Editor's Choice Articles

Editor’s Choice articles are based on recommendations by the scientific editors of MDPI journals from around the world. Editors select a small number of articles recently published in the journal that they believe will be particularly interesting to authors, or important in this field. The aim is to provide a snapshot of some of the most exciting work published in the various research areas of the journal.

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Article
1D–3D Coupling Algorithm of Gas Flow for the Valve System in a Compression Ignition Engine
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(10), 1061; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9101061 - 27 Sep 2021
Abstract
Emission control devices such as selective catalytic reduction (SCR), exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and scrubbers were installed in the compression ignition (CI) engine, and flow analysis of intake air and exhaust gas was required to predict the performance of the CI engine and [...] Read more.
Emission control devices such as selective catalytic reduction (SCR), exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and scrubbers were installed in the compression ignition (CI) engine, and flow analysis of intake air and exhaust gas was required to predict the performance of the CI engine and emission control devices. In order to analyze such gas flow, it was inefficient to comprehensively analyze the engine’s cylinder and intake/exhaust systems because it takes a lot of computation time. Therefore, there is a need for a method that can quickly calculate the gas flow of the CI engine in order to shorten the development process of emission control devices. It can be efficient and quickly calculated if only the parts that require detailed observation among the intake/exhaust gas flow of the CI engine are analyzed in a 3D approach and the rest are analyzed in a 1D approach. In this study, an algorithm for gas flow analysis was developed by coupling 1D and 3D in the valve systems and comparing with experimental results for validation. Analyzing the intake/exhaust gas flow of the CI engine in a 3D approach took about 7 days for computation, but using the developed 1D–3D coupling algorithm, it could be computed within 30 min. Compared with the experimental results, the exhaust pipe pressure occurred an error within 1.80%, confirming the accuracy and it was possible to observe the detailed flow by showing the contour results for the part analyzed in the 3D zone. As a result, it was possible to accurately and quickly calculate the gas flow of the CI engine using the 1D–3D coupling algorithm applied to the valve system, and it was expected that it can be used to shorten the process for analyzing emission control devices, including predicting the performance of the CI engine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experiments and Numerical Analysis of Flow)
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Article
Optimal Ways of Unloading and Loading Operations under Arctic Conditions
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(10), 1050; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9101050 - 24 Sep 2021
Abstract
Usually, loading and unloading of cargo ships takes place in ports that are equipped with the infrastructure necessary to carry out such operations. In the Arctic, often a helicopter is the only way to get the cargo to the right place. Finding the [...] Read more.
Usually, loading and unloading of cargo ships takes place in ports that are equipped with the infrastructure necessary to carry out such operations. In the Arctic, often a helicopter is the only way to get the cargo to the right place. Finding the optimal geographic location for unloading a ship using helicopters is an important task. It is necessary to create a support system for making the right decisions in such situations. Mathematical modeling has been used to find the geographical location that ensures the most favorable and quickest delivery of cargo from a vessel to its destination, using a helicopter. A criterion has also been found in which the search for the optimum point is a more rational way of unloading the vessel compared to other discharge options. The maps of the economic benefits of loading and unloading operations in this model have been developed. Using the example of the developed model, it is shown that during the transportation of goods in Ob Bay, significant economic and temporary advantages can be obtained. The developed model can be extended to the case of cargo delivery not only in the Arctic conditions, but also where the transport infrastructure is insufficiently developed. Full article
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Article
Bathymetric Data Requirements for Operational Coastal Erosion Forecasting Using XBeach
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(10), 1053; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9101053 - 24 Sep 2021
Abstract
There is an increasing interest in the broad-scale implementation of coastal erosion early warning systems (EWS) with the goal of enhancing community preparedness to extreme coastal storm wave events. These emerging systems typically rely on process-based models to predict the storm-induced morphological change. [...] Read more.
There is an increasing interest in the broad-scale implementation of coastal erosion early warning systems (EWS) with the goal of enhancing community preparedness to extreme coastal storm wave events. These emerging systems typically rely on process-based models to predict the storm-induced morphological change. A key challenge with incorporating these models in EWSs is the need for up-to-date nearshore and surf zone bathymetry data, which is difficult to measure routinely, but potentially important for accurate erosion forecasting. This study evaluates the degree to which up-to-date bathymetry is required for accurate coastal erosion predictions using the morphodynamic model XBeach and, subsequently, whether a range of “representative” and/or “synthetic” bathymetries can be used for the bottom boundary, when a survey of the immediate pre-storm bathymetry is not available. Twelve storm events at two contrasting sites were modelled using six different bathymetry scenarios, including the expected “best case” bathymetry surveyed immediately pre-storm. These results indicate that alternative bathymetries can be used to obtain sub-aerial erosion predictions that are similar (and in some cases better) than those resulting from the use of an immediately pre-storm surveyed bathymetry, provided that rigorous model calibration is undertaken prior. This generalized finding is attributed to specific parametrizations in the XBeach model structure that are optimized during the calibration process to match the particular bottom boundary condition used. This study provides practical guidance for the selection of suitable nearshore bathymetry for use in operational coastal erosion EWSs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring and Modelling of Coastal Environment)
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Article
Soil Fabric and Transitional Behavior in Completely Decomposed Granite: An Example of Well-Graded Soil
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(10), 1046; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9101046 - 23 Sep 2021
Abstract
Unlike sedimentary soils, limited studies have dealt with completely decomposed granite (CDG) soils, even though they are plentiful and used extensively in several engineering applications. In this paper, a set of triaxial compression tests have been conducted on well-graded intact and disturbed CDG [...] Read more.
Unlike sedimentary soils, limited studies have dealt with completely decomposed granite (CDG) soils, even though they are plentiful and used extensively in several engineering applications. In this paper, a set of triaxial compression tests have been conducted on well-graded intact and disturbed CDG soils to study the impact of the fabric on soil behavior. The soil behavior was robustly affected by the soil fabric and its mineral composition. The intact soil showed multiple parallel compression lines, while a unique isotropic compression line was present in the case of disturbed soil. Both the intact and disturbed soils showed unique critical state lines (CSL) in both the e-log p′ and q-p′ spaces. The intact soil showed behavior unlike other transitional soils that have both distinct isotropic compression lines ICLs and CSLs. The gradient of the unique ICL of the disturbed soil was much more than that of the parallel compression lines of the intact soil. In the intact soil, the slope of the unique CSL (M) in the q-p′ space was higher than that of the disturbed soil. The isotropic response was present for both the intact and disturbed soils after erasing the inherited anisotropy as the stress increased with irrecoverable volumetric change. Soil fabric is considered the dominant factor in the transitional behavior and such a mode of soil behavior is no longer restricted to gap-graded soil as previously thought. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geological Oceanography)
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Article
Challenges for Zero-Emissions Ship
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(10), 1042; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9101042 - 22 Sep 2021
Abstract
Due to the increasing impact of ship emissions on the environment and the preventive measures of current regulations introduced by the International Maritime Organization to significantly reduce them, the development of ocean-going all-electric ships has been addressed as a concept applied to achieve [...] Read more.
Due to the increasing impact of ship emissions on the environment and the preventive measures of current regulations introduced by the International Maritime Organization to significantly reduce them, the development of ocean-going all-electric ships has been addressed as a concept applied to achieve it. Being a promising technology considers the use of technology alternatives such as fuel cells, batteries, and supercapacitors together with the use of zero-carbon alternative fuels such as hydrogen (H2) and ammonia (NH3) as main energy sources. This article addresses a state-of-the-art on several challenges related to the ocean-going zero-emissions ship to achieve a zero-emissions shipping, based on the technology associated with hybrid and all-electric ship, and the zero-carbon fuels alternatives. In this respect, a transition from fossil fuel-based propulsion and auxiliary systems to a zero-emissions ship concept are related to the challenges to overcome the needs of energy density for these new alternatives energy sources compared to current fossil fuel options. The transitional process should consider a first step of hybridization of the propulsion and auxiliary systems of existing ships to get a baseline from where to move forward to a zero-emissions configuration for new designs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zero Emission Shipping)
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Article
The North Equatorial Countercurrent East of the Dateline, Its Variations and Its Relationship to the El Niño Event
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(10), 1041; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9101041 - 22 Sep 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
Using forty years (1978–2017) of Ocean Reanalysis System 4 (ORAS4) dataset, the purpose of this study is to investigate the fluctuation of the North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC) to the east of the dateline in relation to the presence of three kinds of El [...] Read more.
Using forty years (1978–2017) of Ocean Reanalysis System 4 (ORAS4) dataset, the purpose of this study is to investigate the fluctuation of the North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC) to the east of the dateline in relation to the presence of three kinds of El Niño events. From spring (MAM) through summer (JJA), we found that the NECC was stronger during the Eastern Pacific El Niño (EP El Niño) and the MIX El Niño than during the Central Pacific El Niño (CP El Niño). When it comes to winter (DJF), on the other hand, the NECC was stronger during the CP and MIX El Niño and weaker during the EP El Niño. This NECC variability was affected by the fluctuations of thermocline depth near the equatorial Pacific. Moreover, we also found that the seasonal southward shift of the NECC occurred between winter and spring, but the shift was absent during the CP and MIX El Niño events. This meridional shift was strongly affected by the local wind stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sea Surface Temperature: From Observation to Applications)
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Article
A Design Method to Assess the Primary Strength of the Delta-Type VLFS
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(9), 1026; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9091026 - 18 Sep 2021
Abstract
Very large floating structure (VLFS) is a sustainable concept centered around creating solid platforms at sea. The Delta is a new type of VLFS, designed to withstand open-sea conditions and to form, in addition to a broad deck areas, a sheltered basin of [...] Read more.
Very large floating structure (VLFS) is a sustainable concept centered around creating solid platforms at sea. The Delta is a new type of VLFS, designed to withstand open-sea conditions and to form, in addition to a broad deck areas, a sheltered basin of year-round operability. The design of this unique hull relies on direct calculations in order to identify critical load cases and assess their load effects. This study formulates a theoretical procedure for the initial assessment of the primary strength. The procedure analytically integrates the floatation loads while the hull rests at hydrostatic equilibrium on a wave surface and obtains the vertical and horizontal bending moment. This preliminary assessment tool enables a fast review of many load cases and provides the basic insights necessary for a reasonable initial design. Using the procedure, we conducted a primary load assessment for the design of Delta. By calculating the load response to 588 load cases, we identified the critical load scenario and the maximal axial stress. As the stress was too high, we improved the geometry in order to reduce loads and assessed proper scantlings for the critical section. We present the formulation of the procedure, the validation of the results, and the implementation for the structural design of the Delta VLFS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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Article
A Comparison of Traditional and Locally Novel Fishing Gear for the Exploitation of the Invasive Atlantic Blue Crab in the Eastern Adriatic Sea
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(9), 1019; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9091019 - 17 Sep 2021
Abstract
The Atlantic Blue Crab Callinectes sapidus has been recognized as invasive in the Mediterranean Sea, where it now provides a significant contribution to artisanal fisheries. In this study, we compared the efficiency, selectivity, and productivity of American wire crab traps and traditional fyke [...] Read more.
The Atlantic Blue Crab Callinectes sapidus has been recognized as invasive in the Mediterranean Sea, where it now provides a significant contribution to artisanal fisheries. In this study, we compared the efficiency, selectivity, and productivity of American wire crab traps and traditional fyke nets for the capture of Blue Crabs in a study conducted from June to December 2019 in the Parila Lagoon (River Neretva Estuary, Croatia). A total of 7707 specimens were caught in 15 wire traps, comprising 6959 males and 749 females. The total catch using 50 traditional fyke traps was 1451 crabs, of which 1211 were males and 240 were females. In general, wire crab traps showed a higher capture selectivity and economic performance compared to fyke nets. The catch per unit effort (CPUE) was 102.76 kg for the American wire crab trap and 5.96 kg for the traditional fyke net. The CPUE of gravid female Blue Crabs was lower for the wire traps than the fyke nets. Herein, the utility of crab traps as selective fishing gear for the capture of Blue Crabs, and management tools for control of the reproductive and recruitment phases of the crab, are discussed, with the perspective of future exploitation of the species as a commercially valuable shellfish product in the Mediterranean. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fisheries Management)
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Article
Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus) in the Ligurian Sea: Preliminary Study on Acoustics Demonstrates Their Regular Occurrence in Autumn
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(9), 966; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9090966 - 06 Sep 2021
Abstract
The patterns of movement of the fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus (Linnaeus, 1758)) in the Mediterranean Sea are still a matter of debate. Feeding aggregations are well known in the Corso-Liguro-Provençal Basin from July to September, but little is known for the autumn [...] Read more.
The patterns of movement of the fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus (Linnaeus, 1758)) in the Mediterranean Sea are still a matter of debate. Feeding aggregations are well known in the Corso-Liguro-Provençal Basin from July to September, but little is known for the autumn and winter seasons. Passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) was implemented in the Ligurian Sea to overcome this gap and to investigate the temporal and spatial variation of fin whale acoustic presence. From July to December 2011, five autonomous recorders were deployed at between 700 and 900 m depths. Fin whale calls were automatically detected almost every day, with higher vocalization rates in October, November, and December. Furthermore, daily vocalization rates were higher during light hours, and closer to the coast. These outcomes suggest that not all the individuals migrate, staying in the area also during autumn for feeding or breeding purposes. The dial cycle of vocalization might be related to feeding activities and zooplankton vertical migration, whereas the proximity to the coast can be explained by the morphology of the area that promotes the upwelling system. Although this work only represents a six-month period, certainly it suggests the need for a larger spatial and temporal PAM effort, crucial for species management and for mitigating possible impact of anthropogenic activities at the basin level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Passive Acoustics to Study Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems)
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Article
Analysis of Composite Scrubber with Built-In Silencer for Marine Engines
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(9), 962; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9090962 - 03 Sep 2021
Abstract
The International Maritime Organization (IMO) is strengthening regulations on reducing sulfur oxide emissions, and the demand for reducing exhaust noise affecting the environment of ships is also increasing. Various technologies have been developed to satisfy these needs. In this paper, a composite scrubber [...] Read more.
The International Maritime Organization (IMO) is strengthening regulations on reducing sulfur oxide emissions, and the demand for reducing exhaust noise affecting the environment of ships is also increasing. Various technologies have been developed to satisfy these needs. In this paper, a composite scrubber for ships that can simultaneously reduce sulfur oxide and noise was proposed, and the flow characteristics and noise characteristics were analyzed. For the silencer, vane type and resonate type were applied. In the case of the vane type, the effects of the direction, size, and location of the vane were analyzed, and in the case of the resonate type, the effects of the hole location and the number of holes were analyzed. The result shows that the length increase of the vane increased the average transmission loss and had a great effect, especially in the low frequency region. The transmission loss increased when the vane was installed outside, and the noise reduction effect was excellent when the vane was in the reverse direction. In the resonate type, increasing the number of holes is advantageous for noise reduction. The condition for maximally reducing noise in the range not exceeding 840 Pa, which is 70% of the allowable back pressure, is a vane length of 225 mm in the outer vane reverse type. The pressure drop under this condition was 777 Pa, and the average transmission losses in the low frequency region and the entire frequency region were 43.5 and 54.5 dB, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Engines Performance and Emissions II)
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Article
Benthic Diatoms on Sheltered Coastal Soft Bottoms (Baltic Sea)—Seasonal Community Production and Respiration
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(9), 949; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9090949 - 31 Aug 2021
Abstract
Benthic diatom communities dominate sheltered shallow inner coastal waters of the atidal Southern Baltic Sea. However, their photosynthetic oxygen production and respiratory oxygen consumption is rarely evaluated. In the Baltic Sea carbon budget benthic diatom communities are often not included, since phytoplankton is [...] Read more.
Benthic diatom communities dominate sheltered shallow inner coastal waters of the atidal Southern Baltic Sea. However, their photosynthetic oxygen production and respiratory oxygen consumption is rarely evaluated. In the Baltic Sea carbon budget benthic diatom communities are often not included, since phytoplankton is regarded as the main primary producer. Therefore, two wind-protected stations (2–49-cm depths) were investigated between July 2010 and April 2012 using undisturbed sediment cores in combination with planar oxygen optodes. We expected strong fluctuations in the biological activity parameters in the incubated cores over the course of the seasons. The sediment particles at both stations were dominated by fine sand with a median grain size of 131–138 µm exhibiting an angular shape with many edges, which were less mobile compared to exposed coastal sites of the Southern Baltic Sea. These sand grains inhabited dense communities of rather small epipsammic diatoms (<10 µm). Chlorophyll a as a biomass parameter for benthic diatoms fluctuated from 64.8 to 277.3-mg Chl. a m−2 sediment surface. The net primary production and respiration rates exhibited strong variations across the different months at both stations, ranging from 12.9 to 56.9 mg O2 m−2 h−1 and from −6.4 to −137.6 mg O2 m−2 h−1, respectively. From these data, a gross primary production of 13.4 to 59.5 mg C m−2 h−1 was calculated. The results presented confirmed strong seasonal changes (four-fold amplitude) for the activity parameters and, hence, provided important production biological information for sheltered sediments of the Southern Baltic Sea. These data clearly indicate that benthic diatoms, although often ignored until now, represent a key component in the primary production of these coastal habitats when compared to similar studies at other locations of the Baltic Sea and, hence, should be considered in any carbon budget model of this brackish water ecosystem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Lagoon Ecology)
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Article
Round Robin Testing: Exploring Experimental Uncertainties through a Multifacility Comparison of a Hinged Raft Wave Energy Converter
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(9), 946; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9090946 - 30 Aug 2021
Cited by 3
Abstract
The EU H2020 MaRINET2 project has a goal to improve the quality, robustness and accuracy of physical modelling and associated testing practices for the offshore renewable energy sector. To support this aim, a round robin scale physical modelling test programme was conducted to [...] Read more.
The EU H2020 MaRINET2 project has a goal to improve the quality, robustness and accuracy of physical modelling and associated testing practices for the offshore renewable energy sector. To support this aim, a round robin scale physical modelling test programme was conducted to deploy a common wave energy converter at four wave basins operated by MaRINET2 partners. Test campaigns were conducted at each facility to a common specification and test matrix, providing the unique opportunity for intercomparison between facilities and working practices. A nonproprietary hinged raft, with a nominal scale of 1:25, was tested under a set of 12 irregular sea states. This allowed for an assessment of power output, hinge angles, mooring loads, and six-degree-of-freedom motions. The key outcome to be concluded from the results is that the facilities performed consistently, with the majority of variation linked to differences in sea state calibration. A variation of 5–10% in mean power was typical and was consistent with the variability observed in the measured significant wave heights. The tank depth (which varied from 2–5 m) showed remarkably little influence on the results, although it is noted that these tests used an aerial mooring system with the geometry unaffected by the tank depth. Similar good agreement was seen in the heave, surge, pitch and hinge angle responses. In order to maintain and improve the consistency across laboratories, we make recommendations on characterising and calibrating the tank environment and stress the importance of the device–facility physical interface (the aerial mooring in this case). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Renewables–Infrastructures and Physical Testing)
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Article
Emission Abatement Technology Selection, Routing and Speed Optimization of Hybrid Ships
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(9), 944; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9090944 - 30 Aug 2021
Abstract
This paper evaluates the effect of a large-capacity electrical energy storage, e.g., Li-ion battery, on optimal sailing routes, speeds, fuel choice, and emission abatement technology selection. Despite rapid cost reduction and performance improvement, current Li-ion chemistries are infeasible for providing the total energy [...] Read more.
This paper evaluates the effect of a large-capacity electrical energy storage, e.g., Li-ion battery, on optimal sailing routes, speeds, fuel choice, and emission abatement technology selection. Despite rapid cost reduction and performance improvement, current Li-ion chemistries are infeasible for providing the total energy demand for ocean-crossing ships because the energy density is up to two orders of magnitude less than in liquid hydrocarbon fuels. However, limited distance zero-emission port arrival, mooring, and port departure are attainable. In this context, we formulate two groups of numerical problems. First, the well-known Emission Control Area (ECA) routing problem is extended with battery-powered zero-emission legs. ECAs have incentivized ship operators to choose longer distance routes to avoid using expensive low sulfur fuel required for compliance, resulting in increased greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The second problem evaluates the trade-off between battery capacity and speed on battery-powered zero-emission port arrival and departure legs. We develop a mixed-integer quadratically constrained program to investigate the least cost system configuration and operation. We find that the optimal speed is up to 50% slower on battery-powered legs compared to the baseline without zero-emission constraint. The slower speed on the zero-emission legs is compensated by higher speed throughout the rest of the voyage, which may increase the total amount of GHG emissions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling and Optimisation of Ship Energy Systems II)
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Article
Broadband Characteristics of Zooplankton Sound Scattering Layer in the Kuroshio–Oyashio Confluence Region of the Northwest Pacific Ocean in Summer of 2019
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(9), 938; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9090938 - 29 Aug 2021
Abstract
Acoustic technology, as an important investigation method for fishery resources, has been widely used in zooplankton surveys. Since the Kuroshio–Oyashio confluence region has an extensive distribution of zooplankton, describing and analyzing the characteristic of the zooplankton sound scattering layer (SSL) in this area [...] Read more.
Acoustic technology, as an important investigation method for fishery resources, has been widely used in zooplankton surveys. Since the Kuroshio–Oyashio confluence region has an extensive distribution of zooplankton, describing and analyzing the characteristic of the zooplankton sound scattering layer (SSL) in this area is essential for marine ecology research. To understand its spatial–temporal distribution, acoustic data of the Kuroshio–Oyashio confluence region at the Northwest Pacific Ocean, obtained by a Simrad EK80 broadband scientific echosounder in 2019, were used on board the research vessel (RV) Songhang. After noise removal, the volume backscattering strength (SV) was measured to plot the broadband scattering spectrogram of each water layer and to exhibit zooplankton distribution. The results show that the main sound scattering within 0–200 m originate from the zooplankton, and the SV of each layer increases with the rise of the transducer frequency. The magnitude of SV was closely synchronized with the solar altitude angle, which gets smaller when the angle is positive, then larger when the angle is negative. It means that the SSL has a diel vertical migration (DVM) behavior with the variation of solar height. Meanwhile, scattering strength was positively correlated with temperature in the vertical direction and showed a maximum of −54.31 dB at 20–40 m under the influence of the thermocline. The Kuroshio and Oyashio currents had an obvious influence on the scattering strengths in this study, indicating a low value when next to the Oyashio side and a high value on the Kuroshio side. The scattering strength near the warm vortex center was higher than that at the vortex edge. The results of this study could provide references for a long-term study on ecological environment variation and its impacts on zooplankton distribution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Environment Monitoring)
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Article
A Novel Cargo Ship Detection and Directional Discrimination Method for Remote Sensing Image Based on Lightweight Network
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(9), 932; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9090932 - 28 Aug 2021
Abstract
Recently, cargo ship detection in remote sensing images based on deep learning is of great significance for cargo ship monitoring. However, the existing detection network is not only unable to realize autonomous operation on spaceborne platforms due to the limitation of computing and [...] Read more.
Recently, cargo ship detection in remote sensing images based on deep learning is of great significance for cargo ship monitoring. However, the existing detection network is not only unable to realize autonomous operation on spaceborne platforms due to the limitation of computing and storage, but the detection result also lacks the directional information of the cargo ship. In order to address the above problems, we propose a novel cargo ship detection and directional discrimination method for remote sensing images based on a lightweight network. Specifically, we design an efficient and lightweight feature extraction network called the one-shot aggregation and depthwise separable network (OSADSNet), which is inspired by one-shot feature aggregation modules and depthwise separable convolutions. Additionally, we combine the RPN with the K-Mean++ algorithm to obtain the K-RPN, which can produce a more suitable region proposal for cargo ship detection. Furthermore, without introducing extra parameters, the directional discrimination of the cargo ship is transformed into a classification task, and the directional discrimination is completed when the detection task is completed. Experiments on a self-built remote sensing image cargo ship dataset indicate that our model can provide relatively accurate and fast detection for cargo ships (mAP of 91.96% and prediction time of 46 ms per image) and discriminate the directions (north, east, south, and west) of cargo ships, with fewer parameters (model size of 110 MB), which is more suitable for autonomous operation on spaceborne platforms. Therefore, the proposed method can meet the needs of cargo ship detection and directional discrimination in remote sensing images on spaceborne platforms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Machine Learning and Remote Sensing in Ocean Science and Engineering)
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Article
Improving the Performance of Mode-Based Sound Propagation Models by Using Perturbation Formulae for Eigenvalues and Eigenfunctions
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(9), 934; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9090934 - 28 Aug 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
Numerous sound propagation models in underwater acoustics are based on the representation of a sound field in the form of a decomposition over normal modes. In the framework of such models, the calculation of the field in a range-dependent waveguide (as well as [...] Read more.
Numerous sound propagation models in underwater acoustics are based on the representation of a sound field in the form of a decomposition over normal modes. In the framework of such models, the calculation of the field in a range-dependent waveguide (as well as in the case of 3D problems) requires the computation of normal modes for every point within the area of interest (that is, for each pair of horizontal coordinates x,y). This procedure is often responsible for the lion’s share of total computational cost of the field simulation. In this study, we present formulae for perturbation of eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of normal modes under the water depth variations in a shallow-water waveguide. These formulae can reduce the total number of mode computation instances required for a field calculation by a factor of 5–10. We also discuss how these formulae can be used in a combination with a wide-angle mode parabolic equation. The accuracy of such combined model is validated in a series of numerical examples. Full article
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Article
A Numerical Study of Sheet Flow Driven by Skewed-Asymmetric Shoaling Waves Using SedWaveFoam
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(9), 936; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9090936 - 28 Aug 2021
Abstract
SedWaveFoam, an OpenFOAM-based two-phase model that concurrently resolves the free surface wave field, and the bottom boundary layer is used to investigate sediment transport throughout the entire water column. The numerical model was validated with large-scale wave flume data for sheet flow driven [...] Read more.
SedWaveFoam, an OpenFOAM-based two-phase model that concurrently resolves the free surface wave field, and the bottom boundary layer is used to investigate sediment transport throughout the entire water column. The numerical model was validated with large-scale wave flume data for sheet flow driven by shoaling skewed-asymmetric waves with two different grain sizes. Newly obtained model results were combined with previous nonbreaking and near-breaking wave cases to develop parameterization methods for time-dependent bed shear stress and sediment transport rate under various sediment sizes and wave conditions. Gonzalez-Rodriguez and Madsen (GRM07) and quasi-steady approaches were compared for intra-wave bed shear stress. The results show that in strongly asymmetric flows, considering the separated boundary layer development processes at each half wave-cycle (i.e., GRM07) is essential to accurately estimating bed shear stress and highlights the impact of phase-lag effects on sediment transport rates. The quasi-steady approach underpredicts (∼60%) sediment transport rates, especially for fine grains under large velocity asymmetry. A modified phase-lag parameter, incorporating velocity asymmetry, sediment stirring, and settling processes is proposed to extend the Meyer-Peter and Mueller type power law formula. The extended formula accurately estimated the enhanced net onshore sediment transport rate observed under skewed-asymmetric wave conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Coastal Sediment Dynamics and Transport)
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Article
A Comparative Study on the Hydrodynamic-Energy Loss Characteristics between a Ducted Turbine and a Shaftless Ducted Turbine
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(9), 930; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9090930 - 27 Aug 2021
Abstract
The shaftless ducted turbine (abbreviated as SDT), as an extraordinary innovation in tidal current power generation applications, has many advantages, and a wide application prospect. The structure of an SDT resembles a ducted turbine (abbreviated as DT), as both contain blades and a [...] Read more.
The shaftless ducted turbine (abbreviated as SDT), as an extraordinary innovation in tidal current power generation applications, has many advantages, and a wide application prospect. The structure of an SDT resembles a ducted turbine (abbreviated as DT), as both contain blades and a duct. However, there are some structural differences between a DT and a SDT, which can cause significant discrepancy in the hydrodynamic characteristics and flow features. The present work compares the detailed hydrodynamic-energy loss characteristics of a DT and a SDT by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), performed by solving the 3D steady incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations in combination with the Menter’s Shear Stress Transport (SST kω) turbulence model and entropy production model. The results show the SDT features a higher power level at low tip speed ratio (TSR) and a potential reduction in potential flow resistance and disturbance with respect to the DT. Moreover, a detail entropy production analysis shows the energy loss is closely related to the flow separation and the reverse flow, and other negative flow factors. The entropy production of the SDT is lessened than that of the DT at different TSR. Unlike the DT, the SDT allows a large mass flow of water to leak through the open-center structure, which plays an important role in improving the wake structure and avoiding the negative flow along the central axis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Marine Renewable Energy)
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Article
Prediction of Changes in Seafloor Depths Based on Time Series of Bathymetry Observations: Dutch North Sea Case
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(9), 931; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9090931 - 27 Aug 2021
Abstract
Guaranteeing safety of navigation within the Netherlands Continental Shelf (NCS), while efficiently using its ocean mapping resources, is a key task of Netherlands Hydrographic Service (NLHS) and Rijkswaterstaat (RWS). Resurvey frequencies depend on seafloor dynamics and the aim of this research is to [...] Read more.
Guaranteeing safety of navigation within the Netherlands Continental Shelf (NCS), while efficiently using its ocean mapping resources, is a key task of Netherlands Hydrographic Service (NLHS) and Rijkswaterstaat (RWS). Resurvey frequencies depend on seafloor dynamics and the aim of this research is to model the seafloor dynamics to predict changes in seafloor depth that would require resurveying. Characterisation of the seafloor dynamics is based on available time series of bathymetry data obtained from the acoustic remote sensing method of both single-beam echosounding (SBES) and multibeam echosounding (MBES). This time series is used to define a library of mathematical models describing the seafloor dynamics in relation to spatial and temporal changes in depth. An adaptive, functional model selection procedure is developed using a nodal analysis (0D) approach, based on statistical hypothesis testing using a combination of the Overall Model Test (OMT) statistic and Generalised Likelihood Ratio Test (GLRT). This approach ensures that each model has an equal chance of being selected, when more than one hypothesis is plausible for areas that exhibit varying seafloor dynamics. This ensures a more flexible and rigorous decision on the choice of the nominal model assumption. The addition of piecewise linear models to the library offers another characterisation of the trends in the nodal time series. This has led to an optimised model selection procedure and parameterisation of each nodal time series, which is used for the spatial and temporal predictions of the changes in the depths and associated uncertainties. The model selection results show that the models can detect the changes in the seafloor depths with spatial consistency and similarity, particularly in the shoaling areas where tidal sandwaves are present. The predicted changes in depths and uncertainties are translated into a probability risk-alert map by evaluating the probabilities of an indicator variable exceeding a certain decision threshold. This research can further support the decision-making process when optimising resurvey frequencies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spatial and Spatiotemporal Methods in Marine Science)
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Article
Comparative Analysis of Two Approaches for Correcting the Systematic Ocean Temperature Bias of CAS-ESM-C
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(9), 925; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9090925 - 26 Aug 2021
Abstract
Currently, several ocean data assimilation methods have been adopted to increase the performance of air–sea coupled models, but inconsistent adjustments between the sea temperature with other oceanic fields can be introduced. In the coupled model CAS-ESM-C, inconsistent adjustments for ocean currents commonly occur [...] Read more.
Currently, several ocean data assimilation methods have been adopted to increase the performance of air–sea coupled models, but inconsistent adjustments between the sea temperature with other oceanic fields can be introduced. In the coupled model CAS-ESM-C, inconsistent adjustments for ocean currents commonly occur in the tropical western Pacific and the eastern Indian Ocean. To overcome this problem, a new ensemble-based bias correction approach—a simple modification of the Ensemble Optimal Interpolation (EnOI) approach for multi-variable into a direct approach for a single variable—is proposed to minimize the model biases. Compared with the EnOI approach, this new approach can effectively avoid inconsistent adjustments. Meanwhile, the comparisons suggest that inconsistent adjustment mainly results from the unreasonable correlations between temperature and ocean current in the background matrix. In addition, the ocean current can be directly corrected in the EnOI approach, which can additionally generate biases for the upper ocean. These induced ocean biases can produce unreasonable ocean heat sinking and heat storage in the tropical western Pacific. It will generate incorrect ocean heat transmission toward the east, further amplifying the inconsistency introduced through the tropical air–sea interaction process. Full article
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Article
Experimental Study of Large-Temperature-Range and Long-Period Monitoring for LNG Marine Auxiliary Based on Fiber Bragg Grating Temperature Measurement
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(9), 917; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9090917 - 24 Aug 2021
Abstract
Temperature is a key variable to evaluate the energy consumption and thermodynamic performance of traditional marine auxiliary machinery, chillers and piping systems. In particular, for the cryogenic storage tanks and fuel gas supply systems of LNG ships, explosion-proof and low-temperature-resistance properties bring new [...] Read more.
Temperature is a key variable to evaluate the energy consumption and thermodynamic performance of traditional marine auxiliary machinery, chillers and piping systems. In particular, for the cryogenic storage tanks and fuel gas supply systems of LNG ships, explosion-proof and low-temperature-resistance properties bring new challenges to the onboard temperature measurement and monitoring. In order to promote the development of high-performance and safer monitoring systems for LNG ships, this paper adopted fiber Bragg grating (FBG) technology to ensure the measurement safety and accuracy of temperature sensors, and performs a series of experiments in a large temperature range on the chiller, pipeline, and cryogenic storage tank of an LNG ship and their long-term reliabilities. Firstly, the principle and composition of the designed FBG temperature sensors are introduced in detail, and the measurement accuracy and range of different metal-coated optical fibers were tested in a large temperature range and compared against the traditional thermistors. Then, the effects of different operating conditions of the LNG marine chiller system and cryogenic storage tank on the temperature measurements were investigated. In addition, the drift degrees of the optical fibers and industrial thermistors were analyzed to figure out their reliabilities for long-term temperature measurements. The results showed that for the long-period (16 months) monitoring of LNG ships in a large temperature range (105–315 K) under different shipping conditions, the optical temperature measurement based on FBG technology has sufficient accuracy and dynamic sensitivity with a higher safety than the traditional thermoelectric measurement. Besides, the ship vibration, ambient humidity, and great temperature changes have little impact on its measurement reliability and drifts. This research can provide references and technical supports to the performance testing systems of LNG ships and other relevant vessels with stricter safety standards. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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Article
A Universal Simulation Framework of Shipborne Inertial Sensors Based on the Ship Motion Model and Robot Operating System
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(8), 900; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9080900 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
A complete virtual test environment is a powerful tool for Autonomous Surface Vessels (ASVs) research, and the simulation of ship motion and shipborne sensors is one of the prerequisites for constructing such an environment. This paper proposed a universal simulation framework of shipborne [...] Read more.
A complete virtual test environment is a powerful tool for Autonomous Surface Vessels (ASVs) research, and the simulation of ship motion and shipborne sensors is one of the prerequisites for constructing such an environment. This paper proposed a universal simulation framework of shipborne inertial sensors. A ship motion model considering environmental disturbances is proposed to simulate the six-degrees-of-freedom motion of ships. The discrete form of the inertial sensor stochastic error model is derived. The inertial measurement data are simulated by adding artificial errors to a simulated motion status. In addition, the ship motion simulation, inertial measurement simulation, and environment simulation nodes are implemented based on the computational graph architecture of the Robot Operating System (ROS). The benefit from the versatility of the ROS messages, the format of simulated inertial measurement is exactly the same as that of real sensors, which provides a research basis for the fusion perception algorithm based on visual–inertial and laser–inertial sensors in the research field of ASVs. Full article
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Article
Verification and Validation of a Methodology to Numerically Generate Waves Using Transient Discrete Data as Prescribed Velocity Boundary Condition
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(8), 896; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9080896 - 19 Aug 2021
Abstract
This work presents a two-dimensional numerical analysis of a wave channel and a oscillating water column (OWC) device. The main goal is to validate a methodology which uses transient velocity data as a means to impose velocity boundary condition for the generation of [...] Read more.
This work presents a two-dimensional numerical analysis of a wave channel and a oscillating water column (OWC) device. The main goal is to validate a methodology which uses transient velocity data as a means to impose velocity boundary condition for the generation of numerical waves. To achieve this, a numerical wave channel was simulated using regular waves with the same parameters as those used in a laboratory experiment. First, these waves were imposed as prescribed velocity boundary condition and compared with the analytical solution; then, the OWC device was inserted into the computational domain, aiming to validate this methodology. For the numerical analysis, computational fluid dynamics ANSYS Fluent software was employed, and to tackle with water–air interaction, the nonlinear multiphase model volume of fluid (VOF) was applied. Although the results obtained through the use of discrete data as velocity boundary condition presented a little disparity; in general, they showed a good agreement with laboratory experiment results. Since many studies use regular waves, there is a lack of analysis with ocean waves realistic data; thus, the proposed methodology stands out for its capacity of using realistic sea state data in numerical simulations regarding wave energy converters (WECs). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind and Wave Climate)
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Article
Real-Time Nonlinear Model Predictive Controller for Multiple Degrees of Freedom Wave Energy Converters with Non-Ideal Power Take-Off
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(8), 890; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9080890 - 18 Aug 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
An increase in wave energy converter (WEC) efficiency requires not only consideration of the nonlinear effects in the WEC dynamics and the power take-off (PTO) mechanisms, but also more integrated treatment of the whole system, i.e., the buoy dynamics, the PTO system, and [...] Read more.
An increase in wave energy converter (WEC) efficiency requires not only consideration of the nonlinear effects in the WEC dynamics and the power take-off (PTO) mechanisms, but also more integrated treatment of the whole system, i.e., the buoy dynamics, the PTO system, and the control strategy. It results in an optimization formulation that has a nonquadratic and nonstandard cost functional. This article presents the application of real-time nonlinear model predictive controller (NMPC) to two degrees of freedom point absorber type WEC with highly nonlinear PTO characteristics. The nonlinear effects, such as the fluid viscous drag, are also included in the plant dynamics. The controller is implemented on a real-time target machine, and the WEC device is emulated in real-time using the WECSIM toolbox. The results for the successful performance of the design are presented for irregular waves under linear and nonlinear hydrodynamic conditions. Full article
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Article
Functionality Investigation of the UAV Arranged FMCW Solid-State Marine Radar
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(8), 887; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9080887 - 18 Aug 2021
Abstract
Some models of marine radars are light-weight enough and thus are attractive for potential applications when arranged on UAVs. Elevating a marine radar to high altitudes provides a much wider field of view, however, this could lead to a higher radio interference level. [...] Read more.
Some models of marine radars are light-weight enough and thus are attractive for potential applications when arranged on UAVs. Elevating a marine radar to high altitudes provides a much wider field of view, however, this could lead to a higher radio interference level. The practical estimation of the radio interferences affecting the solid-state FMCW marine radar at altitudes up to 120 m was the main objective of this contribution. A rotary-wing octocopter UAV was developed and built for the experiments. Two different kinds of interferences were observed at higher altitudes. Ray-like interferences were caused by signals, which are received by the radar’s antenna. Circle-like interferences appear due to the low frequency interfering signal directly penetrating the detector due to insufficient receiver screening. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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Article
Chained Data Acquisition and Transmission System Protype for Cabled Seafloor Earthquake Observatory
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(8), 880; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9080880 - 15 Aug 2021
Abstract
Seafloor observatories can provide long-term, real-time submarine monitoring data, which has great significance for the study of major scientific technology in marine science, especially in the seafloor earthquake observation. The chained submarine data sampling and transmission system is the prototype and foundation of [...] Read more.
Seafloor observatories can provide long-term, real-time submarine monitoring data, which has great significance for the study of major scientific technology in marine science, especially in the seafloor earthquake observation. The chained submarine data sampling and transmission system is the prototype and foundation of cabled seafloor earthquake observatories. This paper designs and builds a chained data sampling and transmission system (SQSTS) based on Zynq-7000 Soc (System on chip) and clock synchronization. At the beginning, we realized high-precision submarine data (24 bit) sampling based on Zynq-7000 Soc and ADS 1256. Using the PPS (Pulse per second) signal provided by the P88 1588 PTP (Precise time protocol) clock synchronization board and the inner crystal oscillator of the Zynq-7000 Soc, the time stamp up to the microsecond level, for the seismic data sampled in each seismometer node can support subsequent inversion of seismic data. In addition, a high-speed data transmission link connecting nodes in SQSTS, which is based on the Gigabit transceiver and optical cable, has been investigated. The transmission link has been realized by using the Aurora IP core. The theoretical calculations indicate that the data transmission bus bandwidth can reach 4 Gbps, while in the meantime its reliability has been proved by experiments. The experimental results show that the system owns the characteristics of high data sampling accuracy, stable and reliable high-speed transmission, and has promising application prospects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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Article
Real-Time Management of Vessel Carbon Dioxide Emissions Based on Automatic Identification System Database Using Deep Learning
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(8), 871; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9080871 - 13 Aug 2021
Abstract
In this study, we propose an effective method using deep learning to strengthen real-time vessel carbon dioxide emission management. We propose a method to predict real-time carbon dioxide emissions of the vessel in three steps: (1) convert the trajectory data of the fixed [...] Read more.
In this study, we propose an effective method using deep learning to strengthen real-time vessel carbon dioxide emission management. We propose a method to predict real-time carbon dioxide emissions of the vessel in three steps: (1) convert the trajectory data of the fixed time interval into a spatial–temporal sequence, (2) apply a long short-term memory (LSTM) model to predict the future trajectory and vessel status data of the vessel, and (3) predict the carbon dioxide emissions. Automatic identification system (AIS) database of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) vessel were selected as the sample and we reconstructed the trajectory data with a fixed time interval using cubic spline interpolation. Applying the interpolated AIS data, the carbon dioxide emissions of the vessel were calculated based on the International Towing Tank Conference (ITTC) recommended procedures. The experimental results are twofold. First, it reveals that vessel emissions are currently underestimated. This study clearly indicates that the actual carbon dioxide emissions are higher than those reported. The finding offers insight into how to accurately measure the emissions of vessels, and hence, better execute a greenhouse gases (GHGs) reduction strategy. Second, the LSTM model has a better trajectory prediction performance than the recurrent neural network (RNN) model. The errors of the trajectory endpoint and carbon dioxide emissions were small, which shows that the LSTM model is suitable for spatial–temporal data prediction with excellent performance. Therefore, this study offers insights to strengthen the real-time management and control of vessel greenhouse gas emissions and handle those in a more efficient way. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research in Shipping Informatics and Communications)
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Article
Desulfurizing of Pyrolysis Oil of Used Tires Using a 3D-Printed Vortex Diode and Modeling of Process
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(8), 876; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9080876 - 13 Aug 2021
Abstract
The use of pyrolysis oil can be seen as an alternative fuel for maritime transport. However, pyrolysis oil from tires must be desulfurized for this. Recently, this can be done by hydrodynamic cavitation. This process does not require oxidation chemicals but only water, [...] Read more.
The use of pyrolysis oil can be seen as an alternative fuel for maritime transport. However, pyrolysis oil from tires must be desulfurized for this. Recently, this can be done by hydrodynamic cavitation. This process does not require oxidation chemicals but only water, a cavitation generator, and a pump to drive it. In the literature, this concept has been successfully tested on model fuels. In this study, the cavitation generator for the desulfurization of waste tire pyrolysis oil was printed from polylactic acid-based on simulations of the optimal design, which allows for much cheaper production and easy replacement in case of wear or testing of alternative designs. After 60 min of treatment at 5 bar inlet pressure, a desulfurization of almost 33% was achieved. Furthermore, an interaction analysis showed that only from a pyrolysis oil content of 5.5 to 6% does hydrodynamic cavitation have an effective effect on desulfurization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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Article
Microscopic Anatomy of the Lining of Hemal Spaces in the Penaeid Shrimp, Sicyonia ingentis
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(8), 862; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9080862 - 11 Aug 2021
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to present a morphological description of three different types of acellular material lining hemal spaces in a shrimp, providing a background for addressing future questions. The vasculature of the penaeid shrimp, Sicyonia ingentis, includes vessels leading [...] Read more.
The purpose of this paper is to present a morphological description of three different types of acellular material lining hemal spaces in a shrimp, providing a background for addressing future questions. The vasculature of the penaeid shrimp, Sicyonia ingentis, includes vessels leading from the heart into arteries which branch and expand into sinuses before returning hemolymph back to the heart. Early work showed that an endothelium was absent, and a basement membrane (BM) separated tissues from the hemolymph. Therefore, it was suggested that hemocytes could identify anything other than the BM as a “foreign” entity. This study demonstrates three major types of acellular material lining the hemal spaces of S. ingentis. Cardiomyocytes, digestive gland tubules, and abdominal muscle fibers are covered by BMs. Major arteries are lined by a fibrillin-like fibrous material. Finally, sheaths of collagenous connective tissues cover the heart and digestive gland as well as the outer surface of arteries, the gut, and gonad. Our understanding of hemocyte receptors and extracellular matrices in general have greatly expanded but the biochemical composition of the matrices lining crustacean hemal spaces, their role in regulating nutrient uptake, and the cells responsible for their deposition deserve further attention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Research Advances on Marine Invertebrates)
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Article
Assessment of and Adaptation to Beach Erosion in Islands: An Integrated Approach
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(8), 859; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9080859 - 10 Aug 2021
Abstract
Island beaches, which form significant natural and economic resources, are under increasing erosion risk due to sea level rise. The present contribution proposes an integrated methodological framework for the evaluation of the socio-economic significance of beaches and their vulnerability to sea level rise [...] Read more.
Island beaches, which form significant natural and economic resources, are under increasing erosion risk due to sea level rise. The present contribution proposes an integrated methodological framework for the evaluation of the socio-economic significance of beaches and their vulnerability to sea level rise and the design of effective adaptation measures. The approach comprises four steps: (i) beach ranking on the basis of their socio-economic significance and vulnerability in order to prioritize adaptation responses; (ii) monitoring of the hydro- and morphodynamic regime of the most highly ranking beaches using field observations and modelling, (iii) assessment of the sediment volumes required for beach nourishment under different scenarios of sea level rise and nourishment designs; (iv) evaluation of the marine aggregate potential of the adjacent areas that can be used for beach nourishment. The framework was applied to the Greek island of Chios, which has many beaches that are already under erosion. The methodology was shown to provide a structured approach for the assessment and response to erosion of the most vulnerable beach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Coastal Engineering)
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Article
What Speleothems Tell Us about Long-Term Rainfall Oscillation throughout the Holocene on a Planetary Scale
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(8), 853; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9080853 - 08 Aug 2021
Abstract
Within the context of anthropogenic warming, rainfall oscillations may induce especially important societal impacts worldwide. In this article, we propose to study potential underlying mechanisms related to precipitation changes on a planetary scale by taking advantage of the recent theory of Rossby waves [...] Read more.
Within the context of anthropogenic warming, rainfall oscillations may induce especially important societal impacts worldwide. In this article, we propose to study potential underlying mechanisms related to precipitation changes on a planetary scale by taking advantage of the recent theory of Rossby waves of long periods winding around subtropical gyres, the Gyral Rossby Waves (GRWs). The stable oxygen isotopic compositions of speleothems are used to regionalize and reconstruct the evolution of long-term rainfall oscillation during the Holocene. The method applied here consists in estimating the wavelet power of dated series of stable oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O) in speleothems within period bands representative of subharmonic modes. Our findings highlight: (1) hydrological processes resulting from friction between the North Equatorial Current (NEC) and the North Equatorial Counter Current (NECC) to explain the weakening of ENSO activity in mid-Holocene, and (2) the quasi-resonance of the equatorward migration of the summer Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) during the Holocene, because of the progressive decrease of the thermal gradient between the low and high latitudes of the gyres. The results of this study suggest that the spatial and temporal variations in the amplitude of the rainfall oscillations are related both on the acceleration/deceleration phases of the western boundary currents and on the shrinkage of the Hadley cell. The latitudinal shift of the summer ITCZ in response to changes in the thermal gradient is of the utmost importance in predicting the expansion of deserts resulting from anthropogenic warming. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydroclimatic Events in Regions Subject to Rainfall Oscillation)
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Article
Estimation of Maneuverability of Trawl Fishing Vessel Using an Analytical Method
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(8), 854; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9080854 - 08 Aug 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
Most fishing vessels are less than 100 m in length between the perpendiculars, for which adherence to the International Maritime Organization maneuverability standards are not mandatory. In the design stage of fishing vessels, maneuverability is estimated using empirical formulas—mainly analytical methods—rather than costly [...] Read more.
Most fishing vessels are less than 100 m in length between the perpendiculars, for which adherence to the International Maritime Organization maneuverability standards are not mandatory. In the design stage of fishing vessels, maneuverability is estimated using empirical formulas—mainly analytical methods—rather than costly and time-consuming model tests. However, the empirical formula is developed through the process of regression analysis on the model test results from merchant ships’ hull form and applying the same to the fishing vessels’ hull form may result in an estimation error due to the differences in the vessels’ characteristics—e.g., L/B, B/d and Cb·B/L—. In a previous study, the authors of this paper derived a modified empirical formula by adding the hull form parameters of trawl fishing vessels to the existing empirical formula based on those of merchant ships. This study analyzes the validity of the modified empirical formula in depth by applying it to a newly-built training vessel that has the hull form of a trawl fishing vessel. As a result of the study, the estimation results were improved by including the parameters of the hull form of trawl fishing vessels in the empirical formula developed for merchant ships. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Manoeuvring and Control of Ships and Other Marine Vehicles)
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Article
The Fate of Nitrogen in Dredged Material Used for Tidal Marsh Restoration
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(8), 849; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9080849 - 06 Aug 2021
Abstract
Tidal marsh restoration using dredged material is being undertaken in many coastal areas to replace lost habitat and ecosystem services due to tidal marsh loss. The fate of high levels of nitrogen (N) in fine-grained dredged material used as a substrate for marsh [...] Read more.
Tidal marsh restoration using dredged material is being undertaken in many coastal areas to replace lost habitat and ecosystem services due to tidal marsh loss. The fate of high levels of nitrogen (N) in fine-grained dredged material used as a substrate for marsh restoration is uncertain, but if exported tidally may cause subtidal habitat degradation. In this study, a mass balance was developed to characterize N fluxes in a two-year-old restored tidal marsh constructed with fine-grained dredged material at Poplar Island, MD, in Chesapeake Bay, and to evaluate the potential impact on the adjacent submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV) habitat. Denitrification and N accumulation in Spartina organic matter were identified as the major sinks (21.31 and 28.5 mg N m−2 d−1, respectively), while tidal export of TN was more modest (9.4 mg N m−2 d−1) and inorganic N export was low (1.59 mg N m−2 d−1). Internal cycling helped retain N within the marsh. Mineralization of N associated with labile organic matter in the dredged material was likely a large, but unquantified, source of N supporting robust plant growth and N exports. Exceedances of SAV water quality habitat requirements in the subtidal region adjacent to the marsh were driven by elevated Chesapeake Bay concentrations rather than enrichment by the marsh. Full article
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Article
Spatiotemporal Variability and Trends of Marine Heat Waves in the Red Sea over 38 Years
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(8), 842; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9080842 - 04 Aug 2021
Cited by 2
Abstract
Marine heat waves (MHWs) can have catastrophic consequences for the socio-environmental system. Especially in the Red Sea, which has the world’s second longest coral reef system. Here, we investigate the sea surface temperature (SST) variability and trends, as well as the spatiotemporal characteristics [...] Read more.
Marine heat waves (MHWs) can have catastrophic consequences for the socio-environmental system. Especially in the Red Sea, which has the world’s second longest coral reef system. Here, we investigate the sea surface temperature (SST) variability and trends, as well as the spatiotemporal characteristics of marine heat waves (MHWs) in the Red Sea, using high resolution daily gridded (1/20°) SST data obtained from the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS) for the period 1982–2019. Results show that the average warming rate was about 0.342 ± 0.047 °C/decade over the entire Red Sea over the whole study period. The Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis reveals that the maximum variability is over the central part of the Red Sea, while the minimum variability is in the southernmost part of the Red Sea. Over the last two decades (2000–2019), we have discovered that the average MHW frequency and duration increased by 35% and 67%, respectively. The results illustrate that the MHW frequency and duration trends have increased by 1.17 counts/decade and 1.79 days/decade, respectively, over the study period. The highest annual MHW frequencies were detected in the years 2018, 2019, 2010, and 2017. A strong correlation (R = 0.89) was found between the annual MHW frequency and the annual mean SST. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sea Surface Temperature: From Observation to Applications)
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Article
Considering the Effect of Land-Based Biomass on Dune Erosion Volumes in Large-Scale Numerical Modeling
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(8), 843; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9080843 - 04 Aug 2021
Abstract
This paper presents and validates a novel root model which accounts for the effect of belowground biomass on dune erosion volumes in XBeach, based on a small-scale wave flume experiment that was translated to a larger scale. A 1D-XBeach model was calibrated by [...] Read more.
This paper presents and validates a novel root model which accounts for the effect of belowground biomass on dune erosion volumes in XBeach, based on a small-scale wave flume experiment that was translated to a larger scale. A 1D-XBeach model was calibrated by using control runs considering a dune without vegetation. Despite calibration, a general model–data mismatch was observed in terms of overestimated erosion volumes around the waterline. Furthermore, the prediction of overwash had to be induced by increasing the maximum nearshore wave height within the XBeach simulation. Subsequently, applying the root model resulted in a good agreement with the belowground biomass cases, and the consideration of spatially varying rooting depths further improved the results. Predictions of the root model while using locally increased friction coefficients were in line with the aboveground and belowground biomass cases. However, the effect of the root model on the erosion predictions varied among the hydrodynamic conditions, so further improvements are required. Therefore, future research should focus on quantifying the effects of land-based biomass and individual plant characteristics, such as root density, on dune erodibility at large scales, along with their influences on the temporal evolution of dune scarping and avalanching. Full article
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Article
COLREGs: Compliant Dynamic Obstacle Avoidance of USVs Based on theDynamic Navigation Ship Domain
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(8), 837; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9080837 - 01 Aug 2021
Cited by 2
Abstract
Dynamic obstacle avoidance is essential for unmanned surface vehicles (USVs) to achieve autonomous sailing. This paper presents a dynamic navigation ship domain (DNSD)-based dynamic obstacle avoidance approach for USVs in compliance with COLREGs. Based on the detected obstacle information, the approach can not [...] Read more.
Dynamic obstacle avoidance is essential for unmanned surface vehicles (USVs) to achieve autonomous sailing. This paper presents a dynamic navigation ship domain (DNSD)-based dynamic obstacle avoidance approach for USVs in compliance with COLREGs. Based on the detected obstacle information, the approach can not only infer the collision risk, but also plan the local avoidance path trajectory to make appropriate avoidance maneuvers. Firstly, the analytical DNSD model is established taking into account the ship parameters, maneuverability, sailing speed, and encounter situations regarding COLREGs. Thus, the DNSDs of the own and target ships are utilized to trigger the obstacle avoidance mode and determine whether and when the USV should make avoidance maneuvers. Then, the local avoidance path planner generates the new avoidance waypoints and plans the avoidance trajectory. Simulations were implemented for a single obstacle under different encounter situations and multiple dynamic obstacles. The results demonstrated the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed DNSD-based obstacle avoidance algorithm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maritime Autonomous Vessels)
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Article
Hindcasting Soundscapes before and during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Selected Areas of the North Sea and the Adriatic Sea
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(7), 702; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9070702 - 26 Jun 2021
Abstract
The national measures in several European countries during the COVID-19 pandemic also affected offshore human activities, including shipping. In this work, the temporal and spatial variations of shipping sound are calculated for the years before and during the pandemic in selected shallow water [...] Read more.
The national measures in several European countries during the COVID-19 pandemic also affected offshore human activities, including shipping. In this work, the temporal and spatial variations of shipping sound are calculated for the years before and during the pandemic in selected shallow water test areas from the Southern North Sea and the Adriatic Sea. First, the monthly sound pressure level maps of ships and wind between 2017 and 2020 are calculated for frequencies between 100 Hz to 10 kHz. Next, the monthly changes in these maps are compared. The asymptotic approximation of the hybrid flux-mode propagation model reduces the computational requirements for sound mapping simulations and facilitates the production of a large number of sound maps for different months, depths, frequencies, and ship categories. After the strictest COVID-19 measures were applied in April 2020, the largest decline was observed for the fishing, passenger and recreational ships. Although the changes in the number of fishing vessels are large, their contribution to the soundscape is minor due to their low source level. In both test areas, the spatial exceedance levels and acoustic energies were decreased in 2020 compared to the average of the previous three years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ocean Noise: From Science to Management)
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Article
Development of Enhanced Two-Time-Scale Model for Simulation of Ship Maneuvering in Ocean Waves
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(7), 700; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9070700 - 25 Jun 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this study, a modified two-time-scale model is proposed to overcome the limitations of the existing maneuvering analysis model. To this end, not only wave conditions but also all directions of ship operation velocities are considered in estimating wave drift force and moment. [...] Read more.
In this study, a modified two-time-scale model is proposed to overcome the limitations of the existing maneuvering analysis model. To this end, not only wave conditions but also all directions of ship operation velocities are considered in estimating wave drift force and moment. Subsequently, the increment of the drift force and moment induced by steady drift and yaw motion of a ship is imposed up to the first derivative of Taylor series expansion. By introducing this bilinear model, the burden of the drift force computation is reduced so that a more realistic and efficient seakeeping-maneuvering coupling analysis can be performed. A turning circle simulation in a regular short wave is carried out using the modified two-time-scale model. Then, the performance is validated by comparing its results with the direct coupling model. Moreover, quantitative improvement of the present numerical scheme and the influence of the operation velocities on ship maneuvering performance are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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Article
Homeostatic Functions of Tecrem, a CD46-Like Regulatory Protein of Complement Activation, on Epithelial Cells in Carp Fish
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(7), 687; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9070687 - 22 Jun 2021
Abstract
Fish mucosal surface is a significant interface for pathogens to infect from an aqueous environment. In addition to mucosal innate and adaptive immune factors, epithelial cells are considered as a significant physical barrier against microbial invasion. Previously, we identified a mammalian CD46-like complement [...] Read more.
Fish mucosal surface is a significant interface for pathogens to infect from an aqueous environment. In addition to mucosal innate and adaptive immune factors, epithelial cells are considered as a significant physical barrier against microbial invasion. Previously, we identified a mammalian CD46-like complement regulatory protein (Tecrem) in teleost and detected its expression on epithelial cells derived from fin, suggesting its physiological role on the fish surface. This study examines the homeostatic roles of Tecrem in maintaining the fish epithelium, by analyzing the expression behavior of Tecrem on the fin-derived epithelial cell lines (KF-1 from the common carp and CFS from ginbuna crucian carp) using monoclonal and polyclonal anti-Tecrem antibodies. Expression of KF-1 protein was associated with the adhesion of KF-1, and the adhesion was enhanced by anti-Tecrem treatments of the cells. Stimulation of the epithelial cells with anti-Tecrem enhanced wound healing, protein expression of tight-junction proteins, and cell density of the KF-1 and CFS monolayer culture. These results suggest that Tecrem on epithelial cells play a homeostatic role in maintaining intactness of the surface epithelial barrier, implying that modification of Tecrem expression may develop a novel tool to improve the first-line defense against pathogens in aquaculture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Marine Biology)
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Article
Gonadal Development of Females of the White Shrimp Penaeus schmitti (Burkenroad, 1936) Caught in Southeastern Brazil
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(6), 653; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9060653 - 13 Jun 2021
Abstract
This study describes the reproductive cell development and ovarian developmental stages, and identifies the nongerminal components of white shrimp (Penaeus schmitti) caught off the southern coast of Espírito Santo, Brazil. P. schmitti specimens were collected monthly from March 2019 to February [...] Read more.
This study describes the reproductive cell development and ovarian developmental stages, and identifies the nongerminal components of white shrimp (Penaeus schmitti) caught off the southern coast of Espírito Santo, Brazil. P. schmitti specimens were collected monthly from March 2019 to February 2020, by artisanal fishing. All shrimps were analyzed macroscopically (n = 181) and females were randomly selected monthly (n = 154) for ovarian histological analysis. The ovaries were extracted for visual analysis and then submitted to histological analysis. Macroscopic analysis determined five stages of gonadal development from the color and turgidity of the fresh ovary. Histological observations allowed us to observe five stages of gonadal development: immature, initial development, advanced development, mature and spawning. This information are fundamental for understanding the reproductive aspects of P. schmitti, as well as other penaeid shrimps, in order to promote preservation of natural stocks and provide information to assist in the development of the reproductive potential of native species in captivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Perspectives in Sustainable Aquaculture)
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Article
First Report of the Marine Benthic Dinoflagellate Bysmatrum subsalsum from Korean Tidal Pools
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(6), 649; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9060649 - 12 Jun 2021
Abstract
Dense patches were observed in the tidal pools of the southern area of Korea. To clarify the causative organisms, the cells were collected and their morphological features were examined using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In addition, after establishing strains for the [...] Read more.
Dense patches were observed in the tidal pools of the southern area of Korea. To clarify the causative organisms, the cells were collected and their morphological features were examined using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In addition, after establishing strains for the cells the molecular phylogeny was inferred with concatenated small subunit (SSU) and large subunit (LSU) rRNA sequences. The cells were characterized by a nucleus in the hypotheca, strong reticulations in thecal plates, the separation of plates 2a and 3a, the tear-shaped apical pore complex, an elongated rectangular 1a plate and the absence of the right sulcal list. The thecal plate formula was Po, X, 4′, 3a, 7″, 6c, 4S, 5′′′, 2′′′′. Based on these morphological features, the cells were identified as Bysmatrum subsalsum. In the culture, the spherical cysts of B. subsalsum without thecal plates were observed. Molecular phylogeny revealed two ribotypes of B. subsalsum are identified; The Korean isolates were nested within the ribotype B consisting of the isolates from China, Malaysia and the French Atlantic, whereas the ribotype A includes only the isolates from the Mediterranean Sea. In the phylogeny, B. subsalsum and B. austrafrum were grouped. This can be supported by the morphological similarity between the two species, indicating that the two species may be conspecific, however B. subsalsum may distinguish from B. austrafrum, because of differences in the types of eyespots reported in previous studies. These findings support the idea that there is cryptic diversity within B. subsalsum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Taxonomy and Ecology of Marine Algae)
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Article
Latitudinal Differentiation among Modern Planktonic Foraminiferal Populations of Central Mediterranean: Species–Specific Distribution Patterns and Size Variability
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(5), 551; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9050551 - 20 May 2021
Cited by 3
Abstract
Studies of the spatial distribution and size of modern planktonic foraminifera are still lacking in the Mediterranean Sea. In this study, 17 core-top sediments collected from a north-south transect along the central Mediterranean have been analyzed for planktonic foraminiferal content, in terms of [...] Read more.
Studies of the spatial distribution and size of modern planktonic foraminifera are still lacking in the Mediterranean Sea. In this study, 17 core-top sediments collected from a north-south transect along the central Mediterranean have been analyzed for planktonic foraminiferal content, in terms of their distributional pattern and intraspecific size variability. Among the analyzed planktonic foraminiferal species, Globigerina bulloides and Globigerinoides ruber (w) were the most abundant, presenting an antagonistic behavior and an overall decreasing trend in their average size values from Adriatic to Ionian sub-basins. Intraspecific differences have been also documented for G. ruber (w), with the dominant sensu stricto morphotype to present generally higher frequencies and more constant shell sizes than sensu lato. The greater size variability of the latter is possibly related to its adaptation in particular hydrographic conditions based on its depth habitat preference and ecological characteristics to reach the (sub)optimum growth conditions. The rest of the species occur in minor percentages and show on average 11% increase with decreasing latitude characterized by distinct species-specific size variations along the transect. Our results show that the relationship between planktonic foraminifera shell size and abundance or sea surface temperature are either absent or weaker than previously reported for other regions and that in central Mediterranean assemblages’ size may be mainly related to nutrient availability. Besides the environmental parameters (sea surface temperature, primary productivity, water depth, stratification), the possible hidden cryptic diversity, still lingers to be consistently determined, could give a better understanding of the geographic and morphological differentiation within the Mediterranean planktonic populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Marine Geological Dynamics)
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Article
Cooperative Maneuvering Mathematical Modeling for Multi-Tugs Towing a Ship in the Port Environment
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(4), 384; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9040384 - 04 Apr 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
The towing operation of multi-tug-assisted ship navigation mainly relies on the experience of the captain, and there is no set of effective operation methods. Therefore, it is difficult to achieve accurate assisted navigation when multiple tugboats work in coordination. The calculation method of [...] Read more.
The towing operation of multi-tug-assisted ship navigation mainly relies on the experience of the captain, and there is no set of effective operation methods. Therefore, it is difficult to achieve accurate assisted navigation when multiple tugboats work in coordination. The calculation method of maneuverability of the towing system with multi-tug-assisted navigation is proposed in this paper. In view of the complexity of multi-tug-assisted large ship maneuvering, this article focuses on solving the problems of force analysis and maneuvering modeling between the multi-tug and ship systems. Firstly, a maneuvering mathematic model for towing ships is established, and the hydrodynamic force of the hull, rope force of the tugs, and force of wind interference are analyzed. The thrust and moment of the ducted azimuthal propeller are calculated, and the mathematical model of the tug’s cable tension is discussed. Then, the fourth-order Runge–Kutta method is used to solve the differential equations of the maneuvering motion of the ships and each tug. Based on the ship-towing process by multiple tugs, a multi-tug-assisted ship towing simulation platform was built by using the Visual Studio development tool. Finally, on the simulation platform, multi-tug longitudinal-towing-simulation experiments at different speeds were carried out, and the simulation of turning towing maneuvers under the influence of wind was done. The simulation results showed that as the towing speed increases, the initial towing speed fluctuates greatly. There is a significant drift effect on the ships by the wind force. And the wind will cause a fluctuation in the tug’s rope force. The simulation of the multi-tugs towing a ship entering the port was carried out in the port environment. The results showed that the multi-tug towing system and simulation platform may be used for the safety training of the tug’s crew. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamic Load of Shipping)
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Article
Evidence for Ecosystem-Level Trophic Cascade Effects Involving Gulf Menhaden (Brevoortia patronus) Triggered by the Deepwater Horizon Blowout
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(2), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9020190 - 12 Feb 2021
Abstract
Unprecedented recruitment of Gulf menhaden (Brevoortia patronus) followed the 2010 Deepwater Horizon blowout (DWH). The foregone consumption of Gulf menhaden, after their many predator species were killed by oiling, increased competition among menhaden for food, resulting in poor physiological conditions and [...] Read more.
Unprecedented recruitment of Gulf menhaden (Brevoortia patronus) followed the 2010 Deepwater Horizon blowout (DWH). The foregone consumption of Gulf menhaden, after their many predator species were killed by oiling, increased competition among menhaden for food, resulting in poor physiological conditions and low lipid content during 2011 and 2012. Menhaden sampled for length and weight measurements, beginning in 2011, exhibited the poorest condition around Barataria Bay, west of the Mississippi River, where recruitment of the 2010 year class was highest. Trophodynamic comparisons indicate that ~20% of net primary production flowed through Gulf menhaden prior to the DWH, increasing to ~38% in 2011 and ~27% in 2012, confirming the dominant role of Gulf menhaden in their food web. Hyperabundant Gulf menhaden likely suppressed populations of their zooplankton prey, suggesting a trophic cascade triggered by increased menhaden recruitment. Additionally, low-lipid menhaden likely became “junk food” for predators, further propagating adverse effects. We posit that food web analyses based on inappropriate spatial scales for dominant species, or solely on biomass, provide insufficient indication of the ecosystem consequences of oiling injury. Including such cascading and associated indirect effects in damage assessment models will enhance the ability to anticipate and estimate ecosystem damage from, and provide recovery guidance for, major oil spills. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ocean Numerical Forecast Modelling of Oil Spill)
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Article
Seakeeping Tests of a FOWT in Wind and Waves: An Analysis of Dynamic Coupling Effects and Their Impact on the Predictions of Pitch Motion Response
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(2), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9020179 - 10 Feb 2021
Abstract
The present work highlights some of the dynamic couplings observed in a series of tests performed in a wave basin with a scaled-model of a Floating Offshore Wind Turbine (FOWT) with semi-submersible substructure. The model was moored by means of a conventional chain [...] Read more.
The present work highlights some of the dynamic couplings observed in a series of tests performed in a wave basin with a scaled-model of a Floating Offshore Wind Turbine (FOWT) with semi-submersible substructure. The model was moored by means of a conventional chain catenary system and an actively controlled fan was used for emulating the thrust loads during the tests. A set of wave tests was performed for concomitant effects of not aligned wave and wind. The experimental measurements illustrate the main coupling effects involved and how they affect the FOWT motions in waves, especially when the floater presents a non-negligible tilt angle. In addition, a frequency domain numerical analysis was performed in order to evaluate its ability to capture these effects properly. The influence of different modes of fan response, floater trim angles (changeable with ballast compensation) and variations in the mooring stiffness with the offsets were investigated in the analysis. Results attest that significant changes in the FOWT responses may indeed arise from coupling effects, thus indicating that caution must be taken when simplifying the hydrodynamic frequency-domain models often used as a basis for the simulation of FOWTs in waves and in optimization procedures for the design of the floater and mooring lines. Full article
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Article
DOM Biological Lability in an Estuarine System in Two Contrasting Periods
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(2), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9020172 - 08 Feb 2021
Abstract
Estuarine processes play a key role in determining the amount and quality of land-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) reaching the oceans. Microbial-mediated reactions can affect the concentration, quality, and bioavailability of DOM within an estuary. In this study, we investigated biological DOM removal [...] Read more.
Estuarine processes play a key role in determining the amount and quality of land-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) reaching the oceans. Microbial-mediated reactions can affect the concentration, quality, and bioavailability of DOM within an estuary. In this study, we investigated biological DOM removal in a small estuary and its variability in two contrasting seasons (spring and autumn) characterized by natural differences in the concentration and quality of the riverine DOM. Two incubation experiments were carried out using natural DOM and heterotrophic prokaryotes community collected at the estuary in March and September. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, DOM fluorescence, and the heterotrophic prokaryotes abundance (HPA) showed marked differences between the two seasons. These parameters were followed through time for up to two months. Despite the marked differences in the initial conditions, the DOC removal rates were surprisingly similar in the two periods (16 µM DOC month−1 in March and 18 µM DOC month−1 in September), with the biggest removal in the first 48 h. The trend of fluorescent DOM (FDOM) during the incubation showed marked differences between the two periods. In March, the net removal of all the FDOM components was observed consistently with the decrease in DOC; whereas, in September, the net production of humic-like substances was observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Marine Dissolved Organic Matter Dynamics)
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Communication
Berkeleya Transfretana sp. Nov., a New Marine Diatom from Ceuta (North Africa)
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(2), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9020146 - 31 Jan 2021
Abstract
The diatom Berkeleya transfretana is described as a new species from samples collected at Playa Punta Sauciño, an intertidal coastal area in Ceuta, North Africa. Its main features are the comparatively small size in relation to other Berkeleya species and the very fine [...] Read more.
The diatom Berkeleya transfretana is described as a new species from samples collected at Playa Punta Sauciño, an intertidal coastal area in Ceuta, North Africa. Its main features are the comparatively small size in relation to other Berkeleya species and the very fine and dense striae pattern (more than 40 striae per 10 µm). The new species is here described under light and scanning electron microscopy and compared to related taxa. The benthos of these rocky beaches are interesting spots of biodiversity still to be explored. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity, Taxonomy and Conservation of Marine Algae)
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Article
Settling Velocity of Microplastics Exposed to Wave Action
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(2), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9020142 - 29 Jan 2021
Cited by 3
Abstract
Microplastic (MP) debris is recognized to be one of the most serious threats to marine environments. They are found in all seas and oceanic basins worldwide, even in the most remote areas. This is further proof that the transport of MPs is very [...] Read more.
Microplastic (MP) debris is recognized to be one of the most serious threats to marine environments. They are found in all seas and oceanic basins worldwide, even in the most remote areas. This is further proof that the transport of MPs is very efficient. In the present study, we focus our attention on MPs’ transport owing to the Stokes drift generated by sea waves. Recent studies have shown that the interaction between heavy particles and Stokes drift leads to unexpected phenomena mostly related to inertial effects. We perform a series of laboratory experiments with the aim to directly measure MPs’ trajectories under different wave conditions. The main objective is to quantify the inertial effect and, ultimately, suggest a new analytical formulation for the net settling velocity. The latter formula might be implemented in a larger scale transport model in order to account for inertial effects in a simplified approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Plastics)
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Article
Development of a Fuel Consumption Prediction Model Based on Machine Learning Using Ship In-Service Data
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(2), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9020137 - 29 Jan 2021
Cited by 4
Abstract
As interest in eco-friendly ships increases, methods for status monitoring and forecasting using in-service data from ships are being developed. Models for predicting the energy efficiency of a ship in real time need to effectively process the operational data and be optimized for [...] Read more.
As interest in eco-friendly ships increases, methods for status monitoring and forecasting using in-service data from ships are being developed. Models for predicting the energy efficiency of a ship in real time need to effectively process the operational data and be optimized for such an application. This paper presents models that can predict fuel consumption using in-service data collected from a 13,000 TEU class container ship, along with statistical and domain-knowledge methods to select the proper input variables for the models. These methods prevent overfitting and multicollinearity while providing practical applicability. To implement the prediction model, either an artificial neural network (ANN) or multiple linear regression (MLR) were applied, where the ANN-based models showed the best prediction accuracy for both variable selection methods. The goodness of fit of the models based on ANN ranged from 0.9709 to 0.9936. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis of the draught under normal operating conditions indicated an optimal draught of 14.79 m, which was very close to the design draught of the target ship, and provides the optimal fuel consumption efficiency. These models could provide valuable information for ship operators to support decision making to maintain efficient operating conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Maritime Safety)
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Article
Analysis and Trends of Global Research on Nautical, Maritime and Marine Tourism
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(1), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9010093 - 17 Jan 2021
Cited by 6
Abstract
Tourism related to the sea and boating activities is becoming increasingly popular and revolves around a range of leisure, water sports, nautical or other maritime activities. This article studies the main scientific contributions in this area, bearing in mind the complexity of finding [...] Read more.
Tourism related to the sea and boating activities is becoming increasingly popular and revolves around a range of leisure, water sports, nautical or other maritime activities. This article studies the main scientific contributions in this area, bearing in mind the complexity of finding a suitable definition of this concept. Hence, the aim of this paper is to analyze the scientific production from 1986 to 2020 in impact journals of the terms “nautical tourism”, “maritime tourism” and “marine tourism” considering the following variables: number of documents, number of articles, period being studied, Hirsch citations and index. The results show an increasing trend in terms of both the number of published articles and citations publications from 2007 onwards and the review of the literature raises the need to define a new concept: “blue tourism”. Future trends in research include terms such as tourist ports, quality of websites and blue economy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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