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Nutrients, Volume 12, Issue 7 (July 2020) – 160 articles

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Open AccessArticle
Examining the Role of Anxiety and Depression in Dietary Choices among College Students
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2061; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072061 (registering DOI) - 11 Jul 2020
Abstract
This study examines the role of anxiety and depression symptoms in predicting dietary choices in emerging adults while accounting for sex differences in these relationships. Participants were 225 English speaking undergraduates enrolled in a university in southeastern United States. Participants were recruited through [...] Read more.
This study examines the role of anxiety and depression symptoms in predicting dietary choices in emerging adults while accounting for sex differences in these relationships. Participants were 225 English speaking undergraduates enrolled in a university in southeastern United States. Participants were recruited through an online research recruitment application utilized by the university. Participants volunteered for a two-phased anonymous survey monitoring the effects of eating habits and gastrointestinal health in young adults. As part of this effort, participants completed self-reporting measures related to anxiety and depression, as well as an automated, self-administered 24-h diet recall. Multigroup path analysis was used to test primary hypotheses. Overall, a decrease in total caloric intake and an increase in sugar consumption were found as self-reported symptoms of anxiety and depression increased. In addition, there were sex differences in the relationship between depression and food choices. Men consumed more saturated fat as well as less fruits and vegetables as self-reported symptoms of depression increased. Results suggest symptoms of depression are a greater risk factor for poor nutrition in male college students than females. The findings provide another justification to screen for psychological distress in student health services given the implications on behavioral lifestyle and health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eating Habits and Health among College and University Students)
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Open AccessReview
Might Starvation-Induced Adaptations in Muscle Mass, Muscle Morphology and Muscle Function Contribute to the Increased Urge for Movement and to Spontaneous Physical Activity in Anorexia Nervosa?
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2060; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072060 (registering DOI) - 10 Jul 2020
Abstract
Severely undernourished and underweight anorexia nervosa (AN) patients typically remain active and mobile. Might such persistent physical activity in AN be supported by specific adaptations in muscle tissue during long term undernutrition? To identify potential differences, studies examining the effects of undernutrition on [...] Read more.
Severely undernourished and underweight anorexia nervosa (AN) patients typically remain active and mobile. Might such persistent physical activity in AN be supported by specific adaptations in muscle tissue during long term undernutrition? To identify potential differences, studies examining the effects of undernutrition on skeletal muscle mass, muscle morphology and muscle function in healthy humans and in AN patients were reviewed. Adjustments in muscle morphology and function in AN did not differ in substance from those in healthy humans, undernourished people, or undergoing semi-starvation. Loss of muscle mass, changes in muscle contractility and atrophy of muscle fibers (predominantly type II fibers) characterized both groups. Muscle innervation was unaffected. Work capacity in men in semi-starvation experiments and in females with AN declined by about 70% and 50%, respectively. Perceptions of fatigue and effort distinguished the groups: signs of general weakness, tiring quickly and avoidance of physical activity that were recorded in semi-starvation were not reported for AN patients. The absence of distinctive starvation-related adjustments in skeletal muscle in AN suggests that new methods, such as muscle gene expression profiles in response to deficient nutrient intake, and better knowledge of the central regulatory circuitries contributing to motor urgency will be required to shed light on the persistent mobility in AN patients. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Urinary Excretion of N1-Methylnicotinamide and N1-Methyl-2-Pyridone-5-Carboxamide and Mortality in Kidney Transplant Recipients
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2059; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072059 (registering DOI) - 10 Jul 2020
Abstract
It is unclear whether niacin nutritional status is a target for improvement of long-term outcome after renal transplantation. The 24-h urinary excretion of N1-methylnicotinamide (N1-MN), as a biomarker of niacin status, has previously been shown to be negatively [...] Read more.
It is unclear whether niacin nutritional status is a target for improvement of long-term outcome after renal transplantation. The 24-h urinary excretion of N1-methylnicotinamide (N1-MN), as a biomarker of niacin status, has previously been shown to be negatively associated with premature mortality in kidney transplant recipients (KTR). However, recent evidence implies higher enzymatic conversion of N1-MN to N1-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide (2Py) in KTR, therefore the need exists for interpretation of both N1-MN and 2Py excretion for niacin status assessment. We assessed niacin status by means of the 24-h urinary excretion of the sum of N1-MN and 2Py (N1-MN + 2Py), and its associations with risk of premature mortality in KTR. N1-MN + 2Py excretion was measured in a longitudinal cohort of 660 KTR with LS-MS/MS. Prospective associations of N1-MN + 2Py excretion were investigated with Cox regression analyses. Median N1-MN + 2Py excretion was 198.3 (155.9–269.4) µmol/day. During follow-up of 5.4 (4.7–6.1) years, 143 KTR died, of whom 40 due to an infectious disease. N1-MN + 2Py excretion was negatively associated with risk of all-cause mortality (HR 0.61; 95% CI 0.47–0.79; p < 0.001), and infectious mortality specifically (HR 0.47; 95% CI 0.29–0.75; p = 0.002), independent of potential confounders. Secondary analyses showed effect modification of hs-CRP on the negative prospective association of N1-MN + 2Py excretion, and sensitivity analyses showed negative and independent associations of N1-MN and 2Py excretion with risk of all-cause mortality separately. These findings add further evidence to niacin status as a target for nutritional strategies for improvement of long-term outcome in KTR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renal Nutrition and Metabolism)
Open AccessArticle
Flour for Home Baking: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of Supermarket Products Emphasising the Whole Grain Opportunity
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2058; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072058 (registering DOI) - 10 Jul 2020
Abstract
Flour, typically derived from wheat, rye, corn and rice is a pantry staple, providing structure to bread and baked goods. This study aimed to provide a cross-sectional analysis of flour for home baking, highlighting the nutrition composition of whole grain flour and identifying [...] Read more.
Flour, typically derived from wheat, rye, corn and rice is a pantry staple, providing structure to bread and baked goods. This study aimed to provide a cross-sectional analysis of flour for home baking, highlighting the nutrition composition of whole grain flour and identifying novel categories. An audit was undertaken in February 2020, in four major supermarkets in metropolitan Sydney (Aldi, Coles, IGA and Woolworths). Ingredient lists, Nutrition Information Panel, claims, and country of origin were collected. The median and range were calculated for energy, protein, fat, saturated fat, carbohydrate, sugars, dietary fibre and sodium. Overall, 130 products were collected, including 26 plain flour, 12 self-raising, 17 plain wholemeal, 4 wholemeal self-raising, 20 bread-making mixes (4 were whole grain), 20 other refined grain (including corn and rice flour), 17 gluten-free, 3 legume, 4 fruit/vegetable, 4 coconut and 3 other non-grain (e.g., hemp seed, cricket flour) products. Plain wheat flour dominated the category, while whole grain (wholemeal) made up 19% of products, yet they contained significantly more dietary fibre (p < 0.001) and protein (p < 0.001). Self-raising flours were significantly higher in sodium (p < 0.001) and gluten-free products were lower in protein and dietary fibre, making legume, buckwheat and quinoa flour a better choice. Sustainability principles in fruit and vegetable production and novel insect products have driven new product development. There is a clear opportunity for further on-pack promotion of whole grain and dietary fibre within the category via food product labelling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Whole Grains for Nutrition and Health Benefits)
Open AccessReview
Nutritional Supplements to Support Resistance Exercise in Countering the Sarcopenia of Aging
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2057; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072057 (registering DOI) - 10 Jul 2020
Abstract
Skeletal muscle plays an indispensable role in metabolic health and physical function. A decrease in muscle mass and function with advancing age exacerbates the likelihood of mobility impairments, disease development, and early mortality. Therefore, the development of non-pharmacological interventions to counteract sarcopenia warrant [...] Read more.
Skeletal muscle plays an indispensable role in metabolic health and physical function. A decrease in muscle mass and function with advancing age exacerbates the likelihood of mobility impairments, disease development, and early mortality. Therefore, the development of non-pharmacological interventions to counteract sarcopenia warrant significant attention. Currently, resistance training provides the most effective, low cost means by which to prevent sarcopenia progression and improve multiple aspects of overall health. Importantly, the impact of resistance training on skeletal muscle mass may be augmented by specific dietary components (i.e., protein), feeding strategies (i.e., timing, per-meal doses of specific macronutrients) and nutritional supplements (e.g., creatine, vitamin-D, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids etc.). The purpose of this review is to provide an up-to-date, evidence-based account of nutritional strategies to enhance resistance training-induced adaptations in an attempt to combat age-related muscle mass loss. In addition, we provide insight on how to incorporate the aforementioned nutritional strategies that may support the growth or maintenance of skeletal muscle and subsequently extend the healthspan of older individuals. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Diet and Nutraceutical Supplementation in Dyslipidemic Patients: First Results of an Italian Single Center Real-World Retrospective Analysis
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2056; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072056 (registering DOI) - 10 Jul 2020
Abstract
Background: Dyslipidemias are a heterogeneous group of metabolic disorders mainly characterized by an increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) or other conditions, such as acute pancreatitis in hypertriglyceridemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of diet treatment and [...] Read more.
Background: Dyslipidemias are a heterogeneous group of metabolic disorders mainly characterized by an increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) or other conditions, such as acute pancreatitis in hypertriglyceridemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of diet treatment and nutraceutical (NUTs) supplementation on the plasma lipid profile in outpatient dyslipidemic subjects, considering the influence of several factors (i.e., gender, age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and smoking habits). Methods: 487 dyslipidemic patients spanning from 2015 to 2019 were treated with a Mediterranean diet or NUTs in a real-word setting and were retrospectively analyzed. General characteristics and lipid profile at baseline and after the follow-up period were evaluated. Results: Diet alone reduced total cholesterol (−19 mg/dL, −7.7%), LDL cholesterol (−18 mg/dL, −10.1%), and triglycerides (−20 mg/dL, −16.7%). Triglycerides (TG) decreased more in men, while women were associated with higher reduction of LDL cholesterol (LDL-C). Different types of NUTs further ameliorate lipid profiles when associated with diet. Nevertheless, most patients at low ASCVD risk (222 out of 262, 81.6%) did not achieve the 2019 ESC/EAS guidelines recommended LDL-C goals (i.e., LDL-C < 116 mg/dL). Conclusion: Lipid-lowering diet improves lipid profile, and NUTs can boost its efficacy, but taken together they are mainly unsatisfactory with respect to the targets imposed by 2019 EAS/ESC guidelines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Effects on Human Lipid and Lipoprotein Metabolism)
Open AccessReview
The Effects and Potential Mechanism of Oil Palm Phenolics in Cardiovascular Health: A Review on Current Evidence
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2055; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072055 (registering DOI) - 10 Jul 2020
Abstract
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is globally known as the number one cause of death with hyperlipidemia as a strong risk factor for CVD. The initiation of drug treatment will be recommended if lifestyle modification fails. However, medicines currently used for improving cholesterol and low-density [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is globally known as the number one cause of death with hyperlipidemia as a strong risk factor for CVD. The initiation of drug treatment will be recommended if lifestyle modification fails. However, medicines currently used for improving cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterols (LDL-C) levels have been associated with various side effects. Thus, alternative treatment with fewer or no side effects needs to be explored. A potential agent, oil palm phenolics (OPP) recovered from the aqueous waste of oil palm milling process contains numerous water-soluble phenolic compounds. It has been postulated that OPP has shown cardioprotective effects via several mechanisms such as cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This review aims to summarize the current evidence explicating the actions of OPP in cardiovascular health and the mechanisms that maybe involved for the cardioprotective effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary (Poly)Phenols and Health)
Open AccessArticle
Srebp-1c/Fgf21/Pgc-1α Axis Regulated by Leptin Signaling in Adipocytes—Possible Mechanism of Caloric Restriction-Associated Metabolic Remodeling of White Adipose Tissue
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2054; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072054 (registering DOI) - 10 Jul 2020
Abstract
Caloric restriction (CR) improves whole body metabolism, suppresses age-related pathophysiology, and extends lifespan in rodents. Metabolic remodeling, including fatty acid (FA) biosynthesis and mitochondrial biogenesis, in white adipose tissue (WAT) plays an important role in the beneficial effects of CR. We have proposed [...] Read more.
Caloric restriction (CR) improves whole body metabolism, suppresses age-related pathophysiology, and extends lifespan in rodents. Metabolic remodeling, including fatty acid (FA) biosynthesis and mitochondrial biogenesis, in white adipose tissue (WAT) plays an important role in the beneficial effects of CR. We have proposed that CR-induced mitochondrial biogenesis in WAT is mediated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), which is transcriptionally regulated by sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c), a master regulator of FA biosynthesis. We have also proposed that the CR-associated upregulation of SREBP-1 and PGC-1α might result from the attenuation of leptin signaling and the upregulation of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in WAT. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we interrogate the regulatory mechanisms involving leptin signaling, SREBP-1c, FGF21, and PGC-1α using Srebp-1c knockout (KO) mice, mouse embryonic fibroblasts, and 3T3-L1 adipocytes, by altering the expression of SREBP-1c or FGF21. We show that a reduction in leptin signaling induces the expression of proteins involved in FA biosynthesis and mitochondrial biogenesis via SREBP-1c in adipocytes. The upregulation of SREBP-1c activates PGC-1α transcription via FGF21, but it is unlikely that the FGF21-associated upregulation of PGC-1α expression is a predominant contributor to mitochondrial biogenesis in adipocytes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Protein/Lipid Preload Attenuates Glucose-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction in Individuals with Abnormal Glucose Tolerance
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2053; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072053 - 10 Jul 2020
Abstract
Postprandial hyperglycemia interferes with vascular reactivity and is a strong predictor of cardiovascular disease. Macronutrient preloads reduce postprandial hyperglycemia in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the effect on endothelial function is unknown. Therefore, we examined whether [...] Read more.
Postprandial hyperglycemia interferes with vascular reactivity and is a strong predictor of cardiovascular disease. Macronutrient preloads reduce postprandial hyperglycemia in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the effect on endothelial function is unknown. Therefore, we examined whether a protein/lipid preload can attenuate postprandial endothelial dysfunction by lowering plasma glucose responses in subjects with IGT/T2D. Endothelial function was assessed by the reactive hyperemia index (RHI) at fasting, 60 min and 120 min during two 75 g oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) preceded by either water or a macronutrient preload (i.e., egg and parmesan cheese) in 22 volunteers with IGT/T2D. Plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon, free fatty acids, and amino acids were measured through each test. RHI negatively correlated with fasting plasma glucose. During the control OGTT, RHI decreased by 9% and its deterioration was associated with the rise in plasma glucose. The macronutrient preload attenuated the decline in RHI and markedly reduced postprandial glycemia. The beneficial effect of the macronutrient preload on RHI was proportional to the improvement in glucose tolerance and was associated with the increase in plasma GLP-1 and arginine levels. In conclusion, a protein/lipid macronutrient preload attenuates glucose-induced endothelial dysfunction in individuals with IGT/T2D by lowering plasma glucose excursions and by increasing GLP-1 and arginine levels, which are known regulators of the nitric oxide vasodilator system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition on Endothelial Function)
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Open AccessReview
Magnesium Sulfate-Rich Natural Mineral Waters in the Treatment of Functional Constipation–A Review
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2052; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072052 - 10 Jul 2020
Abstract
Functional constipation (FC) is a chronic constipation for which no physiological, anatomical or iatrogenic origin can be evidenced. This condition has a high impact on a patient’s quality of life and healthcare costs. Since FC is frequently associated with low physical activity and [...] Read more.
Functional constipation (FC) is a chronic constipation for which no physiological, anatomical or iatrogenic origin can be evidenced. This condition has a high impact on a patient’s quality of life and healthcare costs. Since FC is frequently associated with low physical activity and a diet low in fiber and/or water, first-line recommendations focus on sufficient activity, and sufficient fiber and water intake. In case of inefficacy of these measures, numerous drug treatments are available, either over the counter or on prescription. Magnesium sulfate has a long history in the treatment of FC, and magnesium sulfate-rich mineral waters have been used for centuries for their laxative properties. The laxative effect of magnesium and sulfate has since been widely demonstrated. Nevertheless, it appears that no clinical studies aiming at demonstrating their efficacy in FC had been conducted before the 21st century. In this paper, we reviewed the clinical data reporting the efficacy of magnesium sulfate-rich natural mineral waters. In view of their reported efficacy and safety, magnesium sulfate-rich natural mineral waters may represent a natural treatment for FC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Minerals and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Cross-Sectional Study on the Association between Dietary Non-Enzymatic Antioxidant Capacity and Serum Liver Enzymes: The Furukawa Nutrition and Health Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2051; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072051 - 10 Jul 2020
Abstract
We examined the association of dietary non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity (NEAC) in overall diet, and separately from foods and beverages, with serum liver enzymes in a Japanese working population. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 1791 employees aged 18–69 years, who underwent a comprehensive [...] Read more.
We examined the association of dietary non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity (NEAC) in overall diet, and separately from foods and beverages, with serum liver enzymes in a Japanese working population. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 1791 employees aged 18–69 years, who underwent a comprehensive health checkup in 2012–2013. A brief validated self-administered diet-history questionnaire was used for dietary assessment, and dietary NEAC intake was determined from databases of NEAC values, obtained using ferric reducing-antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. The dietary NEAC intake was calculated by multiplying the estimated NEAC values by the amounts consumed and summing the resulting values. A multiple-regression analysis was performed to explore the association between dietary NEAC intake and the serum levels of liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT)), after adjustment for confounding factors. No significant associations were found between overall dietary NEAC intake and AST (FRAP, p for trend = 0.97; ORAC, p = 0.72), ALT (FRAP, p = 0.73; ORAC, p = 0.92), and GGT (FRAP, p = 0.96; ORAC, p = 0.19) levels. Food-derived, but not beverage-derived, NEAC intake was inversely associated with serum GGT levels (FRAP, p for trend = 0.001; ORAC, p = 0.02), particularly among older participants and those with high serum ferritin concentrations. The results imply that overall dietary NEAC intake is not associated with liver dysfunction, and that the NEAC values from foods may be inversely associated with serum GGT levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Epidemiology)
Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Potential of Moringa oleifera to Improve Glucose Control for the Prevention of Diabetes and Related Metabolic Alterations: A Systematic Review of Animal and Human Studies
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2050; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072050 - 10 Jul 2020
Abstract
Moringa oleifera (MO) is a multipurpose plant consumed as food and known for its medicinal uses, among others. Leaves, seeds and pods are the main parts used as food or food supplements. Nutritionally rich and with a high polyphenol content in the form [...] Read more.
Moringa oleifera (MO) is a multipurpose plant consumed as food and known for its medicinal uses, among others. Leaves, seeds and pods are the main parts used as food or food supplements. Nutritionally rich and with a high polyphenol content in the form of phenolic acids, flavonoids and glucosinolates, MO has been shown to exert numerous in vitro activities and in vivo effects, including hypoglycemic activity. A systematic search was carried out in the PubMed database and reference lists on the effects of MO on glucose metabolism. Thirty-three animal studies and eight human studies were included. Water and organic solvent extracts of leaves and, secondly, seeds, have been extensively assayed in animal models, showing the hypoglycemic effect, both under acute conditions and in long-term administrations and also prevention of other metabolic changes and complications associated to the hyperglycemic status. In humans, clinical trials are scarce, with variable designs and testing mainly dry leaf powder alone or mixed with other foods or MO aqueous preparations. Although the reported results are encouraging, especially those from postprandial studies, more human studies are certainly needed with more stringent inclusion criteria and a sufficient number of diabetic or prediabetic subjects. Moreover, trying to quantify the bioactive substances administered with the experimental material tested would facilitate comparison between studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Immunonutrient in Human Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Pre-Sleep Whey vs. Plant-Based Protein Consumption on Muscle Recovery Following Damaging Morning Exercise
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2049; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072049 - 10 Jul 2020
Abstract
Pre-sleep whey protein intake has been shown to improve overnight muscle protein synthesis, muscle size and strength, and muscle recovery. Despite a growing interest in alternative protein sources, such as plant-based protein, there is no evidence regarding the efficacy of plant-based proteins consumed [...] Read more.
Pre-sleep whey protein intake has been shown to improve overnight muscle protein synthesis, muscle size and strength, and muscle recovery. Despite a growing interest in alternative protein sources, such as plant-based protein, there is no evidence regarding the efficacy of plant-based proteins consumed pre-sleep. Therefore, we aimed to compare whey vs. plant-based pre-sleep protein dietary supplementation on muscle recovery in middle-aged men. Twenty-seven recreationally active, middle-aged men performed 5 sets of 15 repetitions of maximal eccentric voluntary contractions (ECC) for the knee extensors (ext) and flexors (flex), respectively, in the morning. Participants consumed 40 g of either whey hydrolysate (WH, n = 9), whey isolate (WI, n = 6), rice and pea combination (RP, n = 6), or placebo (PL, n = 6) 30 min pre-sleep on the day of ECC and the following two nights. Catered meals (15% PRO, 55% CHO, 30% Fat) were provided to participants for 5 days to standardize nutrition. Plasma creatine kinase (CK), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-10 (IL-10) were measured at pre, immediately post (+0), +4, +6, +24, +48, and +72 h post-ECC. Isometric (ISOM) and isokinetic (ISOK) maximal voluntary contraction force were measured at pre, immediately post (+0), +24, +48, and +72 h post-ECC. Muscle soreness, thigh circumference, and HOMA-IR were measured at pre, +24, +48, and +72 h post-ECC. CK was increased at +4 h post-ECC, remained elevated at all time points compared to baseline (p < 0.001), and was significantly greater at +72 h compared to all other time points (p < 0.001). IL-6 was increased at +6 h (p = 0.002) with no other time differing from baseline. ISOMext was reduced after ECC (p = 0.001) and remained reduced until returning to baseline at +72 h. ISOMflex, ISOKext, and ISOKflex were reduced after ECC and remained reduced at +72 h (p < 0.001). Muscle soreness increased post-ECC (p < 0.001) and did not return to baseline. Thigh circumference (p = 0.456) and HOMA-IR (p = 0.396) did not change post-ECC. There were no significant differences between groups for any outcome measure. These data suggest that middle-aged men consuming 1.08 ± 0.02 g/kg/day PRO did not recover from damaging eccentric exercise at +72 h and that pre-sleep protein ingestion, regardless of protein source, did not aid in muscle recovery when damaging eccentric exercise was performed in the morning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Muscle Recovery)
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Open AccessArticle
Vitamin D Metabolites and Binding Protein Predict Preeclampsia in Women with Type 1 Diabetes
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2048; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072048 - 10 Jul 2020
Abstract
The risk for preeclampsia (PE) is enhanced ~4-fold by the presence of maternal type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Vitamin D is essential for healthy pregnancy. We assessed the total, bioavailable, and free concentrations of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), and [...] Read more.
The risk for preeclampsia (PE) is enhanced ~4-fold by the presence of maternal type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Vitamin D is essential for healthy pregnancy. We assessed the total, bioavailable, and free concentrations of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), and vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) at ~12, ~22, and ~32 weeks’ gestation (“Visits” (V) 1, 2, and 3, respectively) in 23 T1DM women who developed PE, 24 who remained normotensive, and 19 non-diabetic, normotensive women (reference controls). 25(OH)D deficiency was more frequent in diabetic than non-diabetic women (69% vs. 22%, p < 0.05), but no measure of 25(OH)D predicted PE. By contrast, higher 1,25(OH)2D concentrations at V2 (total, bioavailable, and free: p < 0.01) and V3 (bioavailable: p < 0.05; free: p < 0.01), lower concentrations of VDBP at V3 (p < 0.05), and elevated ratios of 1,25(OH)2D/VDBP (V2, V3: p < 0.01) and 1,25(OH)2D/25(OH)D (V3, p < 0.05) were all associated with PE, and significance persisted in multivariate analyses. In summary, in women with T1DM, concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D were higher, and VDBP lower, in the second and third trimesters in women who later developed PE than in those who did not. 1,25(OH)2D may serve as a new marker for PE risk and could be implicated in pathogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Micronutrients and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Living in Rural and Urban Areas of New Caledonia: Impact on Food Consumption, Sleep Duration and Anthropometric Parameters Among Melanesian Adolescents
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2047; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072047 - 10 Jul 2020
Abstract
Background: Food consumption, sleep duration and overweight were assessed in rural and urban Melanesian adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 312 rural and 104 urban adolescents (11–16 years old) was conducted. Food intakes were assessed by a 26-item food frequency questionnaire and then [...] Read more.
Background: Food consumption, sleep duration and overweight were assessed in rural and urban Melanesian adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 312 rural and 104 urban adolescents (11–16 years old) was conducted. Food intakes were assessed by a 26-item food frequency questionnaire and then categorised into the number of serves from each of the three recommended Pacific food groups (energy foods, protective foods, bodybuilding foods), with two additional categories for foods and drinks to be avoided i.e., processed foods and sugary drinks. Number of food serves were compared with the guidelines of 50% serves from energy foods, 35% serves from protective foods and 15% serves from bodybuilding foods. Sleep duration as hours per day was self-reported and body mass index (BMI) was calculated from measured weight and height. Results: Approximately 17.9% of rural and 26.9% of urban adolescents met the guidelines for energy foods; 61.5% rural and 69.2% urban met the serves for protective foods and 88.5% and 94.2% met the serves for bodybuilding foods. Less than 6.4% rural and 1.9% urban adolescents avoided processed foods but 61.5% rural and 56.7% urban avoided sugary beverages. Sleep duration for school days was below the international recommendations and did not significantly differ between rural and urban groups: respectively, 8.16 ± 1.10 and 8.31 ± 1.29 h. Overweight/obesity percentage was 38.1% for rural and 31.7% for urban adolescents. Conclusions: Although traditional foods, including protective food, are still part of the adolescents’ diet, low consumption of the energy food group and high consumption of processed food occurs regardless of location. As poor eating habits and insufficient sleep may contribute to overweight/obesity, educational nutrition programs should target these lifestyle variables. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Added and Free Sugars Intake and Metabolic Biomarkers in Japanese Adolescents
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2046; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072046 - 09 Jul 2020
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Abstract
Reduction in the intakes of added and free sugars is a recommendation to lower cardiometabolic risks. Sugars intake is considered lowest in the Asian-Pacific region, particularly Japan. We examined the association between sugars intake and cardiometabolic risks in Japanese adolescents. We included 3242 [...] Read more.
Reduction in the intakes of added and free sugars is a recommendation to lower cardiometabolic risks. Sugars intake is considered lowest in the Asian-Pacific region, particularly Japan. We examined the association between sugars intake and cardiometabolic risks in Japanese adolescents. We included 3242 students (mean age, 13.56 years) living in Shunan City, Japan, between 2006 and 2010. Sugars intake was estimated using the brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire. Anthropometrics, serum lipids, fasting plasma glucose, and blood pressure were measured. Metabolic syndrome was determined by the combination of overweight and other risks. Intakes of added and free sugars were 7.6–7.9%E and 8.4–8.8%E of the total energy intake (%E), respectively. Categories based on quintiles of added or free sugars intakes were associated with fasting glucose, systolic blood pressure, and the z-score of metabolic syndrome (Ptrend ≤ 0.025). Other than the association between added sugars ≥10%E and high glucose (odds ratio 1.51, 95% confidence interval 1.04–2.19, p = 0.031), non-significantly high intakes of added or free sugars for risks occurred. Association was observed between added or free sugars intake and cardiometabolic biomarkers in Japanese adolescents, and added sugars intake <10%E could prevent glucose intolerance but not metabolic syndrome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Epidemiology)
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Open AccessArticle
Omega-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Intake by Ethnicity, Income, and Education Level in the United States: NHANES 2003–2014
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2045; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072045 - 09 Jul 2020
Viewed by 152
Abstract
Although there are many recognized health benefits for the consumption of omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), intake in the United States remains below recommended amounts. This analysis was designed to provide an updated assessment of fish and n-3 LCPUFA intake (eicosapentaenoic [...] Read more.
Although there are many recognized health benefits for the consumption of omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), intake in the United States remains below recommended amounts. This analysis was designed to provide an updated assessment of fish and n-3 LCPUFA intake (eicosapentaenoic (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and EPA+DHA) in the United States adult population, based on education, income, and race/ethnicity, using data from the 2003-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (n = 44,585). Over this survey period, participants with less education and lower income had significantly lower n-3 LCPUFA intakes and fish intakes (p < 0.001 for all between group comparisons). N-3 LCPUFA intake differed significantly according to ethnicity (p < 0.001), with the highest intake of n-3 LCPUFA and fish in individuals in the “Other” category (including Asian Americans). Supplement use increased EPA + DHA intake, but only 7.4% of individuals consistently took supplements. Overall, n-3 LCPUFA intake in this study population was low, but our findings indicate that individuals with lower educational attainment and income are at even higher risk of lower n-3 LCPUFA and fish intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Human Health)
Open AccessReview
Feeding Interventions for Infants with Growth Failure in the First Six Months of Life: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2044; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072044 - 09 Jul 2020
Viewed by 237
Abstract
(1) Introduction: Current evidence on managing infants under six months with growth failure or other nutrition-related risk is sparse and low quality. This review aims to inform research priorities to fill this evidence gap, focusing on breastfeeding practices. (2) Methods: We searched PubMed, [...] Read more.
(1) Introduction: Current evidence on managing infants under six months with growth failure or other nutrition-related risk is sparse and low quality. This review aims to inform research priorities to fill this evidence gap, focusing on breastfeeding practices. (2) Methods: We searched PubMed, CINAHL Plus, and Cochrane Library for studies on feeding interventions that aim to restore or improve the volume or quality of breastmilk and breastfeeding when breastfeeding practices are sub-optimal or prematurely stopped. We included studies from both low- and middle-income countries and high-income countries. (3) Results: Forty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Most were from high-income countries (n = 35, 74.5%) and included infants who were at risk of growth failure at birth (preterm infants/small for gestational age) and newborns with early growth faltering. Interventions included formula fortification or supplementation (n = 31, 66%), enteral feeds (n = 8, 17%), cup feeding (n = 2, 4.2%), and other (n = 6, 12.8%). Outcomes included anthropometric change (n = 40, 85.1%), reported feeding practices (n = 16, 34%), morbidity (n = 11, 23.4%), and mortality (n = 5, 10.6%). Of 31 studies that assessed formula fortification or supplementation, 30 reported anthropometric changes (n = 17 no effect, n = 9 positive, n = 4 mixed), seven morbidity (n = 3 no effect, n = 2 positive, n = 2 negative), five feeding (n = 2 positive, n = 2 no effect, n = 1 negative), and four mortality (n = 3 no effect, n = 1 negative). Of eight studies that assessed enteral feed interventions, seven reported anthropometric changes (n = 4 positive, n = 3 no effect), five feeding practices (n = 2 positive, n = 2 no effect, n = 1 negative), four morbidity (n = 4 no effect), and one reported mortality (n = 1 no effect). Overall, interventions with positive effects on feeding practices were cup feeding compared to bottle-feeding among preterm; nasogastric tube feed compared to bottle-feeding among low birth weight preterm; and early progressive feeding compared to delayed feeding among extremely low birth weight preterm. Bovine/cow milk feeding and high volume feeding interventions had an unfavourable effect, while electric breast pump and Galactagogue had a mixed effect. Regarding anthropometric outcomes, overall, macronutrient fortified formula, cream supplementation, and fortified human milk formula had a positive effect (weight gain) on preterm infants. Interventions comparing human breastmilk/donor milk with formula had mixed effects. Overall, only human milk compared to formula intervention had a positive effect on morbidity among preterm infants, while none of the interventions had any positive effect on mortality. Bovine/cow milk supplementation had unfavourable effects on both morbidity and mortality. (4) Conclusion: Future research should prioritise low- and middle-income countries, include infants presenting with growth failure in the post-neonatal period and record effects on morbidity and mortality outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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Open AccessArticle
The Combination of Soy Isoflavones and Resveratrol Preserve Bone Mineral Density in Hindlimb-unloaded Mice
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2043; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072043 - 09 Jul 2020
Viewed by 142
Abstract
It is well known that physical inactivity during space flight or prolonged bed rest causes rapid bone loss. Soy isoflavones (ISOs) and resveratrol (RES) have been reported to be useful to maintain a positive balance for bone turnover. Therefore, we examined the combined [...] Read more.
It is well known that physical inactivity during space flight or prolonged bed rest causes rapid bone loss. Soy isoflavones (ISOs) and resveratrol (RES) have been reported to be useful to maintain a positive balance for bone turnover. Therefore, we examined the combined effects of ISO and RES on bone loss that was induced by hindlimb-unloading in mice. Female eight-week-old ddY mice were divided into the following six groups (n = 6–8 each): normally housed mice, loading mice, hindlimb-unloading (UL) mice fed a control diet, UL mice fed a 0.16% ISO conjugates, UL mice fed a 0.15% RES diet, and UL mice fed a 0.16% ISO and 0.15% RES diet. After three weeks, femoral bone mineral density was markedly decreased in unloading mice. The combination of ISO and RES prevented bone loss and especially maintained the trabecular bone mineral density more effectively compared with cortical bones. ISO and/or RES inhibited the increase in the RANKL/OPG expression ratio in bone marrow cells in UL mice. These results suggest that the combination of ISO and RES had a preventive effect against bone loss induced by hindlimb-unloading in mice. These osteoprotective effects of ISO and RES may result from the inhibition of bone resorption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effects of Phytochemicals on Health Benefit)
Open AccessArticle
Nutritional Status Plays More Important Role in Determining Functional State in Older People Living in the Community than in Nursing Home Residents
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2042; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072042 - 09 Jul 2020
Viewed by 162
Abstract
The aim of this study was to verify whether the relationship between nutritional and functional status differs between seniors in the community and those in long-term care institutions. One hundred nursing home (NH) residents aged 60 years and above and 100 sex- and [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to verify whether the relationship between nutritional and functional status differs between seniors in the community and those in long-term care institutions. One hundred nursing home (NH) residents aged 60 years and above and 100 sex- and age-matched community-dwelling (CD) older adults were examined. Functional status was assessed using the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) and nutritional status using anthropometric measures, the Mini Nutritional Assessment questionnaire (MNA) and bioimpedance analysis (BIA). Significant environmental interactions were observed with resting metabolic rate (RMR), extracellular water (ECW) and intracellular water (ICW) ratio, skeletal muscle mass (SMM), skeletal muscle index (SMI) and impedance (Z) and resistance (R) to the results of the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test. The two groups demonstrated different relationships between Z and R and handgrip strength and between Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) score and fat free mass (FFM), body density, total body water (TBW) and phase angle (PhA). Nutritional status seems to be more important for functional state in CD older people than in NH residents. Therefore, to ensure the functional independence of seniors living in the community, it is crucial to maintain the correct nutritional parameters. Further studies are necessary to account for the fact that this relationship is less significant among NH residents and to identify other factors that may contribute to these discrepancies between community and institutional environments. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Targeting the Intestinal Microbiota to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes and Enhance the Effect of Metformin on Glycaemia: A Randomised Controlled Pilot Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2041; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072041 - 09 Jul 2020
Viewed by 158
Abstract
Early treatment may prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in individuals who are at high risk. Lifestyle interventions and the hypoglycemic drug metformin have been shown to reduce T2DM incidence. The effectiveness of such interventions may be enhanced [...] Read more.
Early treatment may prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in individuals who are at high risk. Lifestyle interventions and the hypoglycemic drug metformin have been shown to reduce T2DM incidence. The effectiveness of such interventions may be enhanced by targeting environmental factors such as the intestinal microbiota, which has been proven to predict the response to lifestyle interventions and play a part in mediating the glucose-lowering effects of metformin. Shifts in the intestinal microbiota “towards a more balanced state” may promote glucose homeostasis by regulating short-chain fatty acids’ production. This study aimed to investigate the safety and effect of a multi-strain probiotic on glycemic, inflammatory, and permeability markers in adults with prediabetes and early T2DM and to assess whether the probiotic can enhance metformin’s effect on glycaemia. A randomised controlled pilot study was conducted in 60 adults with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 and with prediabetes or T2DM (within the previous 12 months). The participants were randomised to a multi-strain probiotic (L. plantarum, L. bulgaricus, L. gasseri, B. breve, B. animalis sbsp. lactis, B. bifidum, S. thermophilus, and S. boulardii) or placebo for 12 weeks. Analyses of the primary outcome (fasting plasma glucose) and secondary outcomes, including, but not limited to, circulating lipopolysaccharide, zonulin, and short chain fatty acids and a metagenomic analysis of the fecal microbiome were performed at baseline and 12 weeks post-intervention. The results showed no significant differences in the primary and secondary outcome measures between the probiotic and placebo group. An analysis of a subgroup of participants taking metformin showed a decrease in fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, insulin resistance, and zonulin; an increase in plasma butyrate concentrations; and an enrichment of microbial butyrate-producing pathways in the probiotic group but not in the placebo group. Probiotics may act as an adjunctive to metformin by increasing the production of butyrate, which may consequently enhance glucose management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Cuban Brown Propolis Interferes in the Crosstalk between Colorectal Cancer Cells and M2 Macrophages
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2040; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072040 - 09 Jul 2020
Viewed by 138
Abstract
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), primarily the M2 phenotype, are involved in the progression and metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Cuban brown propolis (Cp) and its main component Nemorosone (Nem) displays an antiproliferative effect on different cancer cells, including CRC cell lines. However, whether Cp [...] Read more.
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), primarily the M2 phenotype, are involved in the progression and metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Cuban brown propolis (Cp) and its main component Nemorosone (Nem) displays an antiproliferative effect on different cancer cells, including CRC cell lines. However, whether Cp and Nem could exploit its effect on CRC cells by targeting their relationship with TAMs remains to be elucidated. In this study, we differentiated the human monocytic THP-1 cells to M2 macrophages and confirmed this transition by immunofluorescence (IF) staining, qRT-PCR and zymography. An MTT assay was performed to determine the effect of Cp and Nem on the viability of CRC HT-29 cells co-cultured with M2 macrophages. Furthermore, the migration and invasion abilities of HT-29 cells were determined by Transwell assays and the expression levels of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers were analyzed by IF staining. We demonstrated that Cp and Nem reduced the viability of M2 macrophages and, accordingly, the activity of the MMP-9 metalloprotein. Moreover, we demonstrated that M2 macrophages produce soluble factors that positively regulate HT-29 cell growth, migration and invasion. These M2-mediated effects were counteracted by Cp and Nem treatments, which also played a role in regulating the expression of the EMT markers E-cadherin and vimentin. Taken together, our results indicate that Nem contained in Cp interferes in the crosstalk between CRC cells and TAMs, by targeting M2 macrophages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of Bee Products)
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Open AccessArticle
Minimum Dietary Diversity for Women of Reproductive Age (MDD-W) Data Collection: Validity of the List-Based and Open Recall Methods as Compared to Weighed Food Record
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2039; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072039 - 09 Jul 2020
Viewed by 169
Abstract
Minimum dietary diversity for women of reproductive age (MDD-W) was validated as a population-level proxy of micronutrient adequacy, with indicator data collection proposed as either list-based or open recall. No study has assessed the validity of these two non-quantitative proxy methods against weighed [...] Read more.
Minimum dietary diversity for women of reproductive age (MDD-W) was validated as a population-level proxy of micronutrient adequacy, with indicator data collection proposed as either list-based or open recall. No study has assessed the validity of these two non-quantitative proxy methods against weighed food records (WFR). We assessed the measurement agreement of list-based and open recall methods as compared to WFR (i.e., reference method of individual quantitative dietary assessment) for achieving MDD-W and an ordinal food group diversity score. Applying a non-inferiority design, data were collected from non-pregnant women of reproductive age in Cambodia (n = 430), Ethiopia (n = 431), and Zambia (n = 476). For the pooled sample (n = 1337), proportions achieving MDD-W from both proxy methods were compared to WFR proportion by McNemar’s chi-square tests, Cohen’s kappa, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Ordinal food group diversity (0–10) was compared by Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank tests, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), and weighted kappa. MDD-W food groups that were most frequently misreported (i.e., type I and II errors) by the proxy methods were determined. Our findings indicate statistically significant differences in proportions achieving MDD-W, ordinal food group diversity scores, and ROC curves between both proxy methods and WFR (p < 0.001). List-based and open recall methods overreported women achieving MDD-W by 16 and 10 percentage points, respectively, as compared to WFR (proportion achieving MDD-W: 30%). ICC values between list-based or open recall and WFR were 0.50 and 0.55, respectively. Simple and weighted kappa values both indicated moderate agreement between list-based or open recall against WFR. Food groups most likely to be misreported using proxy methods were beans and peas, dark green leafy vegetables, vitamin A-rich fruit and vegetables, and other fruits. Our study provides statistical evidence for overreporting of both list-based and open recall methods for assessing prevalence of MDD-W or ordinal food group diversity score in women of reproductive age in low- and middle-income countries. Operationalizing MDD-W through qualitative recall methods should consider potential trade-offs between accuracy and simplicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition Methodology & Assessment)
Open AccessArticle
Breakfast Consumption in Low-Income Hispanic Elementary School-Aged Children: Associations with Anthropometric, Metabolic, and Dietary Parameters
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2038; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072038 - 09 Jul 2020
Viewed by 135
Abstract
Breakfast consumption is associated with lower obesity prevalence and cardiometabolic risk and higher dietary quality (DQ) in children. Low-income, Hispanic populations are disproportionately affected by obesity and cardiometabolic risks. This study examined the relationship between breakfast consumption groups (BCG) on anthropometric, metabolic, and [...] Read more.
Breakfast consumption is associated with lower obesity prevalence and cardiometabolic risk and higher dietary quality (DQ) in children. Low-income, Hispanic populations are disproportionately affected by obesity and cardiometabolic risks. This study examined the relationship between breakfast consumption groups (BCG) on anthropometric, metabolic, and dietary parameters in predominately low-income, Hispanic children from 16 Texas schools. Cross-sectional data were from TX Sprouts, a school-based gardening, nutrition, and cooking randomized controlled trial. Anthropometric measurements included height, weight, body mass index, body fat percent via bioelectrical impedance, waist circumference, and blood pressure. Metabolic parameters included fasting plasma glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin, cholesterol, and triglycerides. DQ and BCG were assessed via two 24-h dietary recalls. Multivariate multiple regression examined relationships between BCG and anthropometric, metabolic, and dietary parameters. This study included 671 students (mean age 9 years, 58% Hispanic, 54% female, 66% free/reduced lunch, 17% breakfast skippers). No relationships were observed between BCG and anthropometric or metabolic parameters. BCG had higher DQ; higher daily protein, total sugar, and added sugar intake; and lower daily fat intake. Skipping breakfast was associated with lower DQ; higher daily fat intake; and lower daily protein intake. Longitudinal research examining breakfast quality on cardiometabolic outcomes in low-income, Hispanic children is warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Population-Based Nutrition Epidemiology)
Open AccessArticle
Omega-3 Phospholipids from Krill Oil Enhance Intestinal Fatty Acid Oxidation More Effectively than Omega-3 Triacylglycerols in High-Fat Diet-Fed Obese Mice
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2037; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072037 - 09 Jul 2020
Viewed by 121
Abstract
Antisteatotic effects of omega-3 fatty acids (Omega-3) in obese rodents seem to vary depending on the lipid form of their administration. Whether these effects could reflect changes in intestinal metabolism is unknown. Here, we compare Omega-3-containing phospholipids (krill oil; ω3PL-H) and triacylglycerols (ω3TG) [...] Read more.
Antisteatotic effects of omega-3 fatty acids (Omega-3) in obese rodents seem to vary depending on the lipid form of their administration. Whether these effects could reflect changes in intestinal metabolism is unknown. Here, we compare Omega-3-containing phospholipids (krill oil; ω3PL-H) and triacylglycerols (ω3TG) in terms of their effects on morphology, gene expression and fatty acid (FA) oxidation in the small intestine. Male C57BL/6N mice were fed for 8 weeks with a high-fat diet (HFD) alone or supplemented with 30 mg/g diet of ω3TG or ω3PL-H. Omega-3 index, reflecting the bioavailability of Omega-3, reached 12.5% and 7.5% in the ω3PL-H and ω3TG groups, respectively. Compared to HFD mice, ω3PL-H but not ω3TG animals had lower body weight gain (−40%), mesenteric adipose tissue (−43%), and hepatic lipid content (−64%). The highest number and expression level of regulated intestinal genes was observed in ω3PL-H mice. The expression of FA ω-oxidation genes was enhanced in both Omega-3-supplemented groups, but gene expression within the FA β-oxidation pathway and functional palmitate oxidation in the proximal ileum was significantly increased only in ω3PL-H mice. In conclusion, enhanced intestinal FA oxidation could contribute to the strong antisteatotic effects of Omega-3 when administered as phospholipids to dietary obese mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Targeting of Intestinal Mucosa Wall to Modulate Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle
High-Fat Diet Enhances Working Memory in the Y-Maze Test in Male C57BL/6J Mice with Less Anxiety in the Elevated Plus Maze Test
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2036; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072036 - 09 Jul 2020
Viewed by 73
Abstract
Obesity is characterized by massive adipose tissue accumulation and is associated with psychiatric disorders and cognitive impairment in human and animal models. However, it is unclear whether high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity presents a risk of psychiatric disorders and cognitive impairment. To examine this [...] Read more.
Obesity is characterized by massive adipose tissue accumulation and is associated with psychiatric disorders and cognitive impairment in human and animal models. However, it is unclear whether high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity presents a risk of psychiatric disorders and cognitive impairment. To examine this question, we conducted systematic behavioral analyses in C57BL/6J mice (male, 8-week-old) fed an HFD for 7 weeks. C57BL/6J mice fed an HFD showed significantly increased body weight, hyperlocomotion in the open-field test (OFT) and Y-maze test (YMZT), and impaired sucrose preference in the sucrose consumption test, compared to mice fed a normal diet. Neither body weight nor body weight gain was associated with any of the behavioral traits we examined. Working memory, as assessed by the YMZT, and anxiety-like behavior, as assessed by the elevated plus maze test (EPMT), were significantly correlated with mice fed an HFD, although these behavioral traits did not affect the entire group. These results suggest that HFD-induced obesity does not induce neuropsychiatric symptoms in C57BL/6J mice. Rather, HFD improved working memory in C57BL/6J mice with less anxiety, indicating that an HFD might be beneficial under limited conditions. Correlation analysis of individual traits is a useful tool to determine those conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle
A Gluten-Free Meal Produces a Lower Postprandial Thermogenic Response Compared to an Iso-Energetic/Macronutrient Whole Food or Processed Food Meal in Young Women: A Single-Blind Randomized Cross-Over Trial
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2035; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072035 - 09 Jul 2020
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Abstract
Consumption of ultra-processed food (PF) is associated with obesity risk compared with whole food (WF) intake. Less is known regarding the intake of gluten-free (GF) food products. The purpose of this study was to directly compare the thermic effect (TEM), substrate utilization, hunger/taste [...] Read more.
Consumption of ultra-processed food (PF) is associated with obesity risk compared with whole food (WF) intake. Less is known regarding the intake of gluten-free (GF) food products. The purpose of this study was to directly compare the thermic effect (TEM), substrate utilization, hunger/taste ratings, and glucose response of three different meals containing PF, WF, and GF food products in young healthy women. Eleven volunteers completed all three iso-caloric/macronutrient test meals in a single-blind, randomized crossover design: (1) whole food meal (WF); (2) processed food meal (PF); or (3) gluten-free meal (GF). TEM was significantly lower following GF compared with WF (−20.94 kcal/meal, [95% CI, −35.92 to −5.96], p = 0.008) and PF (mean difference: −14.94 kcal/meal, [95% CI, −29.92 to 0.04], p = 0.04), respectively. WF consumption resulted in significantly higher feelings of fullness compared to GF (mean difference: +14.36%, [95% CI, 3.41 to 25.32%], p = 0.011) and PF (mean difference: +16.81%, [95% CI, 5.62 to 28.01%], p = 0.004), respectively, and enhanced palatability (taste of meal) compared to PF meal (mean Δ: +27.41%, [95% CI, 5.53 to 49.30%], p = 0.048). No differences existed for substrate utilization and blood glucose response among trials. Consumption of a GF meal lowers postprandial thermogenesis compared to WF and PF meals and fullness ratings compared to a WF meal which may impact weight control and obesity risk over the long-term. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Diet and Lifestyle Is a Key Strategy for Lifelong Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Increasing Plant-Based Meat Alternatives and Decreasing Red and Processed Meat in the Diet Differentially Affect the Diet Quality and Nutrient Intakes of Canadians
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2034; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072034 - 09 Jul 2020
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Abstract
Current evidence suggests a link between red and processed meat consumption and the risk of various cancers and other health outcomes. Using national survey data from the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS)-Nutrition 2015, we aimed to model a dietary scenario to assess the [...] Read more.
Current evidence suggests a link between red and processed meat consumption and the risk of various cancers and other health outcomes. Using national survey data from the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS)-Nutrition 2015, we aimed to model a dietary scenario to assess the potential effects of increasing the intake of currently consumed plant-based meat alternatives by 100% and decreasing the consumption of red and processed meat by 50% on the diet quality and nutrient intakes of Canadians (≥1 year). This dietary scenario had no significant impact on dietary energy intake (p > 0.05), but resulted in a significant increase in the dietary intakes of fibre, polyunsaturated fatty acids, magnesium, and dietary folate equivalents (p < 0.05). On the other hand, this dietary scenario was accompanied by a significant decrease in protein (from 77.8 ± 0.6 g to 73.4 ± 0.6 g), cholesterol, zinc, and vitamin B12 intake (p < 0.05). Further, based on Nutrient Rich Food (NRF) scores, the overall nutritional value of the simulated diet was higher than the baseline diet. Our modeling showed that the partial replacement of red and processed meat with plant-based alternatives improves overall diet quality but may adversely affect the intake of some micronutrients, especially zinc and vitamin B12. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Epidemiology)
Open AccessArticle
Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Inflammatory Markers in Non-Obese Lebanese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2033; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072033 - 09 Jul 2020
Viewed by 216
Abstract
Background: A low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) concentration has been associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), especially in older people. Our aim in this randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effect of vitamin D treatment on [...] Read more.
Background: A low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) concentration has been associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), especially in older people. Our aim in this randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effect of vitamin D treatment on inflammatory markers in non-obese Lebanese patients with T2DM, living in Beirut, Lebanon. Methods: Non-Obese patients with T2DM (n = 88), deficient/insufficient in vitamin D, were randomly assigned into one of two groups—a treatment group receiving 30,000 IU cholecalciferol/week for a period of six months, and a placebo group. Serum concentrations of TNF-α, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) were the primary outcomes. A homeostatic model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was assessed, in addition to serum concentrations of fasting blood glucose (FBG), HbA1C, (25(OH) D), and PTH. Results: The vitamin D group showed higher blood levels of (25(OH) D) (p < 0.0001), and a significant reduction in hs-CRP and TNF-α concentrations (p < 0.0001) compared to placebo. The decrease perceived in IL-6 concentrations was not significant (p = 0.1). No significant changes were seen in FBG (p = 0.9) and HbA1c levels (p = 0.85). Conclusion: Six months of vitamin D supplementation led to a decrease in some inflammatory markers in patients with T2DM. Additional studies with a larger sample and a longer period are advised in this regard. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrial.gov; Identifier number: NCT 03782805. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Nerolidol Mitigates Colonic Inflammation: An Experimental Study Using both In Vivo and In Vitro Models
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2032; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072032 - 08 Jul 2020
Viewed by 249
Abstract
Nerolidol (NED) is a naturally occurring sesquiterpene alcohol present in various plants with potent anti-inflammatory effects. In the current study, we investigated NED as a putative anti-inflammatory compound in an experimental model of colonic inflammation. C57BL/6J male black mice (C57BL/6J) were administered 3% [...] Read more.
Nerolidol (NED) is a naturally occurring sesquiterpene alcohol present in various plants with potent anti-inflammatory effects. In the current study, we investigated NED as a putative anti-inflammatory compound in an experimental model of colonic inflammation. C57BL/6J male black mice (C57BL/6J) were administered 3% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in drinking water for 7 days to induce colitis. Six groups received either vehicle alone or DSS alone or DSS with oral NED (50, 100, and 150 mg/kg body weight/day by oral gavage) or DSS with sulfasalazine. Disease activity index (DAI), colonic histology, and biochemical parameters were measured. TNF-α-treated HT-29 cells were used as in vitro model of colonic inflammation to study NED (25 µM and 50 µM). NED significantly decreased the DAI and reduced the inflammation-associated changes in colon length as well as macroscopic and microscopic architecture of the colon. Changes in tissue Myeloperoxidase (MPO) concentrations, neutrophil and macrophage mRNA expression (CXCL2 and CCL2), and proinflammatory cytokine content (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) both at the protein and mRNA level were significantly reduced by NED. The increase in content of the proinflammatory enzymes, COX-2 and iNOS induced by DSS were also significantly inhibited by NED along with tissue nitrate levels. NED promoted Nrf2 nuclear translocation dose dependently. NED significantly increased antioxidant enzymes activity (Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT)), Hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1), and SOD3 mRNA levels. NED treatment in TNF-α-challenged HT-29 cells significantly decreased proinflammatory chemokines (CXCL1, IL-8, CCL2) and COX-2 mRNA levels. NED supplementation attenuates colon inflammation through its potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity both in in vivo and in vitro models of colonic inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds and Chronic Inflammation)
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