages, 5488 KiB  
Article
Doppler and Channel Estimation Using Superimposed Linear Frequency Modulation Preamble Signal for Underwater Acoustic Communication
by Chenglei Lv, Qiushi Sun, Huifang Chen and Lei Xie
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(2), 338; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12020338 - 16 Feb 2024
Viewed by 487
Abstract
Due to the relative motion between transmitters and receivers and the multipath characteristic of wideband underwater acoustic channels, Doppler and channel estimations are of great significance for an underwater acoustic (UWA) communication system. In this paper, a preamble signal based on superimposed linear [...] Read more.
Due to the relative motion between transmitters and receivers and the multipath characteristic of wideband underwater acoustic channels, Doppler and channel estimations are of great significance for an underwater acoustic (UWA) communication system. In this paper, a preamble signal based on superimposed linear frequency modulation (LFM) signals is first designed. Based on the designed preamble signal, a real-time Doppler factor estimation algorithm is proposed. The relative correlation peak shift of two LFM signals in the designed preamble signal is utilized to estimate the Doppler factor. Moreover, an enhanced channel estimation algorithm, the correlation-peak-search-based improved orthogonal matching pursuit (CPS-IOMP) algorithm, is also proposed. In the CPS-IOMP algorithm, the excellent autocorrelation characteristic of the designed preamble signal is used to estimate the channel sparsity and multipath delays, which are utilized to construct the simplified dictionary matrix. The simulation and sea trial data analysis results validated the designed preamble, the proposed Doppler estimation algorithm, and the channel estimation algorithm. The performance of the proposed Doppler factor estimation is better than that of the block estimation algorithm. Compared with the original OMP algorithm with known channel sparsity, the proposed CPS-IOMP algorithm achieves a similar estimation accuracy with a smaller computational complexity, as well as requiring no prior knowledge about the channel sparsity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Underwater Acoustics and Aeroacoustics)
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11 pages, 1952 KiB  
Article
Laboratory Measurements of Pyrene and Acenaphthene Partition into Microplastics
by Yi-Ming Zhang, Peter Brimblecombe and Chon-Lin Lee
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(2), 337; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12020337 - 16 Feb 2024
Viewed by 584
Abstract
Microplastics are a major environmental issue. In marine systems, these break down into small fragments that may lodge within organisms, but they behave as vectors for chemicals when pollutants such as metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides, and pharmaceuticals are absorbed by the [...] Read more.
Microplastics are a major environmental issue. In marine systems, these break down into small fragments that may lodge within organisms, but they behave as vectors for chemicals when pollutants such as metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides, and pharmaceuticals are absorbed by the particles. The rate and extent of uptake of organic compounds onto microplastics is dependent on a range of factors such as the sites available on the surface, the type of plastic, and the compound being sorbed, with hydrophobicity an important property. Laboratory experiments determined the uptake of pyrene and acenaphthene (and sometimes phenanthrene) onto pellets of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyoxymethylene (POM), polypropylene (PP) and polystyrene (PS). The kinetics of uptake in the experiments reveals half-lives ~10 h. The extent of partition onto the plastic pellets was similar for pyrene and phenanthrene, though lower for acenaphthene. This was not surprising because the octanol-water distribution coefficient of acenaphthene is about an order of magnitude smaller than that of pyrene, suggesting it is less hydrophobic. The PAHs are distributed most strongly into PP but only weakly into PVC. The fragmentation and oxidation of microplastics means that they sorb increasing amounts of organic material as they age. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Marine Environmental Science)
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22 pages, 6330 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Dynamic Characteristics of Rotor Sail Using a 4DOF Rotor Model and Finite Element Model
by Dong Min Kim, Soon Ho Hong, Se Hyeon Jeong and Sun Je Kim
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(2), 335; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12020335 - 16 Feb 2024
Viewed by 792
Abstract
The interest in wind-assisted ship propulsions (WASPs) is increasing to improve fuel efficiency and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in ships. A rotor sail, one of the typical WASPs, can provide auxiliary propulsive force by rotating a cylinder-shaped structure based on the Magnus [...] Read more.
The interest in wind-assisted ship propulsions (WASPs) is increasing to improve fuel efficiency and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in ships. A rotor sail, one of the typical WASPs, can provide auxiliary propulsive force by rotating a cylinder-shaped structure based on the Magnus effect. However, due to its huge rotating structure, a meticulous evaluation of the influence on the ship structure and dynamical stability of the rotating structure should be conducted in the design stage. In this respect, an analysis of the rotating structure for a 30 m height and 3 m diameter rotor sail was conducted in this study. First, a 4DOF (four-degree-of-freedom) model was derived to simplify the dynamics of the rotor sail. Using the 4DOF model, natural frequencies for four low-order modes of the rotor sail were calculated, and frequency responses at support points were predicted. Next, a comparison and validation with the finite element model of the rotor sail were carried out. For the 1st and 2nd natural frequencies, a difference of approximately 0.3 Hz was observed between the 4DOF model and the finite element model, confirming the effectiveness of the 4DOF model for low-order modes. In analysis with changes in the bearing supporting stiffnesses, it was verified that lower support bearings have a significant impact on rotor dynamics compared to upper support bearings. Vibration response at the upper support was also confirmed through frequency response analysis caused by imbalance at Thom disk and mid-plate. Additionally, when estimating the eccentricity of the Thom disk as imbalance, a limit of eccentricity error could be set as 24 mm. The presented modeling procedures and analysis results can be references during early design stage of a novel rotor sail structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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19 pages, 13756 KiB  
Article
Simulation Study on Methods for Reducing Dynamic Cable Curvature in Floating Wind Power Platforms
by Zhitao Guo, Xudong Zhao, Qingfen Ma, Jingru Li and Zhongye Wu
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(2), 334; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12020334 - 15 Feb 2024
Viewed by 613
Abstract
As a key component connecting a floating wind turbine with static sea cables, dynamic cables undergo significant tensile and bending loads caused by hydrostatic pressure, self-weight, waves, and ocean currents during service, which can lead to fatigue failure. Thus, dynamic and fatigue analyses [...] Read more.
As a key component connecting a floating wind turbine with static sea cables, dynamic cables undergo significant tensile and bending loads caused by hydrostatic pressure, self-weight, waves, and ocean currents during service, which can lead to fatigue failure. Thus, dynamic and fatigue analyses are necessary for the design and operation of dynamic cables. In this study, a fatigue analysis of the three-core four-layer armored dynamic cable used in a semisubmersible floating wind turbine was carried out at a water depth of 25 m. The Miner linear cumulative damage method, based on material S-N curves, was used to predict fatigue life. The results indicate that, at 10 times the safety factor, the dynamic cables meet the design requirement of a 30-year service life in the studied marine environment. The maximal curvature of the dynamic cable always appears at the exit of the bend stiffener, even beyond the allowed point. Adding weights to the section where the cable exits the bend stiffener and adjusting the bend stiffener’s hanging angle can both reduce the curvature at the bend stiffener exit. The scheme of adjusting the bend stiffener’s hanging angle is preferred, for it is easier for simultaneous adjusting and inducing much smaller extra stress in the cable. As the hanging angle increases, the curvature at the bend stiffener exit decreases, while the maximal effective tension and maximal von Mises stress gradually increase. For certain operating conditions, especially with higher waves, it is better to adjust the hanging angle to avoid excessive curvature and, meanwhile, ensure the increase in the stress within a reasonable range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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17 pages, 4749 KiB  
Article
Accurate Identification Method of Small-Size Polymetallic Nodules Based on Seafloor Hyperspectral Data
by Kai Sun, Ziyin Wu, Mingwei Wang, Jihong Shang, Zhihao Liu, Dineng Zhao and Xiaowen Luo
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(2), 333; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12020333 - 15 Feb 2024
Viewed by 587
Abstract
Polymetallic nodules are spherical or ellipsoidal mineral aggregates formed naturally in deep-sea environments. They contain a variety of metallic elements and are important solid mineral resources on the seabed. How best to quickly and accurately identify polymetallic nodules is one of the key [...] Read more.
Polymetallic nodules are spherical or ellipsoidal mineral aggregates formed naturally in deep-sea environments. They contain a variety of metallic elements and are important solid mineral resources on the seabed. How best to quickly and accurately identify polymetallic nodules is one of the key questions of marine development and deep-sea-mineral-resource utilization. We propose a method that uses YOLOv5s as a reference network and integrates the IoU (Intersection over Union) and the Wasserstein distance in the optimal transmission theory to accurately identify different sizes of polymetallic nodules. Experiment using deep-sea hyperspectral data obtained from the Peru Basin was performed. The results showed that better recognition effects were achieved when the fusion ratio of overlap and Wasserstein distance metric was 0.5, and the accuracy of the proposed algorithm reached 84.5%, which was 6.2% higher than that of the original baseline network. In addition, the rest of the performance indexes were also improved significantly compared to traditional methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geological Oceanography)
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25 pages, 6858 KiB  
Article
Steering and Rising Testing of an Innovative Tourist Submarine
by Ivan Ćatipović, Marta Pedišić-Buča and Joško Parunov
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(2), 332; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12020332 - 15 Feb 2024
Viewed by 474
Abstract
An innovative tourist submarine was studied by scale-model tests in a towing tank to determine its steering capabilities and detect motion instabilities during usual manoeuvres and emergency rising. Motion instabilities are caused by the combination of the submarine motions and the fluid flow, [...] Read more.
An innovative tourist submarine was studied by scale-model tests in a towing tank to determine its steering capabilities and detect motion instabilities during usual manoeuvres and emergency rising. Motion instabilities are caused by the combination of the submarine motions and the fluid flow, leading to excessive roll and pitch that can cause severe endangerment to passenger safety. The submarine model was built on a scale of 1:9. The model had six thrusters to conduct the tested manoeuvres, i.e., two main thrusters at the stern, two side thrusters, and two vertical thrusters. The thrusters were computer-controlled, so each thruster had a speed controller and could run forwards and backwards. Six different steering tests and four rising tests were conducted, with at least two runs per test. During the tests, the roll and pitch were measured. Lifting the submarine by a crane was also a part of the experimental campaign. In general, the steering capabilities of the submarine were satisfactory and rolling instabilities were absent. Just a few deficiencies in the steering capabilities were detected. The rising tests were performed without any major motion instabilities, but in one case, the final position of the model at the surface was unstable. Full article
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25 pages, 10729 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Flow Instability and Mechanical Energy Loss of Fluid Field in Fluid Momentum Wheel
by Kedong Zhang, Wenhua Wang, Yihua Liu, Linlin Wang, Yazhen Du, Hongxia Li and Yi Huang
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(2), 331; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12020331 - 15 Feb 2024
Viewed by 447
Abstract
A new type of anti-rolling device denoted as a fluid momentum wheel (FMW) is proposed to address the limitations of traditional gyrostabilizers in reducing the roll responses of floating platforms in waves. The proposed device is based on the same gyroscope theorem, which [...] Read more.
A new type of anti-rolling device denoted as a fluid momentum wheel (FMW) is proposed to address the limitations of traditional gyrostabilizers in reducing the roll responses of floating platforms in waves. The proposed device is based on the same gyroscope theorem, which differs from a rigid gyrostabilizer in that the internal fluid generates secondary flow in the cross-section under the combined effects of inertial centrifugal force and a radial pressure gradient, and the streamwise velocity exhibits a non-uniform distribution. These instability phenomena may cause mechanical energy loss in the flow field, which is critical for selecting the driving device and the anti-roll control performance of offshore platforms. In the study, different turbulence models are compared with the results of a Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) and experiments to ensure the accuracy of the numerical method, and the spatiotemporal distribution characteristics of the flow field in FMW are analyzed. Therein, the SST k-ω model accurately verifies the flow instability phenomenon of the FMW observed in the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) experiment. Next, this paper proposes corresponding evaluation parameters to assess the impact of typical parameters on the flow field instability. The results show that the flow instability increases with an increase in the typical parameters of FMWs (such as the pipe diameter, curvature radius, and velocity). Furthermore, the paper discusses the relationship between dimensionless mechanical factors (Reynolds number, curvature ratio) and the spatiotemporal instability of the flow field, revealing the essential effects of the curvature ratio and Reynolds number on the loss coefficient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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