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Vaccines, Volume 8, Issue 1 (March 2020) – 144 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Multiplex PCR-based neutralization (MPBN) assay for anti-poliovirus antibodies’ titration uses a [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Recombinant Rabies Virus Overexpressing OX40-Ligand Enhances Humoral Immune Responses by Increasing T Follicular Helper Cells and Germinal Center B Cells
Vaccines 2020, 8(1), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8010144 - 23 Mar 2020
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Abstract
Rabies, caused by the rabies virus (RABV), remains a serious threat to public health in most countries. Development of a single-dose and efficacious rabies vaccine is the most important method to restrict rabies virus transmission. Costimulatory factor OX40-ligand (OX40L) plays a crucial role [...] Read more.
Rabies, caused by the rabies virus (RABV), remains a serious threat to public health in most countries. Development of a single-dose and efficacious rabies vaccine is the most important method to restrict rabies virus transmission. Costimulatory factor OX40-ligand (OX40L) plays a crucial role in the T cell-dependent humoral immune responses through T-B cell interaction. In this work, a recombinant RABV overexpressing mouse OX40L (LBNSE-OX40L) was constructed, and its effects on immunogenicity were evaluated in a mouse model. LBNSE-OX40L-immunized mice generated a larger number of T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, germinal center (GC) B cells, and plasma cells (PCs) than the parent virus LBNSE-immunized mice. Furthermore, LBNSE-OX40L induced significantly higher levels of virus-neutralizing antibodies (VNA) as early as seven days post immunization (dpi), which lasted for eight weeks, resulting in better protection for mice than LBNSE (a live-attenuated rabies vaccine strain). Taken together, our data in this study suggest that OX40L can be a novel and potential adjuvant to improve the induction of protective antibody responses post RABV immunization by triggering T cell-dependent humoral immune responses, and that LBNSE-OX40L can be developed as an efficacious and nonpathogenic vaccine for animals. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Vaccination with Consensus H7 Elicits Broadly Reactive and Protective Antibodies against Eurasian and North American Lineage H7 Viruses
Vaccines 2020, 8(1), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8010143 - 23 Mar 2020
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Abstract
H7 subtype avian influenza viruses have caused outbreaks in poultry, and even human infection, for decades in both Eurasia and North America. Although effective vaccines offer the best protection against avian influenza viruses, antigenically distinct Eurasian and North American lineage subtype H7 viruses [...] Read more.
H7 subtype avian influenza viruses have caused outbreaks in poultry, and even human infection, for decades in both Eurasia and North America. Although effective vaccines offer the best protection against avian influenza viruses, antigenically distinct Eurasian and North American lineage subtype H7 viruses require the development of cross-protective vaccine candidates. In this study, a methodology called computationally optimized broadly reactive antigen (COBRA) was used to develop four consensus H7 antigens (CH7-22, CH7-24, CH7-26, and CH7-28). In vitro experiments confirmed the binding of monoclonal antibodies to the head and stem domains of cell surface-expressed consensus HAs, indicating display of their antigenicity. Immunization with DNA vaccines encoding the four antigens was evaluated in a mouse model. Broadly reactive antibodies against H7 viruses from Eurasian and North American lineages were elicited and detected by binding, inhibition, and neutralizing analyses. Further infection with Eurasian H7N9 and North American H7N3 virus strains confirmed that CH7-22 and CH7-24 conferred the most effective protection against hetero-lethal challenge. Our data showed that the consensus H7 vaccines elicit a broadly reactive, protective response against Eurasian and North American lineage H7 viruses, which are suitable for development against other zoonotic influenza viruses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Cross-Protective Vaccines)
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Open AccessArticle
Usp18 Expression in CD169+ Macrophages is Important for Strong Immune Response after Vaccination with VSV-EBOV
Vaccines 2020, 8(1), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8010142 - 23 Mar 2020
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Abstract
Ebola virus epidemics can be effectively limited by the VSV-EBOV vaccine (Ervebo) due to its rapid protection abilities; however, side effects prevent the broad use of VSV-EBOV as vaccine. Mechanisms explaining the efficient immune activation after single injection with the VSV-EBOV vaccine remain [...] Read more.
Ebola virus epidemics can be effectively limited by the VSV-EBOV vaccine (Ervebo) due to its rapid protection abilities; however, side effects prevent the broad use of VSV-EBOV as vaccine. Mechanisms explaining the efficient immune activation after single injection with the VSV-EBOV vaccine remain mainly unknown. Here, using the clinically available VSV-EBOV vaccine (Ervebo), we show that the cell-intrinsic expression of the interferon-inhibitor Usp18 in CD169+ macrophages is one important factor modulating the anti-Ebola virus immune response. The absence of Usp18 in CD169+ macrophages led to the reduced local replication of VSV-EBOV followed by a diminished innate as well as adaptive immune response. In line, CD169-Cre+/ki x Usp18fl/fl mice showed reduced innate and adaptive immune responses against the VSV wildtype strain and died quickly after infection, suggesting that a lack of Usp18 makes mice more susceptible to the side effects of the VSV vector. In conclusion, our study shows that Usp18 expression in CD169+ macrophages is one important surrogate marker for effective vaccination against VSV-EBOV, and probably other VSV-based vaccines also. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Attenuated/Inactivated/Live and Vectored Vaccines)
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Open AccessArticle
Subcutaneous Immunization of Leishmania HSP70-II Null Mutant Line Reduces the Severity of the Experimental Visceral Leishmaniasis in BALB/c Mice
Vaccines 2020, 8(1), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8010141 - 23 Mar 2020
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Abstract
Leishmania infantum parasites cause a severe form of visceral leishmaniasis in human and viscerocutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs. Recently, we reported that immunization with an attenuated L. infantum cell line, lacking the hsp70-II gene, protects against the development of murine cutaneous leishmaniasis. In this [...] Read more.
Leishmania infantum parasites cause a severe form of visceral leishmaniasis in human and viscerocutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs. Recently, we reported that immunization with an attenuated L. infantum cell line, lacking the hsp70-II gene, protects against the development of murine cutaneous leishmaniasis. In this work, we analyzed the vaccine potential of this cell line towards the long-term protection against murine visceral leishmaniasis. This model shows an organ-dependent evolution of the disease. The infection can resolve in the liver but chronically affect spleen and bone marrow. Twelve weeks after subcutaneous administration of attenuated L. infantum, Bagg Albino (BALB/c) mice were challenged with infective L. infantum parasites expressing the luciferase-encoding gene. Combining in vivo bioimaging techniques with limiting dilution experiments, we report that, in the initial phase of the disease, vaccinated animals presented lower parasite loads than unvaccinated animals. A reduction of the severity of liver damage was also detected. Protection was associated with the induction of rapid parasite-specific IFN-γ production by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. However, the vaccine was unable to control the chronic phase of the disease, since we did not find differences in the parasite burdens nor in the immune response at that time point. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Cross-Protective Vaccines)
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Open AccessArticle
Protective Effect of Seasonal Influenza Vaccination in Elderly Individuals with Disability in Taiwan: A Propensity Score–Matched, Nationwide, Population-Based Cohort Study
Vaccines 2020, 8(1), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8010140 - 22 Mar 2020
Viewed by 333
Abstract
This is the first and largest population-based cohort study to demonstrate that influenza vaccination reduced all-cause mortality and influenza-related hospitalization in elderly individuals with a disability. Purpose: To estimate the protective effect of influenza vaccination in elderly individuals with a disability by conducting [...] Read more.
This is the first and largest population-based cohort study to demonstrate that influenza vaccination reduced all-cause mortality and influenza-related hospitalization in elderly individuals with a disability. Purpose: To estimate the protective effect of influenza vaccination in elderly individuals with a disability by conducting a propensity score-matched (PSM), nationwide, population-based cohort study. Methods: Data from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database were used in this study. Generalized estimating equations (GEEs) were used to compare outcomes between the vaccinated and unvaccinated cohorts. The GEE logit was used to estimate the relative risks of death and hospitalization after influenza vaccination. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) were used to estimate relative risk. Results: The matching process yielded a final cohort of 272 896 elderly individuals with a disability (136 448 individuals in each cohort). In multivariate GEE analyses, aOR (vaccinated vs. unvaccinated) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of death were 0.70 (0.68–0.72). The aORs (95% CIs) of hospitalization for influenza and pneumonia, respiratory diseases, respiratory failure, heart disease, hemorrhagic stroke, and ischemic stroke were 0.98 (0.95–1.01), 0.96 (0.94–0.99), 0.85 (0.82–0.89), 0.96 (0.93–0.99), 0.85 (0.75–0.97), and 0.89 (0.84–0.95), respectively. The length of stay and medical expenditure exhibited greater reduction in vaccinated elderly individuals with a severe and very severe disability than in unvaccinated elderly individuals. Conclusions: Influenza vaccination reduced all-cause mortality, influenza-related hospitalization, length of stay, and medical expenditure in elderly individuals with a disability. The decrease in the length of stay and medical expenditure because of influenza vaccination was proportional to the severity of disability. Full article
Open AccessReview
Recent Progress on the Versatility of Virus-Like Particles
Vaccines 2020, 8(1), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8010139 - 20 Mar 2020
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Abstract
Virus-like particles (VLPs) are multimeric nanostructures composed of one or more structural proteins of a virus in the absence of genetic material. Having similar morphology to natural viruses but lacking any pathogenicity or infectivity, VLPs have gradually become a safe substitute for inactivated [...] Read more.
Virus-like particles (VLPs) are multimeric nanostructures composed of one or more structural proteins of a virus in the absence of genetic material. Having similar morphology to natural viruses but lacking any pathogenicity or infectivity, VLPs have gradually become a safe substitute for inactivated or attenuated vaccines. VLPs can achieve tissue-specific targeting and complete and effective cell penetration. With highly ordered epitope repeats, VLPs have excellent immunogenicity and can induce strong cellular and humoral immune responses. In addition, as a type of nanocarrier, VLPs can be used to display antigenic epitopes or deliver small molecules. VLPs have thus become powerful tools for vaccinology and biomedical research. This review highlights the versatility of VLPs in antigen presentation, drug delivery, and vaccine technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Therapeutic Vaccines and Antibody Therapeutics)
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Open AccessReview
From Bivariate to Multivariate Analysis of Cytometric Data: Overview of Computational Methods and Their Application in Vaccination Studies
Vaccines 2020, 8(1), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8010138 - 20 Mar 2020
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Abstract
Flow and mass cytometry are used to quantify the expression of multiple extracellular or intracellular molecules on single cells, allowing the phenotypic and functional characterization of complex cell populations. Multiparametric flow cytometry is particularly suitable for deep analysis of immune responses after vaccination, [...] Read more.
Flow and mass cytometry are used to quantify the expression of multiple extracellular or intracellular molecules on single cells, allowing the phenotypic and functional characterization of complex cell populations. Multiparametric flow cytometry is particularly suitable for deep analysis of immune responses after vaccination, as it allows to measure the frequency, the phenotype, and the functional features of antigen-specific cells. When many parameters are investigated simultaneously, it is not feasible to analyze all the possible bi-dimensional combinations of marker expression with classical manual analysis and the adoption of advanced automated tools to process and analyze high-dimensional data sets becomes necessary. In recent years, the development of many tools for the automated analysis of multiparametric cytometry data has been reported, with an increasing record of publications starting from 2014. However, the use of these tools has been preferentially restricted to bioinformaticians, while few of them are routinely employed by the biomedical community. Filling the gap between algorithms developers and final users is fundamental for exploiting the advantages of computational tools in the analysis of cytometry data. The potentialities of automated analyses range from the improvement of the data quality in the pre-processing steps up to the unbiased, data-driven examination of complex datasets using a variety of algorithms based on different approaches. In this review, an overview of the automated analysis pipeline is provided, spanning from the pre-processing phase to the automated population analysis. Analysis based on computational tools might overcame both the subjectivity of manual gating and the operator-biased exploration of expected populations. Examples of applications of automated tools that have successfully improved the characterization of different cell populations in vaccination studies are also presented. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Stability of the HSV-2 US-6 Gene in the del II, del III, CP77, and I8R-G1L Sites in Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara After Serial Passage of Recombinant Vectors in Cells
Vaccines 2020, 8(1), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8010137 - 19 Mar 2020
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Abstract
The modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), a severely attenuated strain of vaccinia virus, is a promising vector platform for viral-vectored vaccine development because of its attributes of efficient transgene expression and safety profile, among others. Thus, transgene stability in MVA is important to [...] Read more.
The modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), a severely attenuated strain of vaccinia virus, is a promising vector platform for viral-vectored vaccine development because of its attributes of efficient transgene expression and safety profile, among others. Thus, transgene stability in MVA is important to assure immunogenicity and efficacy. The global GC content of the MVA genome is 33%, and GC-rich sequences containing runs of C or G nucleotides have been reported to be less stable with passage of MVA vectors in cells. The production of recombinant MVA vaccines requires a number of expansion steps in cell culture, depending on production scale. We assessed the effect of extensive passage of four recombinant MVA vectors on the stability of the GC-rich herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2) US6 gene encoding viral glycoprotein D (gD2) inserted at four different genomic sites, including the deletion (del) II and del III sites, the CP77 gene locus (MVA_009–MVA_013) and the I8R-G1L intergenic region. Our data indicate that after 35 passages, there was a reduction in gD2 expression from del II, del III and CP77 sites. Sequencing analysis implicated US6 deletion and mutational events as responsible for the loss of gD2 expression. By contrast, 85.9% of recombinant plaques expressed gD2 from the I8R-G1L site, suggesting better accommodation of transgenes in this intergenic region. Thus, the I8R-G1L intergenic region may be more useful for transgene insertion for enhanced stability. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Vaccination Perception and Attitude among Undergraduate Medical and Teacher Education Students at Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic
Vaccines 2020, 8(1), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8010136 - 19 Mar 2020
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Abstract
This cross-sectional comparative study was designed to evaluate different opinions and their impact on vaccine confidence, as perceived by students of two different university programs (medicine and teacher education), as both of them play important roles in patient education, with the latter major [...] Read more.
This cross-sectional comparative study was designed to evaluate different opinions and their impact on vaccine confidence, as perceived by students of two different university programs (medicine and teacher education), as both of them play important roles in patient education, with the latter major shaping the skills of critical thinking. Multi-item, opinion-based, paper-and-pencil anonymous questionnaires were distributed among students of medicine and teacher education. Data were sorted and divided into two sets to be analyzed using logistic regression. Out of a total of 722 respondents, 386 were medical students and 336 were teacher education students. While most respondents said they were not in favor of alternative medicine, a significantly higher number of alternative medicine followers were teacher education students. The positive vaccination perception rate (PVPR) is not dependent on the behavioral factors of student respondents (irrespective of their major) but is largely affected by their attitude to alternative medicine. Fear of infection dramatically increased the PVPR (up to 6.7 times) in those who were versus were not afraid of getting infected or were not quite sure whether to fear it. Fear of side effects of vaccination clearly decreased the PVPR, by at least 84%. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Intratumoral Gene Electrotransfer of Plasmid DNA Encoding shRNA against Melanoma Cell Adhesion Molecule Radiosensitizes Tumors by Antivascular Effects and Activation of an Immune Response
Vaccines 2020, 8(1), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8010135 - 19 Mar 2020
Viewed by 287
Abstract
In this study, radiotherapy was combined with the gene electrotransfer (GET) of plasmid encoding shRNA against melanoma cell adhesion molecule (pMCAM) with dual action, which was a vascular-targeted effect mediated by the silencing of MCAM and an immunological effect mediated by the presence [...] Read more.
In this study, radiotherapy was combined with the gene electrotransfer (GET) of plasmid encoding shRNA against melanoma cell adhesion molecule (pMCAM) with dual action, which was a vascular-targeted effect mediated by the silencing of MCAM and an immunological effect mediated by the presence of plasmid DNA in the cytosol-activating DNA sensors. The effects and underlying mechanisms of therapy were evaluated in more immunogenic B16F10 melanoma and less immunogenic TS/A carcinoma. The silencing of MCAM potentiated the effect of irradiation (IR) in both tumor models. Combined therapy resulted in 81% complete responses (CR) in melanoma and 27% CR in carcinoma. Moreover, after the secondary challenge of cured mice, 59% of mice were resistant to challenge with melanoma cells, and none were resistant to carcinoma. Combined therapy reduced the number of blood vessels; induced hypoxia, apoptosis, and necrosis; and reduced cell proliferation in both tumor models. In addition, the significant increase of infiltrating immune cells was observed in both tumor models but more so in melanoma, where the expression of IL-12 and TNF-α was determined as well. Our results indicate that the combined therapy exerts both antiangiogenic and immune responses that contribute to the antitumor effect. However, tumor immunological status is crucial for a sufficient immune system contribution to the overall antitumor effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunization by Electroporation)
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Open AccessArticle
Rapid and Broad Immune Efficacy of a Recombinant Five-Antigen Vaccine against Staphylococcus aureus Infection in Animal Models
Vaccines 2020, 8(1), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8010134 - 18 Mar 2020
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Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a leading cause of both healthcare-and community-associated infections globally, which result in severe disease and readily developing antibiotic resistance. Developing an efficacious vaccine against S. aureus is urgently required. In the present study, we selected five [...] Read more.
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a leading cause of both healthcare-and community-associated infections globally, which result in severe disease and readily developing antibiotic resistance. Developing an efficacious vaccine against S. aureus is urgently required. In the present study, we selected five conserved antigens, including the secreted factors α-hemolysin (Hla), staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) and the three surface proteins staphylococcal protein A (SpA), iron surface determinant B N2 domain (IsdB-N2) and manganese transport protein C (MntC). They were all well-characterized virulence factor of S. aureus and developed a recombinant five-antigen S. aureus vaccine (rFSAV), rFSAV provided consistent protection in S. aureus lethal sepsis and pneumonia mouse models, and it showed broad immune protection when challenged with a panel of epidemiologically relevant S. aureus strains. Meanwhile, rFSAV immunized mice were able to induce comprehensive cellular and humoral immune responses to reduce bacterial loads, inflammatory cytokine expression, inflammatory cell infiltration and decrease pathology after challenge with a sub-lethal dose of S. aureus. Moreover, the importance of specific antibodies in protection was demonstrated by antibody function tests in vitro and in vivo. Altogether, our data demonstrate that rFSAV is a potentially promising vaccine candidate for defensing against S. aureus infection. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparisons of Antibody Populations in Different Pre-Fusion F VLP-Immunized Cotton Rat Dams and Their Offspring
Vaccines 2020, 8(1), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8010133 - 18 Mar 2020
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Abstract
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection poses a significant risk for infants. Since the direct vaccination of infants is problematic, maternal vaccination may provide a safer, more effective approach to their protection. In the cotton rat (CR) model, we have compared the immunization of [...] Read more.
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection poses a significant risk for infants. Since the direct vaccination of infants is problematic, maternal vaccination may provide a safer, more effective approach to their protection. In the cotton rat (CR) model, we have compared the immunization of pregnant CR dams with virus-like particles assembled with the prototype mutation stabilized pre-fusion F protein, DS-Cav1, as well two alternative mutation stabilized pre-fusion proteins (UC-2 F, UC-3 F) and showed that the alternative pre-fusion F VLPs protected the offspring of immunized dams significantly better than DS-Cav1 F VLPs (Blanco, et al. J. Virol. 93: e00914). Here, we have addressed the reasons for this increased protection by characterizing the specificities of antibodies in the sera of both immunized dams and their offspring. The approach was to measure the levels of total anti-pre-F IgG serum antibodies that would block the binding of representative pre-fusion specific monoclonal antibodies to soluble pre-fusion F protein targets. Strikingly, we found that the sera in most offspring of DS-Cav1 F VLP-immunized dams had no mAb D25-blocking antibodies, although their dams had robust levels. In contrast, all offspring of UC-3 F VLP-immunized dams had robust levels of these D25-blocking antibodies. Both sets of pup sera had significant levels of mAb AM14-blocking antibodies, indicating that all pups received maternal antibodies. A lack of mAb D25-blocking antibodies in the offspring of DS-Cav1 F VLP-immunized dams may account for the lower protection of their pups from challenge compared to the offspring of UC-3 F VLP-immunized dams. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathobiology of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV))
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Open AccessReview
Development of Next Generation Streptococcus pneumoniae Vaccines Conferring Broad Protection
Vaccines 2020, 8(1), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8010132 - 17 Mar 2020
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Abstract
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major pathogen causing pneumonia with over 2 million deaths annually, especially in young children and the elderly. To date, at least 98 different pneumococcal capsular serotypes have been identified. Currently, the vaccines for prevention of S. pneumoniae infections are [...] Read more.
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major pathogen causing pneumonia with over 2 million deaths annually, especially in young children and the elderly. To date, at least 98 different pneumococcal capsular serotypes have been identified. Currently, the vaccines for prevention of S. pneumoniae infections are the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide-based vaccine (PPV23) and the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV10 and PCV13). These vaccines only cover some pneumococcal serotypes and are unable to protect against non-vaccine serotypes and unencapsulated S. pneumoniae. This has led to a rapid increase in antibiotic-resistant non-vaccine serotypes. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop new, effective, and affordable pneumococcal vaccines, which could cover a wide range of serotypes. This review discusses the new approaches to develop effective vaccines with broad serotype coverage as well as recent development of promising pneumococcal vaccines in clinical trials. New vaccine candidates are the inactivated whole-cell vaccine strain (Δpep27ΔcomD mutant) constructed by mutations of specific genes and several protein-based S. pneumoniae vaccines using conserved pneumococcal antigens, such as lipoprotein and surface-exposed protein (PspA). Among the vaccines in Phase 3 clinical trials are the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, PCV-15 (V114) and 20vPnC. The inactivated whole-cell and several protein-based vaccines are either in Phase 1 or 2 trials. Furthermore, the recent progress of nanoparticles that play important roles as delivery systems and adjuvants to improve the performance, as well as the immunogenicity of the nanovaccines, are reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Vaccine Technologies and Approaches)
Open AccessReview
Immunologic Dose-Response to Adenovirus-Vectored Vaccines in Animals and Humans: A Systematic Review of Dose-Response Studies of Replication Incompetent Adenoviral Vaccine Vectors when Given via an Intramuscular or Subcutaneous Route
Vaccines 2020, 8(1), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8010131 - 17 Mar 2020
Viewed by 356
Abstract
Optimal vaccine dosing is important to ensure the greatest protection and safety. Analysis of dose-response data, from previous studies, may inform future studies to determine the optimal dose. Implementing more quantitative modelling approaches in vaccine dose finding have been recently suggested to accelerate [...] Read more.
Optimal vaccine dosing is important to ensure the greatest protection and safety. Analysis of dose-response data, from previous studies, may inform future studies to determine the optimal dose. Implementing more quantitative modelling approaches in vaccine dose finding have been recently suggested to accelerate vaccine development. Adenoviral vectored vaccines are in advanced stage of development for a variety of prophylactic and therapeutic indications, however dose-response has not yet been systematically determined. To further inform adenoviral vectored vaccines dose identification, historical dose-response data should be systematically reviewed. A systematic literature review was conducted to collate and describe the available dose-response studies for adenovirus vectored vaccines. Of 2787 papers identified by Medline search strategy, 35 were found to conform to pre-defined criteria. The majority of studies were in mice or humans and studied adenovirus serotype 5. Dose-response data were available for 12 different immunological responses. The majority of papers evaluated three dose levels, only two evaluated more than five dose levels. The most common dosing range was 107–1010 viral particles in mouse studies and 108–1011 viral particles in human studies. Data were available on adenovirus vaccine dose-response, primarily on adenovirus serotype 5 backbones and in mice and humans. These data could be used for quantitative adenoviral vectored vaccine dose optimisation analysis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Design of an Epitope-Based Vaccine Ensemble for Animal Trypanosomiasis by Computational Methods
Vaccines 2020, 8(1), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8010130 - 16 Mar 2020
Viewed by 348
Abstract
African animal trypanosomiasis is caused by vector-transmitted parasites of the genus Trypanosoma. T. congolense and T. brucei brucei are predominant in Africa; T. evansi and T. vivax in America and Asia. They have in common an extracellular lifestyle and livestock tropism, which [...] Read more.
African animal trypanosomiasis is caused by vector-transmitted parasites of the genus Trypanosoma. T. congolense and T. brucei brucei are predominant in Africa; T. evansi and T. vivax in America and Asia. They have in common an extracellular lifestyle and livestock tropism, which provokes huge economic losses in regions where vectors are endemic. There are licensed drugs to treat the infections, but adherence to treatment is poor and appearance of resistances common. Therefore, the availability of a prophylactic vaccine would represent a major breakthrough towards the management and control of the disease. Selection of the most appropriate antigens for its development is a bottleneck step, especially considering the limited resources allocated. Herein we propose a vaccine strategy based on multiple epitopes from multiple antigens to counteract the parasites´ biological complexity. Epitopes were identified by computer-assisted genome-wide screenings, considering sequence conservation criteria, antigens annotation and sub-cellular localization, high binding affinity to antigen presenting molecules, and lack of cross-reactivity to proteins in cattle and other breeding species. We ultimately provide 31 B-cell, 8 CD4 T-cell, and 15 CD8 T-cell epitope sequences from 30 distinct antigens for the prospective design of a genetic ensemble vaccine against the four trypanosome species responsible for African animal trypanosomiasis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Antibody Persistent and Protective Two rSsCLP-Based Subunit Cocktail Vaccine against Sarcoptes scabiei in a Rabbit Model
Vaccines 2020, 8(1), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8010129 - 16 Mar 2020
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Abstract
Scabies is a highly contagious disease caused by Sarcoptes scabiei which burrows into stratum corneum of host’s skin. In this study, after optimizing vaccination schedule, a vaccination trial is comprised of three test groups of rabbits (n = 10/group) by immunization with [...] Read more.
Scabies is a highly contagious disease caused by Sarcoptes scabiei which burrows into stratum corneum of host’s skin. In this study, after optimizing vaccination schedule, a vaccination trial is comprised of three test groups of rabbits (n = 10/group) by immunization with (1) rSsCLP5; (2) rSsCLP12; or (3) a mixture of rSsCLP5 and rSsCLP12, three biological replicates groups (n = 10/group) and three control groups (n = 10/group). Levels of specific IgG, total IgE and cytokines in sera were detected and histopathologically analyzed as indicators of vaccine effects. The results showed that 85% (17/20) of rabbits exhibited no detectable skin lesions of S. scabiei infestation in mixed protein groups compared to single protein groups with 75% (15/20) and 70% (14/20), respectively. Moreover, the deworming rates of mixed groups are increased by 10%–20% compared with that of single groups. Each of six groups immunized with rSsCLP displayed significant increases of specific IgG, total IgE, IL-10, and TNF-α. The degree of skin damage in test groups also significantly lower than that of control groups. Thus, purified rSsCLP5 and rSsCLP12 subunit cocktail vaccine induced robust immune protection and could significantly decrease mite populations to reduce the direct transmission between rabbits. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Better Adjuvants for Better Vaccines: Progress in Adjuvant Delivery Systems, Modifications, and Adjuvant–Antigen Codelivery
Vaccines 2020, 8(1), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8010128 - 13 Mar 2020
Viewed by 418
Abstract
Traditional aluminum adjuvants can trigger strong humoral immunity but weak cellular immunity, limiting their application in some vaccines. Currently, various immunomodulators and delivery carriers are used as adjuvants, and the mechanisms of action of some of these adjuvants are clear. However, customizing targets [...] Read more.
Traditional aluminum adjuvants can trigger strong humoral immunity but weak cellular immunity, limiting their application in some vaccines. Currently, various immunomodulators and delivery carriers are used as adjuvants, and the mechanisms of action of some of these adjuvants are clear. However, customizing targets of adjuvant action (cellular or humoral immunity) and action intensity (enhancement or inhibition) according to different antigens selected is time-consuming. Here, we review the adjuvant effects of some delivery systems and immune stimulants. In addition, to improve the safety, effectiveness, and accessibility of adjuvants, new trends in adjuvant development and their modification strategies are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Vaccine Adjuvants)
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Open AccessArticle
Tauopathy Analysis in P301S Mouse Model of Alzheimer Disease Immunized with DNA and MVA Poxvirus-Based Vaccines Expressing Human Full-Length 4R2N or 3RC Tau Proteins
Vaccines 2020, 8(1), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8010127 - 13 Mar 2020
Viewed by 388
Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a progressive memory loss and cognitive decline that has been associated with an accumulation in the brain of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) formed by hyperphosphorylated tau protein, and extracellular senile plaques formed by β-amyloid [...] Read more.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a progressive memory loss and cognitive decline that has been associated with an accumulation in the brain of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) formed by hyperphosphorylated tau protein, and extracellular senile plaques formed by β-amyloid peptides. Currently, there is no cure for AD and after the failure of anti β-amyloid therapies, active and passive tau immunotherapeutic approaches have been developed in order to prevent, reduce or ideally reverse the disease. Vaccination is one of the most effective approaches to prevent diseases and poxviruses, particularly modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), are one of the most promising viral vectors used as vaccines against several human diseases. Thus, we present here the generation and characterization of the first MVA vectors expressing human tau genes; the full-length 4R2N tau protein or a 3RC tau fragment containing 3 tubulin-binding motifs and the C-terminal region (termed MVA-Tau4R2N and MVA-Tau3RC, respectively). Both MVA-Tau recombinant viruses efficiently expressed the human tau 4R2N or 3RC proteins in cultured cells, being detected in the cytoplasm of infected cells and co-localized with tubulin. These MVA-Tau vaccines impacted the innate immune responses with a differential recruitment of innate immune cells to the peritoneal cavity of infected mice. However, no tau-specific T cell or humoral immune responses were detected in vaccinated mice. Immunization of transgenic P301S mice, a mouse model for tauopathies, with a DNA-Tau prime/MVA-Tau boost approach showed no significant differences in the hyperphosphorylation of tau, motor capacity and survival rate, when compared to non-vaccinated mice. These findings showed that a well-established and potent protocol of T and B cell activation based on DNA/MVA prime/boost regimens using DNA and MVA vectors expressing tau full-length 4R2N or 3RC proteins is not sufficient to trigger tau-specific T and B cell immune responses and to induce a protective effect against tauopathy in this P301S murine model. In the pursuit of AD vaccines, our results highlight the need for novel optimized tau immunogens and additional modes of presentation of tau protein to the immune system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Baseline Levels of Influenza-Specific B Cells and T Cell Responses Modulate Human Immune Responses to Swine Variant Influenza A/H3N2 Vaccine
Vaccines 2020, 8(1), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8010126 - 13 Mar 2020
Viewed by 270
Abstract
The cellular immune responses elicited by an investigational vaccine against an emergent variant of influenza (H3N2v) are not fully understood. Twenty-five subjects, enrolled in an investigational influenza A/H3N2v vaccine study, who received two doses of vaccine 21 days apart, were included in a [...] Read more.
The cellular immune responses elicited by an investigational vaccine against an emergent variant of influenza (H3N2v) are not fully understood. Twenty-five subjects, enrolled in an investigational influenza A/H3N2v vaccine study, who received two doses of vaccine 21 days apart, were included in a sub-study of cellular immune responses. H3N2v-specific plasmablasts were determined by ELISpot 8 days after each vaccine dose and H3N2v specific CD4+ T cells were quantified by intracellular cytokine and CD154 (CD40 ligand) staining before vaccination, 8 and 21 days after each vaccine dose. Results: 95% (19/20) and 96% (24/25) subjects had pre-existing H3N2v specific memory B, and T cell responses, respectively. Plasmablast responses at Day 8 after the first vaccine administration were detected against contemporary H3N2 strains and correlated with hemagglutination inhibition HAI (IgG: p = 0.018; IgA: p < 0.001) and Neut (IgG: p = 0.038; IgA: p = 0.021) titers and with memory B cell frequency at baseline (IgA: r = 0.76, p < 0.001; IgG: r = 0.74, p = 0.0001). The CD4+ T cells at Days 8 and 21 expanded after prime vaccination and this expansion correlated strongly with early post-vaccination HAI and Neut titers (p ≤ 0.002). In an adult population, the rapid serological response observed after initial H3N2v vaccination correlates with post-vaccination plasmablasts and CD4+ T cell responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Influenza Virus Vaccines)
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Open AccessArticle
Immune Pressure on Polymorphous Influenza B Populations Results in Diverse Hemagglutinin Escape Mutants and Lineage Switching
Vaccines 2020, 8(1), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8010125 - 11 Mar 2020
Viewed by 330
Abstract
Mutations arise in the genomes of progeny viruses during infection. Mutations that occur in epitopes targeted by host antibodies allow the progeny virus to escape the host adaptive, B-cell mediated antibody immune response. Major epitopes have been identified in influenza B virus (IBV) [...] Read more.
Mutations arise in the genomes of progeny viruses during infection. Mutations that occur in epitopes targeted by host antibodies allow the progeny virus to escape the host adaptive, B-cell mediated antibody immune response. Major epitopes have been identified in influenza B virus (IBV) hemagglutinin (HA) protein. However, IBV strains maintain a seasonal presence in the human population and changes in IBV genomes in response to immune pressure are not well characterized. There are two lineages of IBV that have circulated in the human population since the 1980s, B-Victoria and B-Yamagata. It is hypothesized that early exposure to one influenza subtype leads to immunodominance. Subsequent seasonal vaccination or exposure to new subtypes may modify subsequent immune responses, which, in turn, results in selection of escape mutations in the viral genome. Here we show that while some mutations do occur in known epitopes suggesting antibody escape, many mutations occur in other parts of the HA protein. Analysis of mutations outside of the known epitopes revealed that these mutations occurred at the same amino acid position in viruses from each of the two IBV lineages. Interestingly, where the amino acid sequence differed between viruses from each lineage, reciprocal amino acid changes were observed. That is, the virus from the Yamagata lineage become more like the Victoria lineage virus and vice versa. Our results suggest that some IBV HA sequences are constrained to specific amino acid codons when viruses are cultured in the presence of antibodies. Some changes to the known antigenic regions may also be restricted in a lineage-dependent manner. Questions remain regarding the mechanisms underlying these results. The presence of amino acid residues that are constrained within the HA may provide a new target for universal vaccines for IBV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Imprinting and Vaccine Design of Influenza and Other Viruses)
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Open AccessReview
Safety of Administering Live Vaccines during Pregnancy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Pregnancy Outcomes
Vaccines 2020, 8(1), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8010124 - 11 Mar 2020
Viewed by 925
Abstract
Live-attenuated vaccines (LAV) are currently contraindicated during pregnancy, given uncertain safety records for the mother–infant pair. LAV might, however, play an important role to protect them against serious emerging diseases, such as Ebola and Lassa fever. For this systematic review we searched relevant [...] Read more.
Live-attenuated vaccines (LAV) are currently contraindicated during pregnancy, given uncertain safety records for the mother–infant pair. LAV might, however, play an important role to protect them against serious emerging diseases, such as Ebola and Lassa fever. For this systematic review we searched relevant databases to identify studies published up to November 2019. Controlled observational studies reporting pregnancy outcomes after maternal immunization with LAV were included. The ROBINS-I tool was used to assess risk of bias. Pooled odds ratios (OR) were obtained under a random-effects model. Of 2831 studies identified, fifteen fulfilled inclusion criteria. Smallpox, rubella, poliovirus, yellow fever and dengue vaccines were assessed in these studies. No association was found between vaccination and miscarriage (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.87–1.10), stillbirth (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.74–1.48), malformations (OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.98–1.21), prematurity (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.90–1.08) or neonatal death (OR 1.06, 95% CI 0.68–1.65) overall. However, increased odds of malformations (OR 1.24; 95% CI 1.03–1.49) and miscarriage after first trimester immunization (OR 4.82; 95% CI 2.38–9.77) was found for smallpox vaccine. Thus, we did not find evidence of harm related to LAV other than smallpox with regards to pregnancy outcomes, but quality of evidence was very low. Overall risks appear to be small and have to be balanced against potential benefits for the mother-infant pair. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
mRNA Vaccines Encoding the HA Protein of Influenza A H1N1 Virus Delivered by Cationic Lipid Nanoparticles Induce Protective Immune Responses in Mice
Vaccines 2020, 8(1), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8010123 - 10 Mar 2020
Viewed by 530
Abstract
The design of the mRNA vaccine involves the selection of in vitro transcription (IVT) systems and nonviral delivery vectors. This study aimed to verify the effect of 5’ and 3’ untranslated region (UTR) sequences on the translation efficiency of mRNA. Three modes of [...] Read more.
The design of the mRNA vaccine involves the selection of in vitro transcription (IVT) systems and nonviral delivery vectors. This study aimed to verify the effect of 5’ and 3’ untranslated region (UTR) sequences on the translation efficiency of mRNA. Three modes of IVT-mRNA systems (IVT-mRNA-n1/n2/n3) with diverse UTRs were constructed, and EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) and HA (hemagglutinin) gene of H3N2 influenza virus were introduced into each of them. The results showed that the mode of 5’ and 3’ UTRs originating from human β-globulin was better than the mode of UTRs from human α-globulin, and the n3 mode was the best. mEGFP-n3, mH3HA-n3, and mLuciferease-n3 were prepared to compare the effect of cationic lipid nanoparticle (LNP) with that of mannose-conjugated LNP (LNP-Man) on the efficiency of gene delivery. The results showed that the effect of LNP-Man was better than that of LNP both in vitro and in vivo. Choosing appropriate ligands might help in vaccine design. After selecting the IVT-mRNA-n3 system and delivery vectors, mRNA vaccines were constructed against the H1N1 influenza virus, and C57BL/6 mice were immunized through intranasal administration. The results showed that mRNA vaccines could elicit both humoral and cellular immune responses and completely protect mice from the tenfold LD50 H1N1 influenza virus challenge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Vaccines against Infectious Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
A Plant-Produced Recombinant Fusion Protein-Based Newcastle Disease Subunit Vaccine and Rapid Differential Diagnosis Platform
Vaccines 2020, 8(1), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8010122 - 09 Mar 2020
Viewed by 295
Abstract
Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious avian disease, causing considerable economic losses to the poultry industry. To obtain a safe, inexpensive, and effective ND vaccine to meet the international trade requirements of differentiating infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA), here we report the [...] Read more.
Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious avian disease, causing considerable economic losses to the poultry industry. To obtain a safe, inexpensive, and effective ND vaccine to meet the international trade requirements of differentiating infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA), here we report the production of Oryza sativa recombinant fusion (F) protein in stably transformed transgenic rice seeds via agroinfiltration. The F protein expression level was enhanced 3.6-fold with a genetic background in low glutelin. Inoculation of plant-produced F antigen into Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) chickens markedly elicited neutralizing antibody responses against homologous and heterologous ND virus strains. Two doses of 4.5 μg fully protected chickens from a lethal ND challenge without any clinical symptoms. The mean weight gain of F protein-immunized chickens within 15 days after challenge was significantly higher than that of traditional whole virus vaccine-immunized chickens, thereby obtaining higher economic benefits. Moreover, the sera from the chickens vaccinated with the plant-produced F vaccine did not show reactivity in an immunochromatographic strip targeting the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein (HN) protein, and DIVA could be achieved within 10 minutes. Our results demonstrate that the plant-derived F vaccine along with immunochromatographic strips could be useful in the implementation of an NDV eradication program. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Peptide Isolated from a Phage Display Peptide Library Modeling Antigenic Epitope of DHAV-1 and DHAV-3
Vaccines 2020, 8(1), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8010121 - 05 Mar 2020
Viewed by 344
Abstract
Duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV), the major pathogen of duck virus hepatitis (DVH), causes severe diseases that threaten the duck industry worldwide. The VP1 protein, a major structural protein of DHAV, is able to induce neutralizing antibody in ducks. The purpose of this [...] Read more.
Duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV), the major pathogen of duck virus hepatitis (DVH), causes severe diseases that threaten the duck industry worldwide. The VP1 protein, a major structural protein of DHAV, is able to induce neutralizing antibody in ducks. The purpose of this study was to identify the antigenic mimotope of DHAV by phage display technology. A monoclonal antibody (mAb) 4E6 against DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 was prepared, and a phage library prepared with the PhD-12 Phage Display Peptide Library Kit was screened with the mAb. A novel peptide, 1GLTWKLPPSM10 was identified with high affinity to the mAb and could specifically block mAb 4E6 from binding DHAV-1 and DHAV-3. Animal tests confirmed that the immunization of ducklings with the mimotope could inhibit the virus proliferation and protect the ducklings from DVH. In summary, the neutralizing conformational mimotope 1GLTWKLPPSM10 might be a promising vaccine candidate for the prevention of DHAV infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Vaccines)
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Open AccessArticle
Multiplex PCR-Based Neutralization (MPBN) Assay for Titers Determination of the Three Types of Anti-Poliovirus Neutralizing-Antibodies
Vaccines 2020, 8(1), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8010120 - 05 Mar 2020
Viewed by 468
Abstract
Determination of poliovirus-neutralizing antibodies is an important part of clinical studies of poliovirus vaccines, epidemiological surveillance and seroprevalence studies that are crucial for global polio eradication campaigns. The conventional neutralization test is based on inhibition of cytopathic effect caused by poliovirus by serial [...] Read more.
Determination of poliovirus-neutralizing antibodies is an important part of clinical studies of poliovirus vaccines, epidemiological surveillance and seroprevalence studies that are crucial for global polio eradication campaigns. The conventional neutralization test is based on inhibition of cytopathic effect caused by poliovirus by serial dilutions of test serum. It is laborious, time-consuming and not suitable for large scale analysis. To overcome these limitations, a multiplex PCR-based neutralization (MPBN) assay was developed to measure the neutralizing antibody titers of anti-poliovirus sera against three serotypes of the virus in the same reaction and in shorter time. All three anti-poliovirus sera types were analyzed in a single assay. The MPBN assay was reproducible, robust and sensitive. Its lower limits of titration for the three anti-poliovirus sera types were within range of 0.76–1.64 per mL. Different anti-poliovirus sera were tested with conventional and MPBN assays; the results obtained by both methods correlated well and generated similar results. The MPBN is the first neutralization assay that specifically titrates anti-poliovirus antibodies against the three serotypes of the virus in the same reaction; it can be completed in two to three days instead of ten days for the conventional assay and can be automated for high-throughput implementation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Influenza Vaccination in Italian Healthcare Workers (2018–2019 Season): Strengths and Weaknesses. Results of a Cohort Study in Two Large Italian Hospitals
Vaccines 2020, 8(1), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8010119 - 05 Mar 2020
Viewed by 544
Abstract
Background: Annual vaccination is the most effective way to combat influenza. As influenza viruses evolve, seasonal vaccines are updated annually. Within the European project Development of Robust and Innovative Vaccine Effectiveness (DRIVE), a cohort study involving Italian healthcare workers (HCWs) was carried out [...] Read more.
Background: Annual vaccination is the most effective way to combat influenza. As influenza viruses evolve, seasonal vaccines are updated annually. Within the European project Development of Robust and Innovative Vaccine Effectiveness (DRIVE), a cohort study involving Italian healthcare workers (HCWs) was carried out during the 2018-2019 season. Two aims were defined: to measure influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) against laboratory-confirmed influenza cases and to conduct an awareness-raising campaign to increase vaccination coverage. Methods: Each subject enrolled was followed up from enrollment to the end of the study. Each HCW who developed ILI was swabbed for laboratory confirmation of influenza. Influenza viruses were identified by molecular assays. A Cox regression analysis, crude and adjusted for confounding variables, was performed to estimate the IVE. Results: Among the 4483 HCWs enrolled, vaccination coverage was 32.5%, and 308 ILI cases were collected: 23.4% were positive for influenza (54.2% A(H1N1) pdm09; 45.8% A(H3N2)). No influenza B viruses were detected. No overall IVE was observed. Analyzing the subtypes of influenza A viruses, the IVE was estimated as 45% (95% CI: -59 to 81) for A(H1N1) pdm09. Conclusions: Vaccination coverage among HCWs increased. Study difficulties and the circulation of drifted variants of A(H3N2) could partly explain the observed IVE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccination and Vaccine Effectiveness)
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Open AccessArticle
Engineered Recombinant Single Chain Variable Fragment of Monoclonal Antibody Provides Protection to Chickens Infected with H9N2 Avian Influenza
Vaccines 2020, 8(1), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8010118 - 03 Mar 2020
Viewed by 489
Abstract
Passive immunisation with neutralising antibodies can be a potent therapeutic strategy if used pre- or post-exposure to a variety of pathogens. Herein, we investigated whether recombinant monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) could be used to protect chickens against avian influenza. Avian influenza viruses impose a [...] Read more.
Passive immunisation with neutralising antibodies can be a potent therapeutic strategy if used pre- or post-exposure to a variety of pathogens. Herein, we investigated whether recombinant monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) could be used to protect chickens against avian influenza. Avian influenza viruses impose a significant economic burden on the poultry industry and pose a zoonotic infection risk for public health worldwide. Traditional control measures including vaccination do not provide rapid protection from disease, highlighting the need for alternative disease mitigation measures. In this study, previously generated neutralizing anti-H9N2 virus monoclonal antibodies were converted to single-chain variable fragment antibodies (scFvs). These recombinant scFv antibodies were produced in insect cell cultures and the preparations retained neutralization capacity against an H9N2 virus in vitro. To evaluate recombinant scFv antibody efficacy in vivo, chickens were passively immunized with scFvs one day before, and for seven days after virus challenge. Groups receiving scFv treatment showed partial virus load reductions measured by plaque assays and decreased disease manifestation. These results indicate that antibody therapy could reduce clinical disease and shedding of avian influenza virus in infected chicken flocks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Influenza Virus Vaccines)
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Open AccessArticle
Trends of Adverse Events Following Immunization (AEFI) Reports of Human Papillomavirus Vaccine in the Valencian Community—Spain (2008–2018)
Vaccines 2020, 8(1), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8010117 - 02 Mar 2020
Viewed by 487
Abstract
Vaccine safety surveillance is essential in vaccination programs. We accomplished a descriptive study of surveillance AEFI-reporting rate in human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine administered in the Valencian Community, Spain. Data were obtained from Spanish Pharmacovigilance Adverse Reactions Data (FEDRA). Reporting rates were calculated using [...] Read more.
Vaccine safety surveillance is essential in vaccination programs. We accomplished a descriptive study of surveillance AEFI-reporting rate in human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine administered in the Valencian Community, Spain. Data were obtained from Spanish Pharmacovigilance Adverse Reactions Data (FEDRA). Reporting rates were calculated using local net doses distributed as the denominator. Trends were assessed using joinpoint regression with annual percent change (APC) reported. The AEFI-reports decreased between 2008 and 2018 in two periods, a fast decreasing rate from 2009 to 2011 (from 192.2 to 24.93 per 100000 doses; APC, −54.9%; 95%CI [−75.2; −17.7]), followed by a stable trend (−13% APC, 95%CI [−26.1; 2.4]). For the age group analysis, only the group aged 14–15 years old followed the same trend with -58.4% (95%CI [−73.9; −33.8]) APC during 2008–2011, and −8.8% (95%CI [−27.7; 15]) APC during 2011-2018. The majority of the reports (73.82%) were nonserious, involving reactions at or near the vaccination site, headache, and dizziness events. No death was reported. AEFI-reporting rates for HPV immunization in the Valencian Community have decreased considerably with two trend periods observed for girls aged 14–15 years old. Currently, the AEFI reporting rate shows a decreasing trend, perhaps following the Weber effect, and it could also be affected by media attention and coverage. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Vaccination Against Amyloidogenic Aggregates in Pancreatic Islets Prevents Development of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Vaccines 2020, 8(1), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8010116 - 02 Mar 2020
Viewed by 472
Abstract
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic progressive disease characterized by insulin resistance and insufficient insulin secretion to maintain normoglycemia. The majority of T2DM patients bear amyloid deposits mainly composed of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) in their pancreatic islets. These—originally β-cell secretory [...] Read more.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic progressive disease characterized by insulin resistance and insufficient insulin secretion to maintain normoglycemia. The majority of T2DM patients bear amyloid deposits mainly composed of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) in their pancreatic islets. These—originally β-cell secretory products—extracellular aggregates are cytotoxic for insulin-producing β-cells and are associated with β-cell loss and inflammation in T2DM advanced stages. Due to the absence of T2DM preventive medicaments and the presence of only symptomatic drugs acting towards increasing hormone secretion and action, we aimed at establishing a novel disease-modifying therapy targeting the cytotoxic IAPP deposits in order to prevent the development of T2DM. We generated a vaccine based on virus-like particles (VLPs), devoid of genomic material, coupled to IAPP peptides inducing specific antibodies against aggregated, but not monomeric IAPP. Using a mouse model of islet amyloidosis, we demonstrate in vivo that our vaccine induced a potent antibody response against aggregated, but not soluble IAPP, strikingly preventing IAPP depositions, delaying onset of hyperglycemia and the induction of the associated pro-inflammatory cytokine Interleukin 1β (IL-1β). We offer the first cost-effective and safe disease-modifying approach targeting islet dysfunction in T2DM, preventing pathogenic aggregates without disturbing physiological IAPP function. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Bovine Herpesvirus-4-Vectored Delivery of Nipah Virus Glycoproteins Enhances T Cell Immunogenicity in Pigs
Vaccines 2020, 8(1), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8010115 - 02 Mar 2020
Viewed by 837
Abstract
Nipah virus (NiV) is an emergent pathogen capable of causing acute respiratory illness and fatal encephalitis in pigs and humans. A high fatality rate and broad host tropism makes NiV a serious public and animal health concern. There is therefore an urgent need [...] Read more.
Nipah virus (NiV) is an emergent pathogen capable of causing acute respiratory illness and fatal encephalitis in pigs and humans. A high fatality rate and broad host tropism makes NiV a serious public and animal health concern. There is therefore an urgent need for a NiV vaccines to protect animals and humans. In this study we investigated the immunogenicity of bovine herpesvirus (BoHV-4) vectors expressing either NiV attachment (G) or fusion (F) glycoproteins, BoHV-4-A-CMV-NiV-GΔTK or BoHV-4-A-CMV-NiV-FΔTK, respectively in pigs. The vaccines were benchmarked against a canarypox (ALVAC) vector expressing NiV G, previously demonstrated to induce protective immunity in pigs. Both BoHV-4 vectors induced robust antigen-specific antibody responses. BoHV-4-A-CMV-NiV-GΔTK stimulated NiV-neutralizing antibody titers comparable to ALVAC NiV G and greater than those induced by BoHV-4-A-CMV-NiV-FΔTK. In contrast, only BoHV-4-A-CMV-NiV-FΔTK immunized pigs had antibodies capable of significantly neutralizing NiV G and F-mediated cell fusion. All three vectored vaccines evoked antigen-specific CD4 and CD8 T cell responses, which were particularly strong in BoHV-4-A-CMV-NiV-GΔTK immunized pigs and to a lesser extent BoHV-4-A-CMV-NiV-FΔTK. These findings emphasize the potential of BoHV-4 vectors for inducing antibody and cell-mediated immunity in pigs and provide a solid basis for the further evaluation of these vectored NiV vaccine candidates. Full article
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