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Article

Nutrient Adequacy Is Low among Both Self-Declared Lacto-Vegetarian and Non-Vegetarian Pregnant Women in Uttar Pradesh

1
Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
2
International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC 20005, USA
3
FHI Solutions, Washington, DC 20001, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2126; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072126
Received: 28 May 2020 / Revised: 13 July 2020 / Accepted: 15 July 2020 / Published: 17 July 2020
Poor dietary intake during pregnancy remains a significant public health concern, affecting the health of the mother and fetus. This study examines the adequacy of energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intakes among self-declared lacto-vegetarian and non-vegetarian pregnant women. We analyzed dietary data from 627 pregnant women in Uttar Pradesh, India, using a multiple-pass 24 h diet recall. Compared to non-vegetarians, lacto-vegetarians (~46%) were less likely to report excessive carbohydrate (78% vs. 63%) and inadequate fat intakes (70% vs. 52%). In unadjusted analyses, lacto-vegetarians had a slightly higher mean PA for micronutrients (20% vs. 17%), but these differences were no longer significant after controlling for caste, education, and other demographic characteristics. In both groups, the median intake of 9 out of 11 micronutrients was below the Estimated Average Requirement. In conclusion, the energy and micronutrient intakes were inadequate, and the macronutrient intakes were imbalanced, regardless of stated dietary preferences. Since diets are poor across the board, a range of policies and interventions that address the household food environment, nutrition counseling, behavior change, and supplementation are needed in order to achieve adequate nutrient intake for pregnant women in this population. View Full-Text
Keywords: India; dietary intake; dietary diversity; vegetarian; maternal nutrition; pregnancy India; dietary intake; dietary diversity; vegetarian; maternal nutrition; pregnancy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bellows, A.L.; Kachwaha, S.; Ghosh, S.; Kappos, K.; Escobar-Alegria, J.; Menon, P.; Nguyen, P.H. Nutrient Adequacy Is Low among Both Self-Declared Lacto-Vegetarian and Non-Vegetarian Pregnant Women in Uttar Pradesh. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2126. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072126

AMA Style

Bellows AL, Kachwaha S, Ghosh S, Kappos K, Escobar-Alegria J, Menon P, Nguyen PH. Nutrient Adequacy Is Low among Both Self-Declared Lacto-Vegetarian and Non-Vegetarian Pregnant Women in Uttar Pradesh. Nutrients. 2020; 12(7):2126. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072126

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bellows, Alexandra L., Shivani Kachwaha, Sebanti Ghosh, Kristen Kappos, Jessica Escobar-Alegria, Purnima Menon, and Phuong H. Nguyen 2020. "Nutrient Adequacy Is Low among Both Self-Declared Lacto-Vegetarian and Non-Vegetarian Pregnant Women in Uttar Pradesh" Nutrients 12, no. 7: 2126. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072126

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