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Remote Sens., Volume 14, Issue 13 (July-1 2022) – 284 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Two-dimensional deformation estimates derived from the Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) analysis of SAR data can improve the characterisation of spatially and temporally varying deformation processes of the Earth’s surface. This study combined the PSI analysis of Sentinel-1 data and a two-step Line-Of-Sight (LOS) velocity (Vlos) decomposition approach to infer high-resolution 2D local deformation velocities. The proposed methodology provides the possibility of isolating irrelevant, but significant, regional deformation signals (Glacial Isostatic Adjustment). By incorporating the Projected Local Incidence Angle (PLIA) in the second decomposition, we derived the potential slope deformation velocities in the Öræfajökull area in Iceland. View this paper
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27 pages, 10496 KiB  
Article
Contrasting Forest Loss and Gain Patterns in Subtropical China Detected Using an Integrated LandTrendr and Machine-Learning Method
by Jianing Shen, Guangsheng Chen, Jianwen Hua, Sha Huang and Jiangming Ma
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(13), 3238; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14133238 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2576
Abstract
China has implemented a series of forestry law, policies, regulations, and afforestation projects since the 1970s. However, their impacts on the spatial and temporal patterns of forests have not been fully assessed yet. The lack of an accurate, high-resolution, and long-term forest disturbance [...] Read more.
China has implemented a series of forestry law, policies, regulations, and afforestation projects since the 1970s. However, their impacts on the spatial and temporal patterns of forests have not been fully assessed yet. The lack of an accurate, high-resolution, and long-term forest disturbance and recovery dataset has impeded this assessment. Here we improved the forest loss and gain detections by integrating the LandTrendr change detection algorithm with the Random Forest (RF) machine-learning method and applied it to assess forest loss and gain patterns in the Zhejiang, Jiangxi, and Guangxi Provinces of the subtropical vegetation in China. The accuracy evaluation indicated that our approach can adequately detect the spatial and temporal distribution patterns in forest gain and loss, with an overall accuracy of 93% and the Kappa coefficient of 0.89. The forest loss area was 8.30 × 104 km2 in the Zhejiang, Jiangxi, and Guangxi Provinces during 1986–2019, accounting for 43.52% of total forest area in 1986, while the forest gain area was 20.25 × 104 km2, accounting for 106.19% of total forest area in 1986. Although the interannual variation patterns were similar among three provinces, the forest loss and gain area and the magnitude of change trends were significantly different. Guangxi has the largest forest loss and gain area and increasing trends, followed by Jiangxi, and the least in Zhejiang. The variations in annual forest loss and gain area can be mostly explained by the timelines of major forestry policies and regulations. Our study would provide an applicable method and data for assessing the impacts of forest disturbance events and forestry policies and regulations on the spatial and temporal patterns of forest loss and gain in China, and further contributing to regional and national forest carbon and greenhouse gases budget estimations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing Monitoring of Tropical Forest Disturbance and Dynamics)
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15 pages, 7370 KiB  
Article
Estimating the Applicability of NDVI and SIF to Gross Primary Productivity and Grain-Yield Monitoring in China
by Zhaoqiang Zhou, Yibo Ding, Suning Liu, Yao Wang, Qiang Fu and Haiyun Shi
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(13), 3237; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14133237 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2289
Abstract
Vegetation, a key intermediary linking water, the atmosphere, and the ground, performs extremely important functions in nature and for our existence. Although satellite-based remote-sensing technologies have become important for monitoring vegetation dynamics, selecting the correct remote-sensing vegetation indicator has become paramount for such [...] Read more.
Vegetation, a key intermediary linking water, the atmosphere, and the ground, performs extremely important functions in nature and for our existence. Although satellite-based remote-sensing technologies have become important for monitoring vegetation dynamics, selecting the correct remote-sensing vegetation indicator has become paramount for such investigations. This study investigated the consistencies between a photosynthetic activity index (the solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) indicator) and the traditional vegetation index (the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)) among different land-cover types and in different seasons and explored the applicability of NDVI and SIF in different cases by comparing their performances in gross primary production (GPP) and grain-yield-monitoring applications. The vegetation cover and photosynthesis showed decreasing trends, which were mainly concentrated in northern Xinjiang and part of the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau; a decreasing trend was also identified in a small part of Northeast China. The correlations between NDVI and SIF were strong for all land-cover types except evergreen needleleaf forests and evergreen broadleaf forests. Compared with NDVI, SIF had some advantages when monitoring the GPP and grain yields among different land-cover types. For example, SIF could capture the effects of drought on GPP and grain yields better than NDVI. To summarize, as the temporal extent of the available SIF data is extended, SIF will certainly perform increasingly wide applications in agricultural-management research that is closely related to GPP and grain-yield monitoring. Full article
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17 pages, 4075 KiB  
Article
The Observed Impact of the South Asian Summer Monsoon on Land-Atmosphere Heat Transfers and Its Inhomogeneity over the Tibetan Plateau
by Hongyi Li, Libo Zhou and Ge Wang
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(13), 3236; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14133236 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1800
Abstract
To promote Tibetan meteorological research, the third Tibetan Plateau (TP) Experiment for atmospheric sciences (TIPEX III) has been carried out over the plateau region since 2014, with near-surface heat fluxes measured at different sites. Using the observational data of near-surface heat fluxes measured [...] Read more.
To promote Tibetan meteorological research, the third Tibetan Plateau (TP) Experiment for atmospheric sciences (TIPEX III) has been carried out over the plateau region since 2014, with near-surface heat fluxes measured at different sites. Using the observational data of near-surface heat fluxes measured at 8 plateau stations in TIPEX III, as well as the ECMWF ERA Interim reanalysis data, the land-atmosphere heat transfers over different regions of TP and their responses to the South Asian summer monsoon (SASM) during active/break periods were investigated. Inhomogeneity was found in the land-atmosphere heat transfers over the plateau, with large differences among plateau stations. During the observation period, the daily averaged total heat transfer (the sum of sensible and latent heat flux) varied from 70.2 to 101.2 Wm−2 among the 8 plateau stations, with the sensible heat flux from 18.8 to 60.1 Wm−2 and the latent heat flux from 10.1 to 74.7 Wm−2. These heat transfers were strongly affected by the SASM evolution, but with strong inhomogeneities over the plateau stations. Overall, the more southern station locations exhibited more SASM impacts. The land-atmosphere heat transfers (the total, sensible and latent heat fluxes) were greatly weakened/strengthened during the SASM active/break period at Namco (southeast plateau), Baingoin (central plateau), Lhari (central plateau), and Nagqu (central plateau), which were closely related to the weakened/strengthened radiation conditions. However, the SASM impacts were quite small or even negligible for the other plateau stations, which complicated our conclusions, and further investigations are still needed. Full article
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19 pages, 4984 KiB  
Article
Synchronous Assimilation of Tidal Current-Related Data Obtained Using Coastal Acoustic Tomography and High-Frequency Radar in the Xiangshan Bay, China
by Ze-Nan Zhu, Xiao-Hua Zhu, Weibing Guan, Chuanzheng Zhang, Minmo Chen, Zhao-Jun Liu, Min Wang, Hua Zheng, Juntian Chen, Longhao Dai, Zhenyi Cao, Qi Chen and Arata Kaneko
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(13), 3235; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14133235 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2051
Abstract
To accurately reconstruct large-area three-dimensional current fields in coastal regions, simultaneous observations with ten coastal acoustic tomography (CAT) stations and two high-frequency radar (HFR) stations were performed in the Xiangshan Bay (XSB) on 4–5 December 2020. The section-averaged velocity that was observed by [...] Read more.
To accurately reconstruct large-area three-dimensional current fields in coastal regions, simultaneous observations with ten coastal acoustic tomography (CAT) stations and two high-frequency radar (HFR) stations were performed in the Xiangshan Bay (XSB) on 4–5 December 2020. The section-averaged velocity that was observed by CAT and the radial velocity that was observed by HFR were, for the first time, synchronously assimilated into a three-dimensional barotropic ocean model. Compared with acoustic Doppler current profile data, the velocities of the model assimilating both CAT and HFR data had the highest accuracy according to root mean square differences (RMSDs), ranging from 0.05 to 0.08 m/s for all the vertical layers. For the models individually assimilating CAT and HFR, the values in the vertical layers ranged from 0.07 to 0.12 m/s and 0.08 to 0.13 m/s, respectively. A harmonic analysis of the model grid data showed that the spatial mean amplitudes of the M2, M4, and residual currents were 0.66, 0.14, and 0.09 m/s, respectively. Furthermore, the standing wave characteristics of the M2 current and M4 associated-oscillation in the inner XSB, mouth of the Xiangshan fjord, were better captured by the model assimilating both CAT and HFR. Our study demonstrates the advances in three-dimensional tidal current analysis using a model that assimilates both CAT and HFR data, especially in regions with complex coastal geography. Full article
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21 pages, 9885 KiB  
Article
Using GNSS Radio Occultation Data to Monitor Tropical Atmospheric Anomalies during the January–February 2009 Sudden Stratospheric Warming Event
by Ying Li, Yunbin Yuan and Min Song
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(13), 3234; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14133234 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1688
Abstract
We used Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) radio occultation (RO) temperature, density, and bending angle profiles to monitor tropical atmospheric anomalies during the January–February 2009 sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) event on a daily basis. We constructed RO anomaly profiles (tropical mean (30°S–30°N)) and [...] Read more.
We used Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) radio occultation (RO) temperature, density, and bending angle profiles to monitor tropical atmospheric anomalies during the January–February 2009 sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) event on a daily basis. We constructed RO anomaly profiles (tropical mean (30°S–30°N)) and gridded mean anomalies, as well as tropopause height and temperature anomalies. Based on the anomalies, we investigated the response time and region of the tropical atmosphere to SSW. It was found that the GNSS RO data were robust in monitoring tropical atmospheric anomalies during SSW. The tropical stratosphere revealed cooling simultaneously with polar stratospheric warming, although the magnitudes of the maximum tropical mean anomalies were 6–7 times smaller than the polar mean. Altitude variations showed that tropical stratospheric anomalies were largest within 35–40 km, which were 5 km higher than those in the polar region. On the onset day of 23 January, temperature anomalies over 0–30°N were mostly more than −5 K, which were larger than those of −2 K detected over the 0–30°S band, and the largest anomalies were detected over northern Africa with values more than −10 K. RO density and bending angle anomalies responded to SSW in a similar way as temperature but were 20 km higher. Following cooling, the tropical upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere revealed visible warming, with anomalies more than 10 K in the sector of 15°S–15°N. Tropopause anomalies revealed the largest variations over 20°N–30°N, further confirming that the extratropical region of the northern hemisphere is a key region for the dynamical coupling between the polar and tropical regions. Tropopause height anomalies had clear increase trends from 16 January to 8 February, with anomalies of the 20°N–30°N band that were −2 km on Jan 16 and increased to −0.5 km on Feb 6 with a variation of 1.5 km, while variations in other bands were within 0.5 km. Tropopause temperature anomalies had clear decrease trends over the same period, with anomalies at 20°N–30°N of 4 K on 16 January and decreasing to about −1 K on 8 February, while anomalies in other bands showed variations within 3 K. Full article
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22 pages, 6089 KiB  
Article
MFST: Multi-Modal Feature Self-Adaptive Transformer for Infrared and Visible Image Fusion
by Xiangzeng Liu, Haojie Gao, Qiguang Miao, Yue Xi, Yunfeng Ai and Dingguo Gao
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(13), 3233; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14133233 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2833
Abstract
Infrared and visible image fusion is to combine the information of thermal radiation and detailed texture from the two images into one informative fused image. Recently, deep learning methods have been widely applied in this task; however, those methods usually fuse multiple extracted [...] Read more.
Infrared and visible image fusion is to combine the information of thermal radiation and detailed texture from the two images into one informative fused image. Recently, deep learning methods have been widely applied in this task; however, those methods usually fuse multiple extracted features with the same fusion strategy, which ignores the differences in the representation of these features, resulting in the loss of information in the fusion process. To address this issue, we propose a novel method named multi-modal feature self-adaptive transformer (MFST) to preserve more significant information about the source images. Firstly, multi-modal features are extracted from the input images by a convolutional neural network (CNN). Then, these features are fused by the focal transformer blocks that can be trained through an adaptive fusion strategy according to the characteristics of different features. Finally, the fused features and saliency information of the infrared image are considered to obtain the fused image. The proposed fusion framework is evaluated on TNO, LLVIP, and FLIR datasets with various scenes. Experimental results demonstrate that our method outperforms several state-of-the-art methods in terms of subjective and objective evaluation. Full article
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19 pages, 5119 KiB  
Article
Image Enhancement-Based Detection with Small Infrared Targets
by Shuai Liu, Pengfei Chen and Marcin Woźniak
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(13), 3232; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14133232 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 3214
Abstract
Today, target detection has an indispensable application in various fields. Infrared small-target detection, as a branch of target detection, can improve the perception capability of autonomous systems, and it has good application prospects in infrared alarm, automatic driving and other fields. There are [...] Read more.
Today, target detection has an indispensable application in various fields. Infrared small-target detection, as a branch of target detection, can improve the perception capability of autonomous systems, and it has good application prospects in infrared alarm, automatic driving and other fields. There are many well-established algorithms that perform well in infrared small-target detection. Nevertheless, the current algorithms cannot achieve the expected detection effect in complex environments, such as background clutter, noise inundation or very small targets. We have designed an image enhancement-based detection algorithm to solve both problems through detail enhancement and target expansion. This method first enhances the mutation information, detail and edge information of the image and then improves the contrast between the target edge and the adjacent pixels to make the target more prominent. The enhancement improves the robustness of detection with background clutter or noise-flooded scenes. Moreover, bicubic interpolation is used on the input image, and the target pixels are expanded with upsampling, which enhances the detection effectiveness for tiny targets. From the results of qualitative and quantitative experiments, the algorithm proposed in this paper outperforms the existing work on various evaluation indicators. Full article
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15 pages, 6190 KiB  
Article
Synergistic Use of the SRAL/MWR and SLSTR Sensors on Board Sentinel-3 for the Wet Tropospheric Correction Retrieval
by Pedro Aguiar, Telmo Vieira, Clara Lázaro and M. Joana Fernandes
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(13), 3231; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14133231 - 05 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1741
Abstract
The Sentinel-3 satellites are equipped with dual-band Microwave Radiometers (MWR) to derive the wet tropospheric correction (WTC) for satellite altimetry. The deployed MWR lack the 18 GHz channel, which mainly provides information on the surface emissivity. Currently, this information is considered using additional [...] Read more.
The Sentinel-3 satellites are equipped with dual-band Microwave Radiometers (MWR) to derive the wet tropospheric correction (WTC) for satellite altimetry. The deployed MWR lack the 18 GHz channel, which mainly provides information on the surface emissivity. Currently, this information is considered using additional parameters, one of which is the sea surface temperature (SST) extracted from static seasonal tables. Recent studies show that the use of a dynamic SST extracted from Numerical Weather Models (ERA5) improves the WTC retrieval. Given that Sentinel-3 carries on board the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR), from which SST observations are derived simultaneously with those of the Synthetic Aperture Radar Altimeter and MWR sensors, this study aims to develop a synergistic approach between these sensors for the WTC retrieval over open ocean. Firstly, the SLSTR-derived SSTs are evaluated against the ERA5 model; secondly, their impact on the WTC retrieval is assessed. The results show that using the SST input from SLSTR, instead of ERA5, has no impact on the WTC retrieval, both globally and regionally. Thus, for the WTC retrieval, there seems to be no advantage in having collocated SST and radiometer observations. Additionally, this study reinforces the fact that the use of dynamic SST leads to a significant improvement over the current Sentinel-3 WTC operational algorithms. Full article
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25 pages, 10446 KiB  
Article
Object Localization in Weakly Labeled Remote Sensing Images Based on Deep Convolutional Features
by Yang Long, Xiaofang Zhai, Qiao Wan and Xiaowei Tan
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(13), 3230; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14133230 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2127
Abstract
Object recognition, as one of the most fundamental and challenging problems in high-resolution remote sensing image interpretation, has received increasing attention in recent years. However, most conventional object recognition pipelines aim to recognize instances with bounding boxes in a supervised learning strategy, which [...] Read more.
Object recognition, as one of the most fundamental and challenging problems in high-resolution remote sensing image interpretation, has received increasing attention in recent years. However, most conventional object recognition pipelines aim to recognize instances with bounding boxes in a supervised learning strategy, which require intensive and manual labor for instance annotation creation. In this paper, we propose a weakly supervised learning method to alleviate this problem. The core idea of our method is to recognize multiple objects in an image using only image-level semantic labels and indicate the recognized objects with location points instead of box extent. Specifically, a deep convolutional neural network is first trained to perform semantic scene classification, of which the result is employed for the categorical determination of objects in an image. Then, by back-propagating the categorical feature from the fully connected layer to the deep convolutional layer, the categorical and spatial information of an image are combined to obtain an object discriminative localization map, which can effectively indicate the salient regions of objects. Next, a dynamic updating method of local response extremum is proposed to further determine the locations of objects in an image. Finally, extensive experiments are conducted to localize aircraft and oiltanks in remote sensing images based on different convolutional neural networks. Experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms the-state-of-the-art methods, achieving the precision, recall, and F1-score at 94.50%, 88.79%, and 91.56% for aircraft localization and 89.12%, 83.04%, and 85.97% for oiltank localization, respectively. We hope that our work could serve as a basic reference for remote sensing object localization via a weakly supervised strategy and provide new opportunities for further research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Big Data and Artificial Intelligence)
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21 pages, 48147 KiB  
Article
Susceptibility Analysis of Land Subsidence along the Transmission Line in the Salt Lake Area Based on Remote Sensing Interpretation
by Bijing Jin, Kunlong Yin, Qiuyang Li, Lei Gui, Taohui Yang, Binbin Zhao, Baorui Guo, Taorui Zeng and Zhiqing Ma
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(13), 3229; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14133229 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2274
Abstract
As the influence of extreme climate and human engineering activities intensifies, land subsidence frequently occurs in the Salt Lake area of Qinghai Province, China, which seriously threatens the stability of the UHV transmission line crossing the area. Current susceptibility analyses of land subsidence [...] Read more.
As the influence of extreme climate and human engineering activities intensifies, land subsidence frequently occurs in the Salt Lake area of Qinghai Province, China, which seriously threatens the stability of the UHV transmission line crossing the area. Current susceptibility analyses of land subsidence disasters have mostly focused on the classification of land subsidence susceptibility and have ignored the differentiation of susceptibility among different land subsidence intensities. Therefore, the land subsidence susceptibility map does not meet the operation and maintenance management needs of the UHV transmission line, let alone planning and designing of new lines in the Salt Lake area. Therefore, in this study, we proposed a susceptibility analysis of different land subsidence intensities along the transmission line in the Salt Lake area. The small baseline integrated aperture radar interferometry (SBAS-InSAR) method was used to obtain the land subsidence along the transmission line based on 67 Sentinel-1 remote sensing interpretation datasets from 2017 to 2021. Based on a combination of K-means clustering and the transmission line specifications, four annual land subsidence intensity grades were identified as 0~−2 mm/year, −2~−10 mm/year, −10~−20 mm/year, and <−20 mm/year. In addition, eight geological environmental factors were analyzed, and a multi-layer perceptron neural network (MLPNN) model was used to calculate the susceptibility of the different land subsidence intensities. The area under the curve (AUC) and practical examples were used to verify the reliability of the different land subsidence intensities susceptibility mapping. The AUC values of the four subsidence intensity grades showed that the results were accurate: the <−20 mm/year grade produced the largest AUC (0.951), with the −10~−20 mm/year, −2~−10 mm/year and 0~−2 mm/year grades producing AUCs of 0.926, 0.812, 0.879, respectively. At the same time, the susceptibility classification results of different land subsidence intensities were consistent with the interpretation and site tower deformation. The results of this study provided the distribution of land subsidence susceptibility along the transmission line, distinguished the susceptibility of different land subsidence intensities, and provided more detailed subsidence information for each transmission tower. The results provide important information for transmission line tower planning, design, protection, and operation management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Remote Sensing in Geological Engineering)
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24 pages, 1800 KiB  
Article
Parameter Flexible Wildfire Prediction Using Machine Learning Techniques: Forward and Inverse Modelling
by Sibo Cheng, Yufang Jin, Sandy P. Harrison, César Quilodrán-Casas, Iain Colin Prentice, Yi-Ke Guo and Rossella Arcucci
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(13), 3228; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14133228 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 4301
Abstract
Parameter identification for wildfire forecasting models often relies on case-by-case tuning or posterior diagnosis/analysis, which can be computationally expensive due to the complexity of the forward prediction model. In this paper, we introduce an efficient parameter flexible fire prediction algorithm based on machine [...] Read more.
Parameter identification for wildfire forecasting models often relies on case-by-case tuning or posterior diagnosis/analysis, which can be computationally expensive due to the complexity of the forward prediction model. In this paper, we introduce an efficient parameter flexible fire prediction algorithm based on machine learning and reduced order modelling techniques. Using a training dataset generated by physics-based fire simulations, the method forecasts burned area at different time steps with a low computational cost. We then address the bottleneck of efficient parameter estimation by developing a novel inverse approach relying on data assimilation techniques (latent assimilation) in the reduced order space. The forward and the inverse modellings are tested on two recent large wildfire events in California. Satellite observations are used to validate the forward prediction approach and identify the model parameters. By combining these forward and inverse approaches, the system manages to integrate real-time observations for parameter adjustment, leading to more accurate future predictions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Machine Learning Techniques Applied to Geosciences and Remote Sensing)
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19 pages, 8624 KiB  
Article
Investigating the Ability to Identify New Constructions in Urban Areas Using Images from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, Google Earth, and Sentinel-2
by Fahime Arabi Aliabad, Hamid Reza Ghafarian Malamiri, Saeed Shojaei, Alireza Sarsangi, Carla Sofia Santos Ferreira and Zahra Kalantari
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(13), 3227; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14133227 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2356
Abstract
One of the main problems in developing countries is unplanned urban growth and land use change. Timely identification of new constructions can be a good solution to mitigate some environmental and social problems. This study examined the possibility of identifying new constructions in [...] Read more.
One of the main problems in developing countries is unplanned urban growth and land use change. Timely identification of new constructions can be a good solution to mitigate some environmental and social problems. This study examined the possibility of identifying new constructions in urban areas using images from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), Google Earth and Sentinel-2. The accuracy of the land cover map obtained using these images was investigated using pixel-based processing methods (maximum likelihood, minimum distance, Mahalanobis, spectral angle mapping (SAM)) and object-based methods (Bayes, support vector machine (SVM), K-nearest-neighbor (KNN), decision tree, random forest). The use of DSM to increase the accuracy of classification of UAV images and the use of NDVI to identify vegetation in Sentinel-2 images were also investigated. The object-based KNN method was found to have the greatest accuracy in classifying UAV images (kappa coefficient = 0.93), and the use of DSM increased the classification accuracy by 4%. Evaluations of the accuracy of Google Earth images showed that KNN was also the best method for preparing a land cover map using these images (kappa coefficient = 0.83). The KNN and SVM methods showed the highest accuracy in preparing land cover maps using Sentinel-2 images (kappa coefficient = 0.87 and 0.85, respectively). The accuracy of classification was not increased when using NDVI due to the small percentage of vegetation cover in the study area. On examining the advantages and disadvantages of the different methods, a novel method for identifying new rural constructions was devised. This method uses only one UAV imaging per year to determine the exact position of urban areas with no constructions and then examines spectral changes in related Sentinel-2 pixels that might indicate new constructions in these areas. On-site observations confirmed the accuracy of this method. Full article
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11 pages, 3866 KiB  
Communication
Phase Centre Corrections of GNSS Antennas and Their Consistency with ATX Catalogues
by Lukasz Borowski, Jacek Kudrys, Bartosz Kubicki, Martina Slámová and Kamil Maciuk
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(13), 3226; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14133226 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2478
Abstract
Changes of the antenna models on permanent global navigation satellite system (GNSS) stations can lead to jumps and discontinuities in the coordinate time series. In this paper, the results of research on the adequacy of the antenna phase centre corrections (PCC) variations are [...] Read more.
Changes of the antenna models on permanent global navigation satellite system (GNSS) stations can lead to jumps and discontinuities in the coordinate time series. In this paper, the results of research on the adequacy of the antenna phase centre corrections (PCC) variations are presented by analysing its component—the antennas’ phase centre offset (PCO). For this purpose, height differences were determined using different and independent methods: EUREF Permanent Network (EPN) combined solutions, Precise Point Positioning (PPP), and the single baseline solution. The results of GNSS processing were referenced to direct geometric levelling outputs. The research was conducted only within the global positioning system (GPS) system due to the compatibility of one of the receivers, and the experiment was based on a comparison of the height differences between four GNSS antennas located on the roof of a building: two permanent station antennas and two auxiliary points. The antennas were located at similar heights; precise height differences were determined by geometric levelling, both at the beginning and the end of the session. Post-processing was conducted with the use of the GPS system, precise ephemeris, the adopted antenna correction model, and a zero-elevation mask. For one of the antennas, a change of the antenna characteristic model from IGS08 to IGS14 leads to an 8-mm difference in height. Older antennas used in the national (or transnational) permanent network need individual PCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS, Space Weather and TEC Special Features)
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15 pages, 4059 KiB  
Article
Data Reliability Enhancement for Wind-Turbine-Mounted Lidars
by Nikolas Angelou and Mikael Sjöholm
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(13), 3225; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14133225 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1736
Abstract
Wind lidars can be used on wind turbines to monitor the inflow for power curve verification and for control purposes. In these applications, the lidar is most often placed on the nacelle behind the rotating blades, which occasionally intercept the line-of-sight measurements, resulting [...] Read more.
Wind lidars can be used on wind turbines to monitor the inflow for power curve verification and for control purposes. In these applications, the lidar is most often placed on the nacelle behind the rotating blades, which occasionally intercept the line-of-sight measurements, resulting in decreased data availability or biased wind measurements. Distinguishing the wind from the blade signals is challenging for continuous-wave Doppler lidar observations. Here, we present a method that provides a more effective filtering than a typical filter relying on the strength of the backscattered signal. The method proposed is based on modelling the radial speed contribution generated by the wind turbine blades, and we present the results of a case study using a scanning wind lidar installed on the nacelle of an 850 kW wind turbine. We show that using the methodology proposed, we can optimize the identification of wind measurements, and thus, the data reliability of wind-turbine-mounted continuous-wave Doppler lidars is enhanced. Furthermore, the method is useful also for assessing the location and the alignment of a nacelle wind lidar in relation to a wind turbine’s rotor, which improves the accuracy of the inflow data and allows for a more efficient monitoring of the performance of a wind turbine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Atmospheric Remote Sensing)
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11 pages, 2447 KiB  
Technical Note
Fusing Sentinel-2 and Landsat 8 Satellite Images Using a Model-Based Method
by Jakob Sigurdsson, Sveinn E. Armannsson, Magnus O. Ulfarsson and Johannes R. Sveinsson
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(13), 3224; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14133224 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3456
Abstract
The Copernicus Sentinel-2 (S2) constellation comprises of two satellites in a sun-synchronous orbit. The S2 sensors have three spatial resolutions: 10, 20, and 60 m. The Landsat 8 (L8) satellite has sensors that provide seasonal coverage at spatial resolutions of 15, 30, and [...] Read more.
The Copernicus Sentinel-2 (S2) constellation comprises of two satellites in a sun-synchronous orbit. The S2 sensors have three spatial resolutions: 10, 20, and 60 m. The Landsat 8 (L8) satellite has sensors that provide seasonal coverage at spatial resolutions of 15, 30, and 60 m. Many remote sensing applications require the spatial resolutions of all data to be at the highest resolution possible, i.e., 10 m for S2. To address this demand, researchers have proposed various methods that exploit the spectral and spatial correlations within multispectral data to sharpen the S2 bands to 10 m. In this study, we combined S2 and L8 data. An S2 sharpening method called Sentinel-2 Sharpening (S2Sharp) was modified to include the 30 m and 15 m spectral bands from L8 and to sharpen all bands (S2 and L8) to the highest resolution of the data, which was 10 m. The method was evaluated using both real and simulated data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Super-resolution Methods in Remote Sensing)
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20 pages, 6252 KiB  
Article
Increasing Streamflow in Poor Vegetated Mountain Basins Induced by Greening of Underlying Surface
by Lilin Zheng, Jianhua Xu, Yaning Chen and Zhenhui Wu
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(13), 3223; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14133223 - 04 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1764
Abstract
Arid ecosystems have exhibited greening trends in recent decades. There is no consensus on how underlying surface changes influence streamflow across vegetation gradients. We investigated this issue for the four typical arid mountain basins using a 30-year runoff database and the Budyko framework [...] Read more.
Arid ecosystems have exhibited greening trends in recent decades. There is no consensus on how underlying surface changes influence streamflow across vegetation gradients. We investigated this issue for the four typical arid mountain basins using a 30-year runoff database and the Budyko framework to quantify the contributions of climate and underlying surface changes to streamflow variations during summer periods. Results showed that in the poor vegetated basins, i.e., Heizi Basin and Kuche Basin, the underlying surface change has increased summer streamflow by 14.01 and 35.67 mm, respectively; climate contributed only −7.32 and 1.86 mm to summer streamflow changes, respectively. Comparatively, in the well-vegetated basins, i.e., Huangshui Basin and Kaidu Basin, climate change dominated summer streamflow variations by increasing 21.50 and 24.65 mm, respectively; the underlying surface change only increased summer streamflow by 3.72 and 1.56 mm, respectively. Additionally, the decomposition results were extended to monthly scale (from June to September) to reveal the effects of climate and underlying surface changes on monthly streamflow. This study deepens our knowledge of runoff responses, which can provide important references to support water resources management in other regions that receive water from mountains. Full article
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24 pages, 13209 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of FY-3E/HIRAS-II Radiometric Calibration Accuracy Based on OMB Analysis
by Chunming Zhang, Chengli Qi, Tianhang Yang, Mingjian Gu, Panxiang Zhang, Lu Lee, Mengzhen Xie and Xiuqing Hu
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(13), 3222; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14133222 - 04 Jul 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2125
Abstract
Before infrared hyperspectral data are used in satellite data assimilation systems or retrieval systems, the quantitative analysis of data deviation is necessary. Based on RTTOV’s (Radiative Transfer for TOVS) simulation data of FY-3E/HIRAS-II (Hyperspectral Infrared Atmospheric Sounder) and the observation data of HIRAS-II, [...] Read more.
Before infrared hyperspectral data are used in satellite data assimilation systems or retrieval systems, the quantitative analysis of data deviation is necessary. Based on RTTOV’s (Radiative Transfer for TOVS) simulation data of FY-3E/HIRAS-II (Hyperspectral Infrared Atmospheric Sounder) and the observation data of HIRAS-II, we counted the bias of observation minus simulation (OMB) during an on-orbit test; analyzed the characteristics and reasons for the bias from the perspective of the FOV (field of view), the scanning angle of the instrument, the day and night, and the target temperature change; and analyzed the stability of the radiometric calibration accuracy. We also combined the results of the MetOp-C/IASI (infrared atmospheric sounding interferometer), a similar high-precision instrument, with the bias of OMB to compare and evaluate the FY-3E/HIRAS-II radiometric calibration accuracy. In the end, we found that the mean OMB bias of the long-wave and medium-wave infrared bands is within ±2 K, and the bias standard deviation is better than 2 K; the bias of each FOV is consistent and the bias of most channels is better than 2 K. The OMB bias of each channel is consistent with the changes in the angle of the instrument. The bias trend of long-wave and medium-wave infrared channels is more consistent with the deviation of the day and night; the bias of the short-wave infrared channel at night is lower than in the daytime. When counting the bias as the target temperature changed, the results showed that there are no obvious temperature dependencies in the long-wave and medium-wave infrared channels. This reflects that the instrument’s non-linear effect is well ordered. We further evaluated the stability of the radiometric calibration accuracy through statistics from the OMB standard deviation of each channel of FY-3E/HIRAS-II. Most channel accuracy stability values were better than 0.1 K. We calculated that IASI and HIRAS-II OMB have double differences, and the results show that the double difference in most channels is better than 1 K. It shows that the HIRAS-II and IASI observations are highly consistent. Through the statistics of the OMB bias during the on-orbit test period of FY-3E/HIRAS-II, we fully evaluated its radiometric calibration accuracy and laid the foundation for FY-3E/HIRAS-II data to be used in the retrieval application and assimilation system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Infrared Observation of Earth's Atmosphere)
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19 pages, 7138 KiB  
Article
AC-LSTM: Anomaly State Perception of Infrared Point Targets Based on CNN+LSTM
by Jiaqi Sun, Jiarong Wang, Zhicheng Hao, Ming Zhu, Haijiang Sun, Ming Wei and Kun Dong
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(13), 3221; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14133221 - 04 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2187
Abstract
Anomaly perception of infrared point targets has high application value in many fields, such as maritime surveillance, airspace surveillance, and early warning systems. This kind of abnormality includes the explosion of the target, the separation between stages, the disintegration caused by the abnormal [...] Read more.
Anomaly perception of infrared point targets has high application value in many fields, such as maritime surveillance, airspace surveillance, and early warning systems. This kind of abnormality includes the explosion of the target, the separation between stages, the disintegration caused by the abnormal strike, etc. By extracting the radiation characteristics of continuous frame targets, it is possible to analyze and warn the target state in time. Most anomaly detection methods adopt traditional outlier detection, which has the problems of poor accuracy and a high false alarm rate. Driven by data, this paper proposes a new network structure, called AC-LSTM, which combines Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) with Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM), and embeds the Periodic Time Series Data Attention module (PTSA). The network can better extract the spatial and temporal characteristics of one-dimensional time series data, and the PTSA module can consider the periodic characteristics of the target in the process of continuous movement, and focus on abnormal data. In addition, this paper also proposes a new time series data enhancement method, which slices and re-amplifies the long time series data. This method significantly improves the accuracy of anomaly detection. Through a large number of experiments, AC-LSTM has achieved higher scores on our collected datasets than other methods. Full article
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20 pages, 5527 KiB  
Article
Satellite Observation of the Long-Term Dynamics of Particulate Organic Carbon in the East China Sea Based on a Hybrid Algorithm
by Sunbin Cai, Ming Wu and Chengfeng Le
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(13), 3220; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14133220 - 04 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1898
Abstract
The distribution pattern and flux variation of POC in the continental shelf seas are essential for understanding the carbon cycle in marginal seas. The hydrodynamic environment and complicated estuarine processes in the East China Sea result in challenging estimates and substantial spatio-temporal variability [...] Read more.
The distribution pattern and flux variation of POC in the continental shelf seas are essential for understanding the carbon cycle in marginal seas. The hydrodynamic environment and complicated estuarine processes in the East China Sea result in challenging estimates and substantial spatio-temporal variability in terms of POC concentrations. A hybrid retrieval model based on the mutual combination of the color index algorithm (CIPOC) and the empirical band ratio algorithm was applied in this study to effectively and dynamically monitor the surface POC concentration in the East China Sea in a long-term series for the first time using MODIS/Aqua remote sensing satellite data from 2003 to 2020. A hybrid retrieval model based on the mutual combination of the color index algorithm (CIPOC) and the empirical band ratio algorithm was applied in this study. The MODIS/Aqua remote sensing satellite data from 2003 to 2020 were employed for the first time to dynamically monitor the surface POC concentrations in the East China Sea for a long time series. The results demonstrated that the performance (R2 = 0.84, RMSE = 156.14 mg/m3, MAPE = 43.30%, bias = −64.79 mg/m3) exhibited by this hybrid retrieval algorithm confirms the usability of inversion studies of surface POC in the East China Sea. Different drivers such as river discharge, phytoplankton, wind, and the sea surface current field jointly influence the spatial and temporal distribution of POC concentrations in the East China Sea. This paper also verifies that the hybrid algorithm can be applied to retrieval tasks for POC in different seas with similar optical properties to the waters of the East China Sea. In conclusion, the long-term series East China Sea POC data record, which was established based on MODIS/Aqua, provides supplementary information for in-situ sampling, which will aid the long-term monitoring of POC fluxes in shelf seas. At the same time, it has also improved our understanding of the transport and spatio-temporal variability of POC in the East China Sea, enhancing our comprehension of the impact of POC on environmental changes and carbon cycling in marginal seas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seawater Bio-Optical Characteristics from Satellite Ocean Color Data)
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20 pages, 6675 KiB  
Article
Recent Changes in Drought Events over South Asia and Their Possible Linkages with Climatic and Dynamic Factors
by Irfan Ullah, Xieyao Ma, Guoyu Ren, Jun Yin, Vedaste Iyakaremye, Sidra Syed, Kaidong Lu, Yun Xing and Vijay P. Singh
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(13), 3219; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14133219 - 04 Jul 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2487
Abstract
South Asia is home to one of the fastest-growing populations in Asia, and human activities are leaving indelible marks on the land surface. Yet the likelihood of successive observed droughts in South Asia (SA) and its four subregions (R-1: semi-arid, R-2: arid, R-3: [...] Read more.
South Asia is home to one of the fastest-growing populations in Asia, and human activities are leaving indelible marks on the land surface. Yet the likelihood of successive observed droughts in South Asia (SA) and its four subregions (R-1: semi-arid, R-2: arid, R-3: subtropical wet, and R-4: tropical wet and dry) remains poorly understood. Using the state-of-the-art self-calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index (scPDSI), we examined the impact of different natural ocean variability modes on the evolution, severity, and magnitude of observed droughts across the four subregions that have distinct precipitation seasonality and cover key breadbaskets and highly vulnerable populations. The study revealed that dryness had significantly increased in R-1, R-2, and R-4 during 1981–2020. Temporal analysis revealed an increase in drought intensity for R-1 and R-4 since the 2000s, while a mixed behavior was observed in R-2 and R-3. Moreover, most of the sub-regions witnessed a substantial upsurge in annual precipitation, but a significant decrease in vapor pressure deficit (VPD) during 1981–2020. The increase in precipitation and the decline in VPD partially contributed to a significant rise in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and a decrease in dryness. In contrast, a strong positive correlation was found between drought index and precipitation, and NDVI across R-1, R-2, and R-4, whereas temperature and VPD exhibited a negative correlation over these regions. No obvious link was detected with El-Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, or Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and drought evolution, as explored for certain regions of SA. The findings showed the possibility that the precipitation changes over these regions had an insignificant relationship with ENSO, IOD, and drought onset. Thus, the study results highlight the need for considering interactions within the longer climate system in describing observed drought risks rather than aiming at drivers from an individual perspective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture)
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22 pages, 8652 KiB  
Article
Physics-Driven Deep Learning Inversion with Application to Magnetotelluric
by Wei Liu, He Wang, Zhenzhu Xi, Rongqing Zhang and Xiaodi Huang
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(13), 3218; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14133218 - 04 Jul 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3063
Abstract
Due to the strong capability of building complex nonlinear mapping without involving linearization theory and high prediction efficiency; the deep learning (DL) technique applied to solve geophysical inverse problems has been a subject of growing interest. Currently, most DL-based inversion approaches are fully [...] Read more.
Due to the strong capability of building complex nonlinear mapping without involving linearization theory and high prediction efficiency; the deep learning (DL) technique applied to solve geophysical inverse problems has been a subject of growing interest. Currently, most DL-based inversion approaches are fully data-driven (namely standard deep learning), the performance of which largely depends on the training sample sets. However, due to the heavy burden of time and computational resources, it can be challenging to supply such a massive and exhaustive training dataset for generic realistic exploration scenarios and to perform network training. In this work, based on the recent advances in physics-based networks, the physical laws of magnetotelluric (MT) wave propagation is incorporated into a purely data-driven DL approach (PlainDNN) and thus builds a physics-driven DL MT inversion scheme (PhyDNN). In this scheme, the forward operator modeling MT wave propagation is integrated into the network training loop, in the form of minimizing a hybrid loss objective function composed of the data-driven model misfit and physics-based data misfit, to guide the network training. Consequently, the proposed PhyDNN method will take the advantage of the fully data-driven DL and conventional physics-based deterministic methods, allowing it to deal with complex realistic exploration scenarios. Quantitative and qualitative analysis results demonstrate that the PhyDNN can honor the physical laws of the MT inverse problem, and with other conditions unchanged, the PhyDNN outperforms the PlainDNN and the classical deterministic Occam inversion method. When processing field data, the PhyDNN method yields considerably impressive inversion results compared to the Occam method, and the corresponding simulated MT responses agree well with the real measurements, which confirms the effectiveness and applicability of the PhyDNN method. Full article
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22 pages, 45165 KiB  
Article
A Spatial–Spectral Combination Method for Hyperspectral Band Selection
by Xizhen Han, Zhengang Jiang, Yuanyuan Liu, Jian Zhao, Qiang Sun and Yingzhi Li
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(13), 3217; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14133217 - 04 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1825
Abstract
Hyperspectral images are characterized by hundreds of spectral bands and rich information. However, there exists a large amount of information redundancy among adjacent bands. In this study, a spatial–spectral combination method for hyperspectral band selection (SSCBS) is proposed to reduce information redundancy. First, [...] Read more.
Hyperspectral images are characterized by hundreds of spectral bands and rich information. However, there exists a large amount of information redundancy among adjacent bands. In this study, a spatial–spectral combination method for hyperspectral band selection (SSCBS) is proposed to reduce information redundancy. First, the hyperspectral image is automatically divided into subspaces. Seven algorithms classified as four types are executed and compared. The means algorithm is the most suitable for subspace division of the input hyperspectral image, with the calculation being the fastest. Then, for each subspace, the spatial–spectral combination method is adopted to select the best band. The band with the maximum information and more prominent characteristics between the adjacent bands is selected. The parameters of Euclidean distance and spectral angle parameters are used to measure the intraclass correlation and interclass spectral specificity, respectively. Weight coefficient quantifying the intrinsic spatial–spectral relationship of pixels are constructed, and then the optimal bands are selected by a combination of the weight coefficients and the information entropy. Moreover, an automatic method is proposed in this paper to provide an appropriate number of band sets, which is out of consideration for existing research. The experimental results show, as compared to other competing methods, that the SSCBS approach has the highest classification accuracy on the three benchmark datasets and takes less computation time. These demonstrate that the proposed SSCBS achieves satisfactory performance against state-of-the-art algorithms. Full article
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23 pages, 7733 KiB  
Article
Classification of Heterogeneous Mining Areas Based on ResCapsNet and Gaofen-5 Imagery
by Renxiang Guan, Zihao Li, Teng Li, Xianju Li, Jinzhong Yang and Weitao Chen
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(13), 3216; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14133216 - 04 Jul 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2253
Abstract
Land cover classification (LCC) of heterogeneous mining areas is important for understanding the influence of mining activities on regional geo-environments. Hyperspectral remote sensing images (HSI) provide spectral information and influence LCC. Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) improve the performance of hyperspectral image classification with [...] Read more.
Land cover classification (LCC) of heterogeneous mining areas is important for understanding the influence of mining activities on regional geo-environments. Hyperspectral remote sensing images (HSI) provide spectral information and influence LCC. Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) improve the performance of hyperspectral image classification with their powerful feature learning ability. However, if pixel-wise spectra are used as inputs to CNNs, they are ineffective in solving spatial relationships. To address the issue of insufficient spatial information in CNNs, capsule networks adopt a vector to represent position transformation information. Herein, we combine a clustering-based band selection method and residual and capsule networks to create a deep model named ResCapsNet. We tested the robustness of ResCapsNet using Gaofen-5 Imagery. The images covered two heterogeneous study areas in Wuhan City and Xinjiang Province, with spatially weakly dependent and spatially basically independent datasets, respectively. Compared with other methods, the model achieved the best performances, with averaged overall accuracies of 98.45 and 82.80% for Wuhan study area, and 92.82 and 70.88% for Xinjiang study area. Four transfer learning methods were investigated for cross-training and prediction of those two areas and achieved good results. In summary, the proposed model can effectively improve the classification accuracy of HSI in heterogeneous environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing Solutions for Mapping Mining Environments)
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24 pages, 11251 KiB  
Article
A Specular Highlight Removal Algorithm for Quality Inspection of Fresh Fruits
by Jinglei Hao, Yongqiang Zhao and Qunnie Peng
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(13), 3215; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14133215 - 04 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2257
Abstract
Nondestructive inspection technology based on machine vision can effectively improve the efficiency of fresh fruit quality inspection. However, fruits with smooth skin and less texture are easily affected by specular highlights during the image acquisition, resulting in light spots appearing on the surface [...] Read more.
Nondestructive inspection technology based on machine vision can effectively improve the efficiency of fresh fruit quality inspection. However, fruits with smooth skin and less texture are easily affected by specular highlights during the image acquisition, resulting in light spots appearing on the surface of fruits, which severely affects the subsequent quality inspection. Aiming at this issue, we propose a new specular highlight removal algorithm based on multi-band polarization imaging. First of all, we realize real-time image acquisition by designing a new multi-band polarization imager, which can acquire all the spectral and polarization information through single image capture. Then we propose a joint multi-band-polarization characteristic vector constraint to realize the detection of specular highlight, and next we put forward a Max-Min multi-band-polarization differencing scheme combined with an ergodic least-squares separation for specular highlight removal, and finally, the chromaticity consistency regularization is used to compensate the missing details. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can effectively and stably remove the specular highlight and provide more accurate information for subsequent fruit quality inspection. Besides, the comparison of algorithm speed further shows that our proposed algorithm has a good tradeoff between accuracy and complexity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computer Vision and Image Processing)
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28 pages, 11784 KiB  
Article
A Rapid, Low-Cost, and High-Precision Multifrequency Electrical Impedance Tomography Data Acquisition System for Plant Phenotyping
by Rinku Basak and Khan A. Wahid
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(13), 3214; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14133214 - 04 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2528
Abstract
Plant phenotyping plays an important role for the thorough assessment of plant traits such as growth, development, and physiological processes with the target of achieving higher crop yields by the proper crop management. The assessment can be done by utilizing two- and three-dimensional [...] Read more.
Plant phenotyping plays an important role for the thorough assessment of plant traits such as growth, development, and physiological processes with the target of achieving higher crop yields by the proper crop management. The assessment can be done by utilizing two- and three-dimensional image reconstructions of the inhomogeneities. The quality of the reconstructed image is required to maintain a high accuracy and a good resolution, and it is desirable to reconstruct the images with the lowest possible noise. In this work, an electrical impedance tomography (EIT) data acquisition system is developed for the reconstruction and evaluation of the inhomogeneities by utilizing a non-destructive method. A high-precision EIT system is developed by designing an electrode array sensor using a cylindrical domain for the measurements in different planes. Different edible plant slices along with multiple plant roots are taken in the EIT domain to assess and calibrate the system, and their reconstructed results are evaluated by utilizing an impedance imaging technique. A non-invasive imaging is carried out in multiple frequencies by utilizing a difference method of reconstruction. The performance and accuracy of the EIT system are evaluated by measuring impedances between 1 and 100 kHz using a low-cost and rapid electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tool connected to the sensor. A finite element method (FEM) modeling is utilized for image reconstruction, which is carried out using electrical impedance and diffuse optical tomography reconstruction software (EIDORS). The reconstruction is made successfully with the optimized results obtained using Gauss–Newton (GN) algorithms. Full article
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17 pages, 4655 KiB  
Article
Rice Mapping in a Subtropical Hilly Region Based on Sentinel-1 Time Series Feature Analysis and the Dual Branch BiLSTM Model
by Chunling Sun, Hong Zhang, Ji Ge, Chao Wang, Liutong Li and Lu Xu
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(13), 3213; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14133213 - 04 Jul 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2503
Abstract
Timely and accurate information on rice cultivation makes important contributions to the profound reform of the global food and agricultural system, and promotes the development of global sustainable agriculture. With all-day and all-weather observing ability, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) can monitor the distribution [...] Read more.
Timely and accurate information on rice cultivation makes important contributions to the profound reform of the global food and agricultural system, and promotes the development of global sustainable agriculture. With all-day and all-weather observing ability, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) can monitor the distribution of rice in tropical and subtropical areas. To solve the problem of misclassification of rice with no marked signal during the flooding period in subtropical hilly areas, this paper proposes a new feature combination and dual branch bi-directional long short-term memory (DB-BiLSTM) model to achieve high-precision rice mapping using Sentinel-1 time series data. Based on field investigation data, the backscatter time series curves of the rice area were analyzed, and a characteristic index (VV − VH)/(VV + VH) (VV: vertical emission and vertical receipt of polarization, VH: vertical emission and horizontal receipt of polarization) for small areas of hilly land was proposed to effectively distinguish rice and non-rice crops with no marked flooding period. The DB-BiLSTM model was designed, ensuring the independent learning of multiple features and effectively combining the time series information of both (VV − VH)/(VV + VH) and VH features. The city of Shanwei, Guangdong Province, China, was selected as the study area. Experimental results showed that the overall accuracy of the rice mapping results was 97.29%, and the kappa coefficient reached 0.9424. Compared to other methods, the rice mapping results obtained by the proposed method maintained good integrity and had less misclassification, which demonstrated the proposed method’s practical value in accurate and effective rice mapping tasks. Full article
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16 pages, 5326 KiB  
Article
Analyzing the Dynamic Spatiotemporal Changes in Urban Extension across Zhejiang Province Using NPP-VIIRS Nighttime Light Data
by Yangyang Yan, Hui Lei, Yihong Chen and Bin Zhou
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(13), 3212; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14133212 - 04 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1874
Abstract
Nighttime light remote sensing technologies provide methods for studying spatiotemporal changes in urban areas. In this research, we study the changes in the urban zone in Zhejiang Province based on NPP/VIIRS nighttime light data. Moreover, we propose a methodology to extract urban zones [...] Read more.
Nighttime light remote sensing technologies provide methods for studying spatiotemporal changes in urban areas. In this research, we study the changes in the urban zone in Zhejiang Province based on NPP/VIIRS nighttime light data. Moreover, we propose a methodology to extract urban zones through a buffer threshold analysis method and apply the standard deviation ellipse, urban scale increment, “dual-core” primacy and urban-scale Gini index to uncover the evolution of urban dynamics in Zhejiang Province. The results show that the highest overall urban area extraction accuracy was 95.9%; the highest Kappa coefficient was 91%. The nighttime light intensity changes observed in most cities in Zhejiang Province reflected three periods: “high-speed growth” from 2012–2014, “low-speed growth” from 2014–2018 and “high-speed growth” from 2019–2020. The growth rates observed during the 2019–2020 “high-speed growth” period exceeded those of the 2012–2014 period. Over nine years, the growth rates of the total nighttime light values in all cities ranged from 40% to 319%. Third-tier cities such as Quzhou and Lishui showed significant increases. Second-tier cities, such as Jinhua, Huzhou and Taizhou, had growth rates over 100%. From 2012–2014, the development rates increased in cities in southern Zhejiang Province, such as in Wenzhou and Taizhou, thus promoting a southward shift in the center of gravity. After 2014, the development rates increased in cities in northern Zhejiang Province, such as Hangzhou, Ningbo and Jiaxing, thus promoting a northward shift in the center of gravity, with the center stabilizing in the Keqiao District-Yuecheng District of Shaoxing. According to the changes observed in the “dual-core” primacy and urban-scale Gini index results derived from 2012 to 2020, the development of cities in Zhejiang Province has become more balanced over the past nine years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Urban Remote Sensing)
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17 pages, 33422 KiB  
Article
Spatiotemporal Evolution of Cultivated Land Non-Agriculturalization and Its Drivers in Typical Areas of Southwest China from 2000 to 2020
by Yan Chen, Shiyuan Wang and Yahui Wang
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(13), 3211; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14133211 - 04 Jul 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2253
Abstract
Cultivated land resources are crucial to food security and economic development. Exploring the spatiotemporal pattern of cultivated land non-agriculturalization and its drivers is a prerequisite for cultivated land conservation. This paper used GlobeLand30 data to reveal the spatial and temporal pattern, the shift [...] Read more.
Cultivated land resources are crucial to food security and economic development. Exploring the spatiotemporal pattern of cultivated land non-agriculturalization and its drivers is a prerequisite for cultivated land conservation. This paper used GlobeLand30 data to reveal the spatial and temporal pattern, the shift of the gravity center and the drivers of cultivated land non-agriculturalization by employing spatial analysis, gravity center model and the geographical detector model. The results show a dramatic increase in the non-agriculturalization of cultivated land in the period of 2010–2020 compared to 2000–2010. Spatially, the cultivated land non-agriculturalization mainly occurred in areas with high urbanization levels, such as eastern Sichuan Province and western Chongqing Municipality, while the cultivated land non-agriculturalization in other areas was small-scale and spatially scattered. Furthermore, the speed of cultivated land non-agriculturalization showed spatial unevenness, and the gravity center of cultivated land non-agriculturalization shifted towards the northeast at a distance of 123.21 km. The cultivated land non-agriculturalization was affected by GDP per capita, population density, GDP per unit of land and total retail sales of social consumer goods. The key drivers for the cultivated land non-agriculturalization in the study area were the continuous expansion of urban space and the large-scale cultivation of economic fruit trees. The government should promote small-scale machinery suitable for agricultural cultivation in the mountainous and hilly areas of Southwest China, and appropriately develop economic fruit groves and livestock farming to reduce the phenomenon of cultivated land non-foodization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Land Use and Management)
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21 pages, 8724 KiB  
Article
Soil Moisture Retrieval Using SAR Backscattering Ratio Method during the Crop Growing Season
by Minfeng Xing, Lin Chen, Jinfei Wang, Jiali Shang and Xiaodong Huang
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(13), 3210; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14133210 - 04 Jul 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3333
Abstract
Soil moisture content (SMC) is an indispensable basic element for crop growth and development in agricultural production. Obtaining accurate information on SMC in real time over large agricultural areas has important guiding significance for crop yield estimation and production management. In this study, [...] Read more.
Soil moisture content (SMC) is an indispensable basic element for crop growth and development in agricultural production. Obtaining accurate information on SMC in real time over large agricultural areas has important guiding significance for crop yield estimation and production management. In this study, the paper reports on the retrieval of SMC from RADARSAT-2 polarimetric SAR data. The proposed SMC retrieval algorithm includes vegetation correction based on a ratio method and roughness correction based on the optimal roughness method. Three vegetation description parameters (i.e., RVI, LAI, and NDVI) serve as vegetation descriptors in the parameterization of the algorithm. To testify the vegetation correction result of the algorithm, the water cloud model (WCM) was compared with the algorithm. The calibrated integrated equation model (CIEM) was employed to describe the backscattering from the underlying soil. To improve the accuracy of SMC retrieval, the CIEM model was optimized by using the optimal roughness parameter and the normalization method of reference incidence angle. Validation against ground measurements showed a high correlation between the measured and estimated SMC when the NDVI serves as vegetation descriptor (R2 = 0.68, RMSE = 4.15 vol.%, p < 0.01). The overall estimation performance of the proposed SMC retrieval algorithm is better than that of the WCM. It demonstrates that the proposed algorithm has an operational potential to estimate SMC over wheat fields during the growing season. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Health Diagnosis Based on Remote Sensing)
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14 pages, 4690 KiB  
Communication
Comparative Study of Predominantly Daytime and Nighttime Lightning Occurrences and Their Impact on Ionospheric Disturbances
by Louis Osei-Poku, Long Tang, Wu Chen, Mingli Chen and Akwasi Afrifa Acheampong
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(13), 3209; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14133209 - 04 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1919
Abstract
Space weather events adversely impact the operations of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). Understanding space weather mechanisms, interactions in the atmosphere, and the extent of their impact are useful in developing prediction and mitigation models. In this study, the hourly lightning occurrence and [...] Read more.
Space weather events adversely impact the operations of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). Understanding space weather mechanisms, interactions in the atmosphere, and the extent of their impact are useful in developing prediction and mitigation models. In this study, the hourly lightning occurrence and its impact on ionospheric disturbances, quantified using the Rate of Total electron content Index (ROTI), were assessed. The linear correlation between diurnal lightning activity and ROTI in the coastal region of southern China where lightning predominates in the daytime was initially negative contrary to a positive correlation in southern Africa where lighting predominates in the evening. After appreciating and applying the physical processes of gravity waves, electromagnetic waves and the Trimpi effect arising from lightning activity, and the time delay impact they have on the ionosphere, the negative correlation was overturned to a positive one using cross-correlation. GNSS has demonstrated its capability of revealing the impact lightning has on the ionosphere at various times of the day. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS, Space Weather and TEC Special Features)
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