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Open AccessArticle

Recombinant Rabies Virus Overexpressing OX40-Ligand Enhances Humoral Immune Responses by Increasing T Follicular Helper Cells and Germinal Center B Cells

1
Department of Human Anatomy, College of Basic Medicine, Dali University, Dali 671000, China
2
State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
3
Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Vaccines 2020, 8(1), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8010144
Received: 10 March 2020 / Revised: 21 March 2020 / Accepted: 22 March 2020 / Published: 23 March 2020
Rabies, caused by the rabies virus (RABV), remains a serious threat to public health in most countries. Development of a single-dose and efficacious rabies vaccine is the most important method to restrict rabies virus transmission. Costimulatory factor OX40-ligand (OX40L) plays a crucial role in the T cell-dependent humoral immune responses through T-B cell interaction. In this work, a recombinant RABV overexpressing mouse OX40L (LBNSE-OX40L) was constructed, and its effects on immunogenicity were evaluated in a mouse model. LBNSE-OX40L-immunized mice generated a larger number of T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, germinal center (GC) B cells, and plasma cells (PCs) than the parent virus LBNSE-immunized mice. Furthermore, LBNSE-OX40L induced significantly higher levels of virus-neutralizing antibodies (VNA) as early as seven days post immunization (dpi), which lasted for eight weeks, resulting in better protection for mice than LBNSE (a live-attenuated rabies vaccine strain). Taken together, our data in this study suggest that OX40L can be a novel and potential adjuvant to improve the induction of protective antibody responses post RABV immunization by triggering T cell-dependent humoral immune responses, and that LBNSE-OX40L can be developed as an efficacious and nonpathogenic vaccine for animals. View Full-Text
Keywords: rabies vaccine; OX40-ligand; T follicular helper cells; germinal center B cells; plasma cells rabies vaccine; OX40-ligand; T follicular helper cells; germinal center B cells; plasma cells
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Li, Y.; Zhao, L.; Sui, B.; Luo, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, Y. Recombinant Rabies Virus Overexpressing OX40-Ligand Enhances Humoral Immune Responses by Increasing T Follicular Helper Cells and Germinal Center B Cells. Vaccines 2020, 8, 144.

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