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Nutrients, Volume 12, Issue 7 (July 2020) – 264 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Plant-dominant low-protein diet or "PLADO" is a patient-centered diet plan of 0.6–0.8 g/kg/day of protein intake composed of >50% plant-based sources, administered by dietitians trained in providing nutrition care to patients with non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease. The composition of PLADO and its meal plans are designed and adjusted based on individualized needs and according to the principles of Precision Nutrition. The goal of PLADO is to slow kidney disease progression, to avoid or delay dialysis therapy initiation, and to ensure cardiovascular health and longevity. The ideal type of PLADO is a heart-healthy, safe, flexible, and feasible diet that could be the centerpiece of the conservative and preservative management of kideny disease. View this paper.
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Review
Nutrients, Mitochondrial Function, and Perinatal Health
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2166; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072166 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1481
Abstract
Mitochondria are active independent organelles that not only meet the cellular energy requirement but also regulate central cellular activities. Mitochondria can play a critical role in physiological adaptations during pregnancy. Differences in mitochondrial function have been found between healthy and complicated pregnancies. Pregnancy [...] Read more.
Mitochondria are active independent organelles that not only meet the cellular energy requirement but also regulate central cellular activities. Mitochondria can play a critical role in physiological adaptations during pregnancy. Differences in mitochondrial function have been found between healthy and complicated pregnancies. Pregnancy signifies increased nutritional requirements to support fetal growth and the metabolism of maternal and fetal tissues. Nutrient availability regulates mitochondrial metabolism, where excessive macronutrient supply could lead to oxidative stress and contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction, while micronutrients are essential elements for optimal mitochondrial processes, as cofactors in energy metabolism and/or as antioxidants. Inadequate macronutrient and micronutrient consumption can result in adverse pregnancy outcomes, possibly through mitochondrial dysfunction, by impairing energy supply, one-carbon metabolism, biosynthetic pathways, and the availability of metabolic co-factors which modulate the epigenetic processes capable of establishing significant short- and long-term effects on infant health. Here, we review the importance of macronutrients and micronutrients on mitochondrial function and its influence on maternal and infant health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
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Article
Comparative Lipidomic Study of Human Milk from Different Lactation Stages and Milk Formulas
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2165; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072165 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2002
Abstract
In this report, we present a detailed comparison of the lipid composition of human milk (HM) and formula milk (FM) targeting different lactation stages and infant age range. We studied HM samples collected from 26 Polish mothers from colostrum to 19 months of [...] Read more.
In this report, we present a detailed comparison of the lipid composition of human milk (HM) and formula milk (FM) targeting different lactation stages and infant age range. We studied HM samples collected from 26 Polish mothers from colostrum to 19 months of lactation, along with FM from seven brands available on the Polish market (infant formula, follow-on formula and growing-up formula). Lipid extracts were analysed using liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC–Q-TOF–MS). We found that the lipid composition of FM deviates significantly from the HM lipid profile in terms of qualitative and quantitative differences. FM had contrasting lipid profiles mostly across brands and accordingly to the type of fat added but not specific to the target age range. The individual differences were dominant in HM; however, differences according to the lactation stage were also observed, especially between colostrum and HM collected in other lactation stages. Biologically and nutritionally important lipids, such as long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) containing lipid species, sphingomyelines or ether analogues of glycerophosphoethanoloamines were detected in HM collected in all studied lactation stages. The observed differences concerned all the major HM lipid classes and highlight the importance of the detailed compositional studies of both HM and FM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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Article
Mediterranean Diet, Physical Activity and Gut Microbiome Composition: A Cross-Sectional Study among Healthy Young Italian Adults
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2164; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072164 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1301
Abstract
Background. This cross-sectional study aimed to explore the microbial composition of the gut and its possible association with the Mediterranean diet (MD) after adjusting for demographic and anthropometric characteristics in a sample of healthy young Italian adults. Methods. Gut microbiota, demographic information, and [...] Read more.
Background. This cross-sectional study aimed to explore the microbial composition of the gut and its possible association with the Mediterranean diet (MD) after adjusting for demographic and anthropometric characteristics in a sample of healthy young Italian adults. Methods. Gut microbiota, demographic information, and data on adherence to MD and physical activity (PA) habits were collected in a sample of 140 university students (48.6% males, mean age 22.5 ± 2.9) with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 22.4 ± 2.8 kg/m2 (15.2–33.8) and a mean PA level of 3006.2 ± 2973.6 metabolic equivalent (MET)-minutes/week (148–21,090). Results. A high prevalence of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes was found in all the fecal samples. Significant dissimilarities in the microbiota composition were found on the basis of MD adherence and PA levels (p = 0.001). At the genus level, Streptococcus and Dorea were highly abundant in overweight/obese individuals, Ruminococcus and Oscillospira in participants with lower adherence to MD, and Lachnobacterium in subjects with low levels of PA (p = 0.001). A significantly higher abundance of Paraprevotella was shown by individuals with lower BMI, lower MD adherence, and lower PA levels (p = 0.001). Conclusions. This study contributes to the characterization of the gut microbiome of healthy humans. The findings suggest the role of diet and PA in determining gut microbiota variability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet Quality and Human Health)
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Article
Impact of Treatment with RUTF on Plasma Lipid Profiles of Severely Malnourished Pakistani Children
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2163; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072163 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1223
Abstract
(1) Background: Little is known on impacts of ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) treatment on lipid metabolism in children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM). (2) Methods: We analyzed glycerophospholipid fatty acids (FA) and polar lipids in plasma of 41 Pakistani children with SAM before [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Little is known on impacts of ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) treatment on lipid metabolism in children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM). (2) Methods: We analyzed glycerophospholipid fatty acids (FA) and polar lipids in plasma of 41 Pakistani children with SAM before and after 3 months of RUTF treatment using gas chromatography and flow-injection analysis tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed using univariate, multivariate tests and evaluated for the impact of age, sex, breastfeeding status, hemoglobin, and anthropometry. (3) Results: Essential fatty acid (EFA) depletion at baseline was corrected by RUTF treatment which increased EFA. In addition, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) and the ratio of arachidonic acid (AA)/linoleic acid increased reflecting greater EFA conversion to LC-PUFA, whereas Mead acid/AA decreased. Among phospholipids, lysophosphatidylcholines (lyso.PC) were most impacted by treatment; in particular, saturated lyso.PC decreased. Higher child age and breastfeeding were associated with great decrease in total saturated FA (ΣSFA) and lesser decrease in monounsaturated FA and total phosphatidylcholines (ΣPC). Conclusions: RUTF treatment improves EFA deficiency in SAM, appears to enhance EFA conversion to biologically active LC-PUFA, and reduces lipolysis reflected in decreased ΣSFA and saturated lyso.PC. Child age and breastfeeding modify treatment-induced changes in ΣSFA and ΣPC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Early Nutrition and Re-programming of Health and Disease)
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Editorial
Using Dietary Indices—What’s Next?
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2161; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072161 - 21 Jul 2020
Viewed by 831
Abstract
For centuries, it has been known that what we eat is essential for our health [...] Full article
Article
Serum Malondialdehyde-Modified Low-Density Lipoprotein Is a Risk Factor for Central Arterial Stiffness in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2160; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072160 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 835
Abstract
Circulating malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL) acts as a marker of oxidative stress and is associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The relationship between serum MDA-LDL levels and aortic stiffness (AS) in patients with hemodialysis (HD) was evaluated. There were 155 HD patients enrolled in [...] Read more.
Circulating malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL) acts as a marker of oxidative stress and is associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The relationship between serum MDA-LDL levels and aortic stiffness (AS) in patients with hemodialysis (HD) was evaluated. There were 155 HD patients enrolled in this study. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) was measured by a validated tonometry system. Patients with cfPWV >10 m/s were used to define the AS group, while those with values of ≤10 m/s were regarded as the control group. Serum MDA-LDL levels were measured using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Sixty-eight patients (43.9%) who were defined as AS sufferers, and were older, had a higher percentage of diabetes and hypertension and higher systolic blood pressure and serum MDA-LDL level compared to subjects in the control group. After adjusting for factors significantly associated with AS by multivariable logistic regression analysis, it was revealed that serum MDA-LDL levels, diabetes, and hypertension were independent predictors of AS in HD patients. Multivariable forward stepwise linear regression analysis also showed that a logarithmically transformed MDA-LDL level was significantly correlated with cfPWV values in HD patients. In HD patients, a high serum MDA-LDL level was positively associated with cfPWV values and was a significant predictor of the development of high AS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Cholesterol Metabolism in Cardiovascular Diseases)
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Article
In Vitro and In Vivo Antitumor Efficacy of Hizikia fusiforme Celluclast Extract against Bladder Cancer
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2159; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072159 - 21 Jul 2020
Viewed by 1190
Abstract
Various physiological benefits have been linked to Hizikia fusiforme (HF), an edible brown seaweed. Here, fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides were extracted from celluclast-processed HF (SPHF) and their antitumor efficacy against bladder cancer was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. SPHF possesses high sulfated polysaccharide [...] Read more.
Various physiological benefits have been linked to Hizikia fusiforme (HF), an edible brown seaweed. Here, fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides were extracted from celluclast-processed HF (SPHF) and their antitumor efficacy against bladder cancer was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. SPHF possesses high sulfated polysaccharide and fucose contents and free radical scavenging activities compared to those of celluclast-processed HF extracts (CHF). SPHF inhibited bladder cancer EJ cell proliferation via G1-phase cell cycle arrest. This was due to the induction of p21WAF1 expression associated with the downregulation of CDKs and cyclins. Moreover, JNK phosphorylation was identified as an SPHF-mediated signaling molecule. SPHF treatment also hindered the migration and invasion of EJ cells by inhibiting MMP-9 expression, which was attributed to the repression of transcriptional binding to NF-κB, AP-1, and Sp-1 in the MMP-9 promoter region. In an animal study, SPHF treatment suppressed EJ tumor growth in xenograft mice similarly to cisplatin. Furthermore, no toxicity signs were found after weight loss assessment, biochemical tests, and organ tissue immunostaining during oral administration of 20–200 mg/kg SPHF for 20 days. Therefore, our study demonstrates the antitumor efficacy of SPHF in vitro and in vivo, thus highlighting its potential for bladder cancer treatment development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemicals and Human Health)
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Article
The Effect of Dynamic Food Labels with Real-Time Feedback on Diet Quality: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2158; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072158 - 20 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1390
Abstract
The rising prevalence of non-communicable diseases has brought attention to the importance of consuming a healthy diet. One strategy to improve diet quality is through front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labels. Taking advantage of an online grocery store, we allowed consumers to choose the FOP [...] Read more.
The rising prevalence of non-communicable diseases has brought attention to the importance of consuming a healthy diet. One strategy to improve diet quality is through front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labels. Taking advantage of an online grocery store, we allowed consumers to choose the FOP labels they preferred, and combined this information with real-time feedback on the overall nutritional quality of the shopping basket. We hypothesized that these dynamic food labels with real-time feedback (DFLF) would improve nutritional quality of food purchases. This trial followed a two-arm (no-label control and DFLF) crossover design with 125 participants exposed to each condition once in random order via an online grocery store. A first difference regression model allowed for estimating the unbiased effect of the DFLF on diet quality, measured by the weighted average Nutri-Score (ranging 1 to 5) per serving (primary) and changes in select nutrients and calories. The mean weighted Nutri-Score was 0.4 (12.6%) higher in the DFLF arm (CI: [0.2, 0.6]) relative to the control. The DFLF also decreased the amount of sugar per serving by 0.9 g (CI: [−1.7, −0.0]) and total sugar per shop by 169.5 g (CI: [−284.5, −54.5]). The DFLF features significantly improved nutrition quality relative to no labelling, as measured by average Nutri-Score values. These results shed light on the considerable potential of the online shopping environment to improve diet quality through customization and real time feedback. Full article
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Editorial
Plant Food, Nutrition, and Human Health
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2157; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072157 - 20 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1107
Abstract
Phytochemical compounds are non-nutrient secondary metabolites present in plant-based foods, e [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Food, Nutrition and Human Health)
Review
Efficacy of Dietary Supplements in Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Related Autoimmune Diseases
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2156; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072156 - 20 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1943
Abstract
The microbiome is an important contributor to a variety of fundamental aspects of human health, including host metabolism, infection, and the immune response. Gut dysbiosis has been identified as a contributor to the errant immune response in a variety of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases [...] Read more.
The microbiome is an important contributor to a variety of fundamental aspects of human health, including host metabolism, infection, and the immune response. Gut dysbiosis has been identified as a contributor to the errant immune response in a variety of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs), such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and psoriatic disease (psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis). Given this, probiotics and prebiotics have been investigated as therapeutic options in these disease states. In our review, we highlight the current evidence on prebiotics and probiotics as well as other supplements (such as fish oils, vitamin D, and curcumin) as therapies for IBD. Recommendations, however, regarding the specific use of such supplements in IBD have been lacking, particularly from professional societies, often due to study limitations related to small sample sizes and design heterogeneity. Hence, we additionally examine the literature on the use of prebiotics, probiotics, and other supplements in related IMIDs, namely RA and psoriasis/psoriatic arthritis, as these diseases share many approved therapeutic options with IBD. Based on these combined findings, we offer additional evidence that may help guide clinicians in their treatment of patients with IBD (and other IMIDs) and provide recommendations on potential next steps in therapeutic research in this area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
Article
Effects of Pistachio Consumption in a Behavioral Weight Loss Intervention on Weight Change, Cardiometabolic Factors, and Dietary Intake
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2155; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072155 - 20 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2782
Abstract
Epidemiological studies have linked regular nut consumption with lower body mass index and reduced likelihood of weight gain in adulthood. Nuts can displace other foods in the diet, and thus, promote a healthier dietary pattern. The purpose of this study was to examine [...] Read more.
Epidemiological studies have linked regular nut consumption with lower body mass index and reduced likelihood of weight gain in adulthood. Nuts can displace other foods in the diet, and thus, promote a healthier dietary pattern. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of pistachio nut consumption in overweight/obese adults. This randomized controlled study enrolled non-diabetic overweight/obese adults (n = 100) assigned to a 4-month behavioral weight loss intervention only group (controls) or also prescribed 1.5 oz/day (42 g/day) of pistachios (pistachio group). Outcomes were change in body weight, cardiometabolic factors, and dietary intake. Percent weight change was similar in the two groups (−5.1 [0.5] (mean [SE])% in the control group and −4.9 [0.6]% in the pistachio group, and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference were reduced in both groups (time effect p ≤ 0.05). The pistachio group (but not the control group) exhibited a significant reduction in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure (time effect p = 0.01). Plasma alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and lutein concentrations increased significantly in the pistachio group (time effect p < 0.05). Pistachio consumption was associated with increased dietary fiber intake and decreased consumption of sweets. Regular consumption of pistachios was associated with a comparable degree of weight loss, and similar reductions in BMI and waist circumference, in overweight/obese men and women compared to controls, and favorable changes in the diet, in the context of a behavioral weight loss intervention. Full article
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Review
Bone Status in Patients with Phenylketonuria: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2154; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072154 - 20 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 966
Abstract
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is the most common inborn error of amino acid metabolism. Although dietary and, in some cases, pharmacological treatment has been successful in preventing intellectual disability in PKU patients who are treated early, suboptimal outcomes have been reported, including bone mineral disease. [...] Read more.
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is the most common inborn error of amino acid metabolism. Although dietary and, in some cases, pharmacological treatment has been successful in preventing intellectual disability in PKU patients who are treated early, suboptimal outcomes have been reported, including bone mineral disease. In this systematic review, we summarize the available evidence on bone health in PKU patients, including data on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover marker data. Data from cohort and cross-sectional studies of children and adults (up to 40 years of age) were obtained by searching the MEDLINE and SCOPUS databases following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. For each selected study, quality assessment was performed applying the Risk Of Bias In Non-randomized Studies of Interventions (ROBINS I) tool. We found that mean BMD was lower in PKU patients than in reference groups, but was within the normal range in most patients when expressed as Z-score values. Furthermore, data revealed a trend towards an imbalance between bone formation and bone resorption, favoring bone removal. Data on serum levels of minerals and hormones involved in bone metabolism were very heterogeneous, and the analyses were inconclusive. Clinical trials that include the analysis of fracture rates, especially in older patients, are needed to gather more evidence on the clinical implications of lower BMD in PKU patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bone Mineralization and Calcium Phosphorus Metabolism)
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Article
Low-Glycemic-Index/Load Desserts Decrease Glycemic and Insulinemic Response in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2153; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072153 - 20 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1049
Abstract
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease whose prevalence is growing worldwide. Consumption of desserts with low glycemic index (GI) and low glycemic load (GL) in a balanced hypocaloric diet has a positive impact on anthropometric and metabolic parameters in patients with type 2 [...] Read more.
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease whose prevalence is growing worldwide. Consumption of desserts with low glycemic index (GI) and low glycemic load (GL) in a balanced hypocaloric diet has a positive impact on anthropometric and metabolic parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the glycemic and insulinemic response after consumption of desserts with low GI/GL in patients with T2DM. Fifty-one patients consumed either 83 g of the conventional dessert or 150 g of the low GI/GL dessert in random order after an overnight fast. Serum glucose, triglycerides, and insulin were measured at baseline (immediately before ingestion) and at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min postprandially. Subjective appetite measurements were performed using visual analog scales (VASs). There were significant differences at 30 (p = 0.014), 60 (p < 0.001), and 90 min (p < 0.001) postprandially between the two desserts for glucose and at 30 (p = 0.014) and 60 min (p = 0.033) postprandially for insulin. Glucose iAUC was significantly lower in low-GI/GL dessert compared to control (p < 0.001). Serum triglycerides and insulin iAUC did not differ between the two trials. Fullness VAS ratings were significantly higher after consumption of the low-GI/GL dessert compared to conventional dessert. Likewise, hunger, additional food, and additional food quantity VAS ratings were significantly lower after the consumption of the low-GI/GL dessert compared to control. Consumption of low-GI/GL dessert indicates a positive impact on metabolic parameters in T2DM patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Macronutrients and Human Health)
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Article
Psychological Aspects and Eating Habits during COVID-19 Home Confinement: Results of EHLC-COVID-19 Italian Online Survey
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2152; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072152 - 19 Jul 2020
Cited by 59 | Viewed by 9642
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a huge impact on the population with consequences on lifestyles. The aim of the study was to analyse the relationship between eating habits, mental and emotional mood. A survey was conducted online during social isolation, from 24 April [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a huge impact on the population with consequences on lifestyles. The aim of the study was to analyse the relationship between eating habits, mental and emotional mood. A survey was conducted online during social isolation, from 24 April to 18 May 2020, among the Italian population. A total of 602 interviewees were included in the data analysis. A high percentage of respondents experienced a depressed mood, anxious feelings, hypochondria and insomnia (61.3%, 70.4%, 46.2% and 52.2%). Almost half of the respondents felt anxious due to the fact of their eating habits, consumed comfort food and were inclined to increase food intake to feel better. Age was inversely related to dietary control (OR = 0.971, p = 0.005). Females were more anxious and disposed to comfort food than males (p < 0.001; p < 0.001). A strength of our study was represented by the fact that the survey was conducted quickly during the most critical period of the Italian epidemic lockdown. As the COVID-19 pandemic is still ongoing, our data need to be confirmed and investigated in the future with larger population studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition within and beyond Corona Virus)
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Article
Serum Scoring and Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Intestinal Failure-Associated Liver Disease: A Feasibility Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2151; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072151 - 19 Jul 2020
Viewed by 1017
Abstract
(1) Background: Intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD) in adults is characterized by steatosis with variable progression to fibrosis/cirrhosis. Reference standard liver biopsy is not feasible for all patients, but non-invasive serological and quantitative MRI markers for diagnosis/monitoring have not been previously validated. Here, [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD) in adults is characterized by steatosis with variable progression to fibrosis/cirrhosis. Reference standard liver biopsy is not feasible for all patients, but non-invasive serological and quantitative MRI markers for diagnosis/monitoring have not been previously validated. Here, we examine the potential of serum scores and feasibility of quantitative MRI used in non-IFALD liver diseases for the diagnosis of IFALD steatosis; (2) Methods: Clinical and biochemical parameters were used to calculate serum scores in patients on home parenteral nutrition (HPN) with/without IFALD steatosis. A sub-group underwent multiparameter quantitative MRI measurements of liver fat fraction, iron content, tissue T1, liver blood flow and small bowel motility; (3) Results: Compared to non-IFALD (n = 12), patients with IFALD steatosis (n = 8) demonstrated serum score elevations in Enhanced Liver Fibrosis (p = 0.032), Aspartate transaminase-to-Platelet Ratio Index (p < 0.001), Fibrosis-4 Index (p = 0.010), Forns Index (p = 0.001), Gamma-glutamyl transferase-to-Platelet Ratio Index (p = 0.002) and Fibrosis Index (p = 0.001). Quantitative MRI scanning was feasible in all 10 sub-group patients. Median liver fat fraction was higher in IFALD steatosis patients (10.9% vs 2.1%, p = 0.032); other parameter differences were non-significant; (4) Conclusion: Serum scores used for non-IFALD liver diseases may be useful in IFALD steatosis. Multiparameter MRI is feasible in patients on HPN. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intestinal Failure and Home Parenteral Nutrition)
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Article
Consumer Misuse of Country-of-Origin Label: Insights from the Italian Extra-Virgin Olive Oil Market
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2150; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072150 - 19 Jul 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1078
Abstract
Providing information to consumers through the label is a means for food companies to inform consumers about product’s attributes, including the country of origin (COO). In the EU, COO labeling has been made mandatory for several categories of food products, to enable consumers [...] Read more.
Providing information to consumers through the label is a means for food companies to inform consumers about product’s attributes, including the country of origin (COO). In the EU, COO labeling has been made mandatory for several categories of food products, to enable consumers to make informed choices at the point of sale. In particular, Regulation (EU) No 29/2012 has introduced a mandatory country-of-origin labeling system for extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). In the present study, conducted in Italy, we test whether there is a price differential associated with the COO information for EVOO. To this end, we employ a hedonic price model and data about the purchase of EVOO products collected from 982 consumers at the supermarket checkout. Having interviewed these consumers, we also assess the share of EVOO consumers that correctly identify the country of origin of the product purchased. Our findings point out that, in Italy, the EVOO with domestic origin, indicated on the label, benefits of a premium price equal to +35% compared to the product labeled as blend of European EVOOs, while a discount of −10.8% is attached to EVOOs from a non-European origin. A significant share of consumers in our sample (19.04%) is, however, unable to correctly identify the origin of the EVOO purchased. This label misuse mostly occurs among consumers who report that they had purchased Italian EVOO, while they had actually purchased a blend of European EVOOs. Female and more highly educated consumers are less likely to misuse label information about the product’s origins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Labeling: Analysis, Understanding, and Perception)
Article
Do Parent–Child Dyads with Excessive Body Mass Differ from Dyads with Normal Body Mass in Perceptions of Obesogenic Environment?
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2149; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072149 - 19 Jul 2020
Viewed by 885
Abstract
Background: This study addressed differences between parent–child dyads with excessive body mass (overweight or obesity) and dyads with normal body mass in obesity determinants, derived from social-ecological models. It was hypothesized that parents and their 5–11 years-old children with excessive body mass would [...] Read more.
Background: This study addressed differences between parent–child dyads with excessive body mass (overweight or obesity) and dyads with normal body mass in obesity determinants, derived from social-ecological models. It was hypothesized that parents and their 5–11 years-old children with excessive body mass would (1) report lower availability of healthy food at home, (2) perceive fewer school/local community healthy eating promotion programs, (3) report lower persuasive value of food advertising. Methods: Data were collected twice (T1, baseline; T2, 10-month follow-up), including n = 129 parent–child dyads with excessive body mass and n = 377 parent–child dyads with normal body mass. Self-reported data were collected from parents and children; with body weight and height assessed objectively. General linear models (including analysis of variance with repeated measures) were performed to test the hypotheses. Results: Compared to dyads with normal body mass, dyads of parents and children with excessive body mass perceived lower availability of healthy food at home and fewer healthy eating promotion programs at school/local community (T1 and T2). These effects remained significant after controlling for sociodemographic variables. No significant differences in persuasive value of food advertising were found. Conclusions: Perceptions of availability of healthy food at home and healthy nutrition promotion may be relatively low in parent–child dyads with excessive weight which, in turn, may constitute a risk factor for maintenance of obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Obesity and Nutrition Promotion Intervention)
Article
Changes in the Dietary Habits of the Greek EPIC Cohort Participants during a 14-Year Follow-Up Period (1997–2011)
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2148; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072148 - 19 Jul 2020
Viewed by 857
Abstract
The aim of this study is to evaluate the changes in the nutritional behavior of the Greek EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) cohort participants regarding the consumption of basic food groups, during a 14-year period (1997–2011). In the Greek segment [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to evaluate the changes in the nutritional behavior of the Greek EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) cohort participants regarding the consumption of basic food groups, during a 14-year period (1997–2011). In the Greek segment of the EPIC cohort study (EPIC-Greece), the changes in dietary habits of 23,505 participants regarding several food items/groups (vegetables, legumes, fruits, nuts, dairy, cereal, meat, fish/seafood, olive oil) were recorded repeatedly over time and compared to the baseline assessment (1994–1997), using a short, qualitative, follow-up questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to study the trends in nutritional behavior over time and ordinal logistic regression models to study the associations between the ordered responses of the questionnaire and sociodemographic and health factors. More participants reported an increase rather than a decrease in the consumption of vegetables, fruits, fish/seafood, whilst the inverse was observed for dairy products, nuts, cereals, and meat. No prevailing trend was noted for legumes and olive oil. Factors such as being female and having high education relate to more positive (healthy) changes in nutritional behavior. There seems to be primarily a change to a more healthy nutritional behavior of the EPIC-Greece participants over the follow-up period, with different participant subgroups presenting different degrees of nutritional changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition, Education and Dietetics)
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Article
A Comprehensive Evaluation of the Impact of Bovine Milk Containing Different Beta-Casein Profiles on Gut Health of Ageing Mice
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2147; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072147 - 19 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1610
Abstract
Ageing is often characterised by nutritional deficiencies and functional alterations of the digestive and immune system. The aim of the present study was to analyse the impact of consumption of conventional milk with A1/A2 beta-casein, compared to milk containing only the A2 beta-casein [...] Read more.
Ageing is often characterised by nutritional deficiencies and functional alterations of the digestive and immune system. The aim of the present study was to analyse the impact of consumption of conventional milk with A1/A2 beta-casein, compared to milk containing only the A2 beta-casein variant, characterised by a protein profile favouring gut health. Twenty-four ageing Balb-c mice (20 months old) were fed for 4 weeks, with either a control diet (CTRL), a diet supplemented with bovine milk containing A1/A2 beta-casein (A1A2) or a diet containing A2/A2 beta-casein (A2A2). Lymphocyte subpopulations, enzymatic activities, cytokine secretion, gut morphology and histopathological alterations were measured in different gut segments, while short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) content and microbiota composition were evaluated in faecal samples. The A2A2 group showed higher content of faecal SCFAs (in particular, isobutyrate) of intestinal CD4+ and CD19+ lymphocytes in the intraepithelial compartment and improved villi tropism. The A1A2 group showed higher percentages of intestinal TCRγδ+ lymphocytes. Faecal microbiota identified Deferribacteriaceae and Desulfovibrionaceae as the most discriminant families for the A2A2 group, while Ruminococcaceae were associated to the A1A2 group. Taken together, these results suggest a positive role of milk, in particular when containing exclusively A2 beta-casein, on gut immunology and morphology of an ageing mice model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Immunology)
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Article
Thymocid®, a Standardized Black Cumin (Nigella sativa) Seed Extract, Modulates Collagen Cross-Linking, Collagenase and Elastase Activities, and Melanogenesis in Murine B16F10 Melanoma Cells
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2146; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072146 - 19 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1658
Abstract
Black cumin (Nigella sativa) seed extract has been shown to improve dermatological conditions, yet its beneficial effects for skin are not fully elucidated. Herein, Thymocid®, a chemically standardized black cumin seed extract, was investigated for its cosmeceutical potential including [...] Read more.
Black cumin (Nigella sativa) seed extract has been shown to improve dermatological conditions, yet its beneficial effects for skin are not fully elucidated. Herein, Thymocid®, a chemically standardized black cumin seed extract, was investigated for its cosmeceutical potential including anti-aging properties associated with modulation of glycation, collagen cross-linking, and collagenase and elastase activities, as well as antimelanogenic effect in murine melanoma B16F10 cells. Thymocid® (50, 100, and 300 µg/mL) inhibited the formation of advanced glycation end-products (by 16.7–70.7%), collagen cross-linking (by 45.1–93.3%), collagenase activity (by 10.4–92.4%), and elastases activities (type I and III by 25.3–75.4% and 36.0–91.1%, respectively). In addition, Thymocid® (2.5–20 µg/mL) decreased melanin content in B16F10 cells by 42.5–61.6% and reduced cellular tyrosinase activity by 20.9% (at 20 µg/mL). Furthermore, Thymocid® (20 µg/mL for 72 h) markedly suppressed the mRNA expression levels of melanogenesis-related genes including microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1), and TYRP2 to 78.9%, 0.3%, and 0.2%, respectively. Thymocid® (10 µg/mL) also suppressed the protein expression levels of MITF (by 15.2%) and TYRP1 (by 97.7%). Findings from this study support the anti-aging and antimelanogenic potential of Thymocid® as a bioactive cosmeceutical ingredient for skin care products. Full article
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Communication
Eating Competence among a Select Sample of Brazilian Adults: Translation and Reproducibility Analyses of the Satter Eating Competence Inventory
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2145; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072145 - 19 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 909
Abstract
This study aimed to translate and validate the Satter Eating Competence Inventory (ecSI2.0TM) from English to Brazilian Portuguese. The process included three steps: (i) translation and back-translation of the original ecSI2.0TM to Brazilian Portuguese; (ii) evaluation of its reproducibility; (iii) [...] Read more.
This study aimed to translate and validate the Satter Eating Competence Inventory (ecSI2.0TM) from English to Brazilian Portuguese. The process included three steps: (i) translation and back-translation of the original ecSI2.0TM to Brazilian Portuguese; (ii) evaluation of its reproducibility; (iii) a pilot study to validate the Brazilian version of the Satter Eating Competence Inventory (ecSI2.0TMBR) for a selected sample of the Brazilian adult population (internal consistency and factor validity). The reproducibility (test–retest reliability) was verified using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) obtained by the responses of 32 Brazilian adults. All domains of the ecSI2.0TMBR and the total score showed ICC > 0.8. Considering the entire questionnaire, none of the domains presented significant divergences among the participants’ responses (p < 0.001). In the pilot study with 662 individuals, 74.9% (n= 496) were female, mean age was 40.33 ± 12.55, and they presented a higher level of schooling and income. Analyses revealed Cronbach’s alpha coefficients of 0.869 for the ecSI2.0TMBR total scale, 0.793 for Eating Attitudes, 0.527 for Internal Regulation, 0.728 for Food Acceptance, and 0.822 for Contextual Skills. In general, the ecSI2.0™BR presented good acceptability, showing total floor and ceiling effects of ≤0.6%. Factor validity was examined by confirmatory factor analysis. The four domains presented a good fit in the confirmatory factor analysis: RMSEA = 0.0123 (95% CI: 0–0.0266); CFI = 0.998; χ2 = 75.9; df = 69; p = 0.266. The ecSI2.0TMBR is the first tool designed to measure eating competence (EC) in the Brazilian population, showing good reproducibility and internal consistency. We expect the ecSI2.0TMBR will support innovative research to investigate the association of EC and health outcomes, as well as new strategies based on emerging behavioral theories to enhance nutritional education policy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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Review
Choline: An Essential Nutrient for Skeletal Muscle
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2144; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072144 - 18 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1973
Abstract
Background: Choline is an essential micronutrient with a pivotal role in several metabolic pathways contributing to liver, neurological, and hematological homeostasis. Although choline is commonly administered to improve physical performance, its effects on muscle are still unclear. The aim of this scoping review [...] Read more.
Background: Choline is an essential micronutrient with a pivotal role in several metabolic pathways contributing to liver, neurological, and hematological homeostasis. Although choline is commonly administered to improve physical performance, its effects on muscle are still unclear. The aim of this scoping review is to analyze the role of choline on skeletal muscle in terms of biological effects and clinical implications. Methods: A technical expert panel (TEP) of 6 medical specialists with expertise in muscle physiology and skeletal muscle disorders performed the review following the PRISMA-ScR (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Extension for Scoping Reviews) model. The TEP planned a research on PubMed selecting “choline” as MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) term adding to PubMed Search Builder the terms ”skeletal muscle” and “muscle striated”. TEP considered for eligibility articles published in the last 30 years, including original researches, particularly in vitro studies, and animal and clinical studies in the English language. Results: From the 1239 studies identified, TEP included 14 studies, 3 in vitro, 9 animal, and 2 clinical studies. Conclusions: Our scoping review elucidates and summarizes the crucial role of choline in modulating muscle fat metabolism, muscle proteins homeostasis, and the modulation of inflammation and autophagy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Choline: An Essential Nutrient for Human Health)
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Article
Kids in a Candy Store: An Objective Analysis of Children’s Interactions with Food in Convenience Stores
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2143; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072143 - 18 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1210
Abstract
Increasing rates of childhood obesity worldwide has focused attention on the obesogenic food environment. This paper reports an analysis of children’s interactions with food in convenience stores. Kids’Cam was a cross-sectional study conducted from July 2014 to June 2015 in New Zealand in [...] Read more.
Increasing rates of childhood obesity worldwide has focused attention on the obesogenic food environment. This paper reports an analysis of children’s interactions with food in convenience stores. Kids’Cam was a cross-sectional study conducted from July 2014 to June 2015 in New Zealand in which 168 randomly selected children aged 11–14 years old wore a wearable camera for a 4–day period. In this ancillary study, images from children who visited a convenience store were manually coded for food and drink availability. Twenty-two percent of children (n = 37) visited convenience stores on 62 occasions during the 4-day data collection period. Noncore items dominated the food and drinks available to children at a rate of 8.3 to 1 (means were 300 noncore and 36 core, respectively). The food and drinks marketed in-store were overwhelmingly noncore and promoted using accessible placement, price offers, product packaging, and signage. Most of the 70 items purchased by children were noncore foods or drinks (94.6%), and all of the purchased food or drink subsequently consumed was noncore. This research highlights convenience stores as a key source of unhealthy food and drink for children, and policies are needed to reduce the role of convenience stores in the obesogenic food environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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Article
Effects on Gastroesophageal Reflux of Donkey Milk-Derived Human Milk Fortifier Versus Standard Fortifier in Preterm Newborns: Additional Data from the FortiLat Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2142; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072142 - 18 Jul 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 881
Abstract
Background: Feeding intolerance is a frequent diagnosis in very preterm infants. As seen in the FortiLat trial, human milk fortification with the new donkey milk-derived human milk fortifier (DF) seems to improve feeding tolerance in these infants. The aim of this study was [...] Read more.
Background: Feeding intolerance is a frequent diagnosis in very preterm infants. As seen in the FortiLat trial, human milk fortification with the new donkey milk-derived human milk fortifier (DF) seems to improve feeding tolerance in these infants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of using the DF compared with bovine milk-derived fortifier (BF) on gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Methods: Over a total of 156 preterm infants were enrolled into the FortiLat trial (GA <32 weeks and birth weight <1500 g) and randomized into the BF arm or DF arm, and we selected all infants with clinical signs of GER and cardiorespiratory (CR) symptoms. All the infants underwent CR and multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH (MII/pH) monitoring associated with gastric ultrasound to evaluate GER and gastric emptying time. Results: 10 infants were enrolled, and 5 were in the DF arm. At MII/pH, infants enrolled into the DF arm showed a lower GER frequency than BF arm infants (p = 0.036). Half gastric emptying time was similar in DF and BF arm infants (p = 0.744). Conclusion: The use of donkey-derived human milk fortifier reduced the GER frequency and consequently should be recommended in infants with feeding intolerance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Donkey Milk and Infant Nutrition)
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Article
Baseline HOMA IR and Circulating FGF21 Levels Predict NAFLD Improvement in Patients Undergoing a Low Carbohydrate Dietary Intervention for Weight Loss: A Prospective Observational Pilot Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2141; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072141 - 18 Jul 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1307
Abstract
Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major cause of liver disease. Very low-calorie ketogenic diets (VLCKD) represent a feasible treatment as they induce profound weight loss and insulin resistance (IR) improvement. Despite the recognized benefits on NAFLD deriving from pharmacological administration [...] Read more.
Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major cause of liver disease. Very low-calorie ketogenic diets (VLCKD) represent a feasible treatment as they induce profound weight loss and insulin resistance (IR) improvement. Despite the recognized benefits on NAFLD deriving from pharmacological administration of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), whose endogenous counterpart is a marker of liver injury, little is known about its physiology in humans. Aim: To identify predictors of NAFLD improvement as reflected by the reduction of the non-invasive screening tool hepatic steatosis index (HSI) in obese patients undergoing a weight loss program. Methods: Sixty-five obese patients underwent a 90-day dietary program consisting of a VLCKD followed by a hypocaloric low carbohydrate diet (LCD). Anthropometric parameters, body composition, and blood and urine chemistry were assessed. Results: Unlike most parameters improving mainly during the VLCKD, the deepest HSI change was observed after the LCD (p = 0.02 and p < 0.0001, respectively). Baseline HOMA-IR and serum FGF21 were found to be positive (R = 0.414, p = 0009) and negative (R = 0.364, p = 0.04) independent predictors of HSI reduction, respectively. Conclusions: We suggest that patients with IR and NAFLD derive greater benefit from a VLCKD, and we propose a possible role of human FGF21 in mediating NAFLD amelioration following nutritional manipulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Influence on Adipose Tissue Metabolism and Blood Lipid Levels)
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Article
Randomised Controlled Trial: Partial Hydrolysation of Casein Protein in Milk Decreases Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Subjects with Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2140; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072140 - 18 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1135
Abstract
Unspecific gastrointestinal symptoms associated with milk consumption are common. In addition to lactose, also other components of milk may be involved. We studied whether the partial hydrolysation of milk proteins would affect gastrointestinal symptoms in subjects with functional gastrointestinal disorders. In a randomised, [...] Read more.
Unspecific gastrointestinal symptoms associated with milk consumption are common. In addition to lactose, also other components of milk may be involved. We studied whether the partial hydrolysation of milk proteins would affect gastrointestinal symptoms in subjects with functional gastrointestinal disorders. In a randomised, placebo-controlled crossover intervention, subjects (n = 41) were given ordinary or hydrolysed high-protein, lactose-free milkshakes (500 mL, 50 g protein) to be consumed daily for ten days. After a washout period of ten days, the other product was consumed for another ten days. Gastrointestinal symptoms were recorded daily during the study periods, and a validated irritable bowel syndrome-symptom severity scale (IBS-SSS) questionnaire was completed at the beginning of the study and at the end of both study periods. Blood and urine samples were analysed for markers of inflammation, intestinal permeability and immune activation. Both the IBS-SSS score (p = 0.001) and total symptom score reported daily (p = 0.002) were significantly reduced when participants consumed the hydrolysed product. Less bloating was reported during both study periods when compared with the baseline (p < 0.01 for both groups). Flatulence (p = 0.01) and heartburn (p = 0.03) decreased when consuming the hydrolysed product but not when drinking the control product. No significant differences in the levels of inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNF-α and interleukin 6, IL-6), intestinal permeability (fatty acid binding protein 2, FABP2) or immune activation (1-methylhistamine) were detected between the treatment periods. The results suggest that the partial hydrolysation of milk proteins (mainly casein) reduces subjective symptoms to some extent in subjects with functional gastrointestinal disorders. The mechanism remains to be resolved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
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Article
Effects of Exercise Combined with a Healthy Diet or Calanus finmarchicus Oil Supplementation on Body Composition and Metabolic Markers—A Pilot Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2139; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072139 - 18 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1925
Abstract
Aging is accompanied by a progressive decline in muscle mass and an increase in fat mass, which are detrimental changes associated with the development of health conditions such as type-2 diabetes mellitus or chronic low-grade inflammation. Although both exercise as well as nutritional [...] Read more.
Aging is accompanied by a progressive decline in muscle mass and an increase in fat mass, which are detrimental changes associated with the development of health conditions such as type-2 diabetes mellitus or chronic low-grade inflammation. Although both exercise as well as nutritional interventions are known to be beneficial in counteracting those age-related changes, data to which extent untrained elderly people may benefit is still sparse. Therefore, a randomized, controlled, 12-week interventional trial was conducted in which 134 healthy untrained participants (96 women and 38 men, age 59.4 ± 5.6 years, body mass index (BMI) 28.4 ± 5.8 kg/m2) were allocated to one of four study groups: (1) control group with no intervention (CON); (2) 2×/week aerobic and resistance training only (EX); (3) exercise routine combined with dietary counseling in accordance with the guidelines of the German Nutrition Society (EXDC); (4) exercise routine combined with intake of 2 g/day oil from Calanus finmarchicus (EXCO). Body composition (bioelectrical impedance analysis), as well as markers of glucose metabolism and blood lipids, were analyzed at the beginning and the end of the study. The highest decreases in body fat were observed within the EXCO group (−1.70 ± 2.45 kg, p < 0.001), and the EXDC (−1.41 ± 2.13 kg, p = 0.008) group. Markers of glucose metabolism and blood lipids remained unchanged in all groups. Taken together results of this pilot study suggest that a combination of moderate exercise and intake of oil from Calanus finmarchicus or a healthy diet may promote fat loss in elderly untrained overweight participants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Physical Activity and Diet in Human Health during Aging)
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Article
The Modulation of Phase II Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes in Proliferating and Differentiated CaCo-2 Cells by Hop-Derived Prenylflavonoids
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2138; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072138 - 18 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 967
Abstract
Prenylflavonoids in the human organism exhibit various health-beneficial activities, although they may interfere with drugs via the modulation of the expression and/or activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes. As intestinal cells are exposed to the highest concentrations of prenylflavonoids, we decided to study the cytotoxicity [...] Read more.
Prenylflavonoids in the human organism exhibit various health-beneficial activities, although they may interfere with drugs via the modulation of the expression and/or activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes. As intestinal cells are exposed to the highest concentrations of prenylflavonoids, we decided to study the cytotoxicity and modulatory effects of the four main hop-derived prenylflavonoids on the activities and mRNA expression of the main drug-conjugating enzymes in human CaCo-2 cells. Proliferating CaCo-2 cells were used for these purposes as a model of colorectal cancer cells, and differentiated CaCo-2 cells were used as an enterocyte-like model. All the tested prenylflavonoids inhibited the CaCo-2 cells proliferation, with xanthohumol proving the most effective (IC50 8.5 µM). The prenylflavonoids modulated the activities and expressions of the studied enzymes to a greater extent in the differentiated, as opposed to the proliferating, CaCo-2 cells. In the differentiated cells, all the prenylflavonoids caused a marked increase in glutathione S-transferase and catechol-O-methyltransferase activities, while the activity of sulfotransferase was significantly inhibited. Moreover, the prenylflavonoids upregulated the mRNA expression of uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucuronosyl transferase 1A6 and downregulated that of glutathione S-transferase 1A1/2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary (Poly)Phenols and Health)
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Article
Diet Quality Is Associated with Cardiometabolic Outcomes in Survivors of Childhood Leukemia
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2137; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072137 - 18 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1047
Abstract
There is little information about how diet influences the health of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (cALL) survivors. This study explores the associations between diet quality indices, cardiometabolic health indicators and inflammatory biomarkers among cALL survivors. Participants were part of the PETALE study ( [...] Read more.
There is little information about how diet influences the health of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (cALL) survivors. This study explores the associations between diet quality indices, cardiometabolic health indicators and inflammatory biomarkers among cALL survivors. Participants were part of the PETALE study (n = 241, median age: 21.7 years). Adherence to 6 dietary scores and caloric intake from ultra-processed foods were calculated. Multivariate logistirac regressions, Student t-tests and Mann-Whitney tests were performed. We found that 88% of adults and 46% of children adhered poorly to the Mediterranean diet, 36.9% had poor adherence to the World Health Organisation (WHO) recommendations and 76.3% had a diet to be improved according to the HEI-2015 score. On average, ultra-processed foods accounted for 51% of total energy intake. Low HDL-C was associated with a more inflammatory diet (E-DIITM score) and higher intake of ultra-processed foods. A greater E-DII score was associated with elevated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and consumption of ultra-processed foods was correlated with high triglycerides. Circulating levels of TNF-α, adiponectin and IL-6 were influenced by diet quality indices, while CRP and leptin were not. In conclusion, survivors of cALL have poor adherence to dietary recommendations, adversely affecting their cardiometabolic health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition for Cancer Survivors)
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Review
To Wean or Not to Wean: The Role of Autologous Reconstructive Surgery in the Natural History of Pediatric Short Bowel Syndrome on Behalf of Italian Society for Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (SIGENP)
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2136; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072136 - 18 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 940
Abstract
Pediatric Short Bowel Syndrome (SBS) can require prolonged parenteral nutrition (PN). Over the years, SBS management has been implemented by autologous gastrointestinal reconstructive surgery (AGIR). The primary objective of the present review was to assess the effect of AGIR on weaning off PN. [...] Read more.
Pediatric Short Bowel Syndrome (SBS) can require prolonged parenteral nutrition (PN). Over the years, SBS management has been implemented by autologous gastrointestinal reconstructive surgery (AGIR). The primary objective of the present review was to assess the effect of AGIR on weaning off PN. We also evaluated how AGIR impacts survival, the need for transplantation (Tx) and the development of liver disease (LD). We conducted a systematic literature search to identify studies published from January 1999 to the present and 947 patients were identified. PN alone was weakly associated with higher probability of weaning from PN (OR = 1.1, p = 0.03) and of surviving (OR = 1.05, p = 0.01). Adjusting for age, the probability of weaning off PN but of not surviving remained significantly associated with PN alone (OR = 1.08, p = 0.03). Finally, adjusting for age and primary diagnosis (gastroschisis), any association was lost. The prevalence of TX and LD did not differ by groups. In conclusion, in view of the low benefit in terms of intestinal adaptation and of the not negligible rate of complications (20%), a careful selection of candidates for AGIR should be required. Bowel dilation associated with failure of advancing EN and poor growth, should be criteria to refer for AGIR. Full article
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