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Viruses, Volume 12, Issue 7 (July 2020) – 61 articles

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Open AccessArticle
Serosurveillance and Molecular Investigation of Wild Deer in Australia Reveals Seroprevalence of Pestivirus Infection
Viruses 2020, 12(7), 752; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12070752 (registering DOI) - 13 Jul 2020
Abstract
Since deer were introduced into Australia in the mid-1800s, their wild populations have increased in size and distribution, posing a potential risk to the livestock industry, through their role in pathogen transmission cycles. In comparison to livestock, there are limited data on viral [...] Read more.
Since deer were introduced into Australia in the mid-1800s, their wild populations have increased in size and distribution, posing a potential risk to the livestock industry, through their role in pathogen transmission cycles. In comparison to livestock, there are limited data on viral infections in all wildlife, including deer. The aim of this study was to assess blood samples from wild Australian deer for serological evidence of exposure to relevant viral livestock diseases. Blood samples collected across eastern Australia were tested by ELISA to detect antigens and antibodies against Pestivirus and antibodies against bovine herpesvirus 1. A subset of samples was also assessed by RT-PCR for Pestivirus, Simbu serogroup, epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus and bovine ephemeral fever virus. Our findings demonstrated a very low seroprevalence (3%) for ruminant Pestivirus, and none of the other viruses tested were detected. These results suggest that wild deer may currently be an incidental spill-over host (rather than a reservoir host) for Pestivirus. However, deer could be a future source of viral infections for domestic animals in Australia. Further investigations are needed to monitor pathogen activity and quantify possible future infectious disease impacts of wild deer on the Australian livestock industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus and Related Pestiviruses)
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Open AccessReview
Controlling Avian Influenza Virus in Bangladesh: Challenges and Recommendations
Viruses 2020, 12(7), 751; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12070751 (registering DOI) - 12 Jul 2020
Viewed by 336
Abstract
Avian influenza virus (AIV) remains a huge challenge for poultry production with negative repercussions for micro- and macro-economy and public health in Bangladesh. High (HP) H5N1 and low pathogenicity (LP) H9N2 AIV are currently endemic in poultry, and both have been reported to [...] Read more.
Avian influenza virus (AIV) remains a huge challenge for poultry production with negative repercussions for micro- and macro-economy and public health in Bangladesh. High (HP) H5N1 and low pathogenicity (LP) H9N2 AIV are currently endemic in poultry, and both have been reported to infect humans sporadically. Multiple virus introductions of different clades of HPAIV H5N1, reassorted genotypes, and on-going diversification of LPAIV H9N2 create a highly volatile virological environment which potentially implicates increased virulence, adaptation to new host species, and subsequent zoonotic transmission. Allotropy of poultry rearing systems and supply chains further increase the risk of virus spreading, which leads to human exposure and fosters the emergence of new potentially pre-pandemic virus strains. Here, we review the epidemiology, focusing on (i) risk factors for virus spreading, (ii) viral genetic evolution, and (iii) options for AIV control in Bangladesh. It is concluded that improved control strategies would profit from the integration of various intervention tools, including effective vaccination, enhanced biosecurity practice, and improved awareness of producers and traders, although widespread household poultry rearing significantly interferes with any such strategies. Nevertheless, continuous surveillance associated with rapid diagnosis and thorough virus characterization is the basis of such strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolution and Pathogenesis of Avian and Animal Influenza Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Canine Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (cAdMSCs) as a “Trojan Horse” in Vaccinia Virus Mediated Oncolytic Therapy against Canine Soft Tissue Sarcomas
Viruses 2020, 12(7), 750; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12070750 (registering DOI) - 12 Jul 2020
Viewed by 178
Abstract
Several oncolytic viruses (OVs) including various human and canine adenoviruses, canine distemper virus, herpes-simplex virus, reovirus, and members of the poxvirus family, such as vaccinia virus and myxoma virus, have been successfully tested for canine cancer therapy in preclinical and clinical settings. The [...] Read more.
Several oncolytic viruses (OVs) including various human and canine adenoviruses, canine distemper virus, herpes-simplex virus, reovirus, and members of the poxvirus family, such as vaccinia virus and myxoma virus, have been successfully tested for canine cancer therapy in preclinical and clinical settings. The success of the cancer virotherapy is dependent on the ability of oncolytic viruses to overcome the attacks of the host immune system, to preferentially infect and lyse cancer cells, and to initiate tumor-specific immunity. To date, several different strategies have been developed to overcome the antiviral host defense barriers. In our study, we used canine adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (cAdMSCs) as a “Trojan horse” for the delivery of oncolytic vaccinia virus Copenhagen strain to achieve maximum oncolysis against canine soft tissue sarcoma (CSTS) tumors. A single systemic administration of vaccinia virus-loaded cAdMSCs was found to be safe and led to the significant reduction and substantial inhibition of tumor growth in a CSTS xenograft mouse model. This is the first example that vaccinia virus-loaded cAdMSCs could serve as a therapeutic agent against CSTS tumors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessing Genome-Wide Diversity in European Hantaviruses through Sequence Capture from Natural Host Samples
Viruses 2020, 12(7), 749; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12070749 (registering DOI) - 11 Jul 2020
Viewed by 162
Abstract
Research on the ecology and evolution of viruses is often hampered by the limitation of sequence information to short parts of the genomes or single genomes derived from cultures. In this study, we use hybrid sequence capture enrichment in combination with high-throughput sequencing [...] Read more.
Research on the ecology and evolution of viruses is often hampered by the limitation of sequence information to short parts of the genomes or single genomes derived from cultures. In this study, we use hybrid sequence capture enrichment in combination with high-throughput sequencing to provide efficient access to full genomes of European hantaviruses from rodent samples obtained in the field. We applied this methodology to Tula (TULV) and Puumala (PUUV) orthohantaviruses for which analyses from natural host samples are typically restricted to partial sequences of their tri-segmented RNA genome. We assembled a total of ten novel hantavirus genomes de novo with very high coverage (on average >99%) and sequencing depth (average >247×). A comparison with partial Sanger sequences indicated an accuracy of >99.9% for the assemblies. An analysis of two common vole (Microtus arvalis) samples infected with two TULV strains each allowed for the de novo assembly of all four TULV genomes. Combining the novel sequences with all available TULV and PUUV genomes revealed very similar patterns of sequence diversity along the genomes, except for remarkably higher diversity in the non-coding region of the S-segment in PUUV. The genomic distribution of polymorphisms in the coding sequence was similar between the species, but differed between the segments with the highest sequence divergence of 0.274 for the M-segment, 0.265 for the S-segment, and 0.248 for the L-segment (overall 0.258). Phylogenetic analyses showed the clustering of genome sequences consistent with their geographic distribution within each species. Genome-wide data yielded extremely high node support values, despite the impact of strong mutational saturation that is expected for hantavirus sequences obtained over large spatial distances. We conclude that genome sequencing based on capture enrichment protocols provides an efficient means for ecological and evolutionary investigations of hantaviruses at an unprecedented completeness and depth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rodent-Borne Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
aBravo Is a Novel Aedes aegypti Antiviral Protein that Interacts with, but Acts Independently of, the Exogenous siRNA Pathway Effector Dicer 2
Viruses 2020, 12(7), 748; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12070748 (registering DOI) - 11 Jul 2020
Viewed by 281
Abstract
Mosquitoes, such as Aedes aegypti, can transmit arboviruses to humans. The exogenous short interfering RNA (exo-siRNA) pathway plays a major antiviral role in controlling virus infection in mosquito cells. The Dicer 2 (Dcr2) nuclease is a key effector protein in this pathway, [...] Read more.
Mosquitoes, such as Aedes aegypti, can transmit arboviruses to humans. The exogenous short interfering RNA (exo-siRNA) pathway plays a major antiviral role in controlling virus infection in mosquito cells. The Dicer 2 (Dcr2) nuclease is a key effector protein in this pathway, which cleaves viral double-stranded RNA into virus-derived siRNAs that are further loaded onto an effector called Argonaute 2 (Ago2), which as part of the multiprotein RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) targets and cleaves viral RNA. In order to better understand the effector protein Dcr2, proteomics experiments were conducted to identify interacting cellular partners. We identified several known interacting partners including Ago2, as well as two novel and previously uncharacterized Ae. aegypti proteins. The role of these two proteins was further investigated, and their interactions with Dcr2 verified by co-immunoprecipitation. Interestingly, despite their ability to interact with Ago2 and Piwi4, neither of these proteins was found to affect exo-siRNA silencing in a reporter assay. However, one of these proteins, Q0IFK9, subsequently called aBravo (aedine broadly active antiviral protein), was found to mediate antiviral activity against positive strand RNA arboviruses. Intriguingly the presence of Dcr2 was not necessary for this effect, suggesting that this interacting antiviral effector may act as part of protein complexes with potentially separate antiviral activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alphaviruses: Interactions between Arboviruses and Mosquitoes)
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Open AccessArticle
Differential Detection of Encapsidated versus Unencapsidated Enterovirus RNA in Samples Containing Pancreatic Enzymes—Relevance for Diabetes Studies
Viruses 2020, 12(7), 747; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12070747 (registering DOI) - 11 Jul 2020
Viewed by 167
Abstract
Using immunohistochemistry, enterovirus capsid proteins were demonstrated in pancreatic islets of patients with type 1 diabetes. Virus proteins are mainly located in beta cells, supporting the hypothesis that enterovirus infections may contribute to the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. In samples of pancreatic [...] Read more.
Using immunohistochemistry, enterovirus capsid proteins were demonstrated in pancreatic islets of patients with type 1 diabetes. Virus proteins are mainly located in beta cells, supporting the hypothesis that enterovirus infections may contribute to the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. In samples of pancreatic tissue, enterovirus RNA was also detected, but in extremely small quantities and in a smaller proportion of cases compared to the enteroviral protein. Difficulties in detecting viral RNA could be due to the very small number of infected cells, the possible activity of PCR inhibitors, and the presence—during persistent infection—of the viral genome in unencapsidated forms. The aim of this study was twofold: (a) to examine if enzymes or other compounds in pancreatic tissue could affect the molecular detection of encapsidated vs. unencapsidated enterovirus forms, and (b) to compare the sensitivity of RT-PCR methods used in different laboratories. Dilutions of encapsidated and unencapsidated virus were spiked into human pancreas homogenate and analyzed by RT-PCR. Incubation of pancreatic homogenate on wet ice for 20 h did not influence the detection of encapsidated virus. In contrast, a 15-min incubation on wet ice dramatically reduced detection of unencapsidated forms of virus. PCR inhibitors could not be found in pancreatic extract. The results show that components in the pancreas homogenate may selectively affect the detection of unencapsidated forms of enterovirus. This may lead to difficulties in diagnosing persisting enterovirus infection in the pancreas of patients with type 1 diabetes. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Multiple Roles of Hepatitis B Virus X Protein (HBx) Dysregulated MicroRNA in Hepatitis B Virus-Associated Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HBV-HCC) and Immune Pathways
Viruses 2020, 12(7), 746; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12070746 (registering DOI) - 10 Jul 2020
Viewed by 184
Abstract
Currently, the treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) [HBV-HCC] relies on blunt tools that are unable to offer effective therapy for later stage pathogenesis. The potential of miRNA to treat HBV-HCC offer a more targeted approach to managing this lethal [...] Read more.
Currently, the treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) [HBV-HCC] relies on blunt tools that are unable to offer effective therapy for later stage pathogenesis. The potential of miRNA to treat HBV-HCC offer a more targeted approach to managing this lethal carcinoma; however, the complexity of miRNA as an ancillary regulator of the immune system remains poorly understood. This review examines the overlapping roles of HBx-dysregulated miRNA in HBV-HCC and immune pathways and seeks to demonstrate that specific miRNA response in immune cells is not independent of their expression in hepatocytes. This interplay between the two pathways may provide us with the possibility of using candidate miRNA to manipulate this interaction as a potential therapeutic option. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Concepts in Virology)
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Open AccessReview
Revisiting Membrane Microdomains and Phase Separation: A Viral Perspective
Viruses 2020, 12(7), 745; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12070745 (registering DOI) - 10 Jul 2020
Viewed by 171
Abstract
Retroviruses selectively incorporate a specific subset of host cell proteins and lipids into their outer membrane when they bud out from the host plasma membrane. This specialized viral membrane composition is critical for both viral survivability and infectivity. Here, we review recent findings [...] Read more.
Retroviruses selectively incorporate a specific subset of host cell proteins and lipids into their outer membrane when they bud out from the host plasma membrane. This specialized viral membrane composition is critical for both viral survivability and infectivity. Here, we review recent findings from live cell imaging of single virus assembly demonstrating that proteins and lipids sort into the HIV retroviral membrane by a mechanism of lipid-based phase partitioning. The findings showed that multimerizing HIV Gag at the assembly site creates a liquid-ordered lipid phase enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids. Proteins with affinity for this specialized lipid environment partition into it, resulting in the selective incorporation of proteins into the nascent viral membrane. Building on this and other work in the field, we propose a model describing how HIV Gag induces phase separation of the viral assembly site through a mechanism involving transbilayer coupling of lipid acyl chains and membrane curvature changes. Similar phase-partitioning pathways in response to multimerizing structural proteins likely help sort proteins into the membranes of other budding structures within cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The 11th International Retroviral Nucleocapsid and Assembly Symposium)
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Open AccessReview
Regulation of the Human Papillomavirus Life Cycle by DNA Damage Repair Pathways and Epigenetic Factors
Viruses 2020, 12(7), 744; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12070744 (registering DOI) - 10 Jul 2020
Viewed by 136
Abstract
Human papillomaviruses are the causative agents of cervical and other anogenital cancers along with approximately 60% of oropharyngeal cancers. These small double-stranded DNA viruses infect stratified epithelia and link their productive life cycles to differentiation. HPV proteins target cellular factors, such as those [...] Read more.
Human papillomaviruses are the causative agents of cervical and other anogenital cancers along with approximately 60% of oropharyngeal cancers. These small double-stranded DNA viruses infect stratified epithelia and link their productive life cycles to differentiation. HPV proteins target cellular factors, such as those involved in DNA damage repair, as well as epigenetic control of host and viral transcription to regulate the productive life cycle. HPVs constitutively activate the ATM and ATR DNA repair pathways and preferentially recruit these proteins to viral genomes to facilitate productive viral replication. In addition, the sirtuin deacetylases along with histone acetyltransferases, including Tip60, are targeted in HPV infections to regulate viral transcription and replication. These pathways provide potential targets for drug therapy to treat HPV-induced disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epigenetics and Viral infection)
Open AccessCommentary
Phages Needed against Resistant Bacteria
Viruses 2020, 12(7), 743; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12070743 - 10 Jul 2020
Viewed by 144
Abstract
Phages have been known for more than 100 years. They have been applied to numerous infectious diseases and have proved to be effective in many cases. However, they have been neglected due to the era of antibiotics. With the increase of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms, [...] Read more.
Phages have been known for more than 100 years. They have been applied to numerous infectious diseases and have proved to be effective in many cases. However, they have been neglected due to the era of antibiotics. With the increase of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms, we need additional therapies. Whether or not phages can fulfill this expectation needs to be verified and tested according to the state-of-the-art of international regulations. These regulations fail, however, with respect to GMP production of phages. Phages are biologicals, not chemical compounds, which cannot be produced under GMP regulations. This needs to be urgently changed to allow progress to determine how phages can enter routine clinical settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Concepts in Virology)
Open AccessArticle
Comprehensive Evaluation of the Safety and Efficacy of BAFASAL® Bacteriophage Preparation for the Reduction of Salmonella in the Food Chain
Viruses 2020, 12(7), 742; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12070742 - 10 Jul 2020
Viewed by 187
Abstract
Bacteriophages are bacterial predators, which are garnering much interest nowadays vis-à-vis the global phenomenon of antimicrobial resistance. Bacteriophage preparations seem to be an alternative to antibiotics, which can be used at all levels of the food production chain. Their safety and efficacy, however, [...] Read more.
Bacteriophages are bacterial predators, which are garnering much interest nowadays vis-à-vis the global phenomenon of antimicrobial resistance. Bacteriophage preparations seem to be an alternative to antibiotics, which can be used at all levels of the food production chain. Their safety and efficacy, however, are of public concern. In this study, a detailed evaluation of BAFASAL® preparation was performed. BAFASAL® is a bacteriophage cocktail that reduces Salmonella in poultry farming. In vivo acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies on rats and tolerance study on targeted animals (chicken broiler) conducted according to GLP and OECD guidelines did not reveal any signs of toxicity, which could be associated with BAFASAL® administration. In addition, no evidences of genotoxicity were observed. The tolerance study with 100-times concentrated dose also did not show any statistically significant differences in the assessed parameters. The in vitro crop assay, mimicking normal feed storage and feed application conditions showed that BAFASAL® reduced the number of Salmonella bacteria in experimentally contaminated feed. Moreover, reductions were observed for all examined forms (liquid, powder, spray). Furthermore, the in vivo efficacy study showed that treatment with BAFASAL® significantly decreased Salmonella content in caeca of birds infected with Salmonella Enteritidis. Detailed examination of BAFASAL® in terms of safety and efficacy, adds to the body of evidence that bacteriophages are harmless to animals and effective in the struggle against bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bacterial Viruses)
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Open AccessReview
Hepatitis C Virus and Hepatitis B Virus Co-Infection
Viruses 2020, 12(7), 741; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12070741 - 10 Jul 2020
Viewed by 198
Abstract
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection can be encountered in either virus endemic countries. Co-infection can also be found in populations at risk of parenteral transmission. Previous studies demonstrated a high risk of liver disease progression in patients with [...] Read more.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection can be encountered in either virus endemic countries. Co-infection can also be found in populations at risk of parenteral transmission. Previous studies demonstrated a high risk of liver disease progression in patients with HCV/HBV co-infection; thus, they should be treated aggressively. Previous evidence recommended therapy combining peginterferon (pegIFN) alfa and ribavirin for co-infected patients with positive HCV RNA. Recent trials further advise using direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) for the clearance of HCV in the co-infected patients. Reactivation of HBV has been observed in patients post-intervention, with higher risks and earlier onset in those having had HCV cured by DAA- versus pegIFN-based therapy. The mechanism of HBV reactivation is an interesting but unsolved puzzle. Our recent study revealed that in vitro HBV replication was suppressed by HCV co-infection; HBV suppression was attenuated when interferon signaling was blocked. In vivo, the HBV viremia, initially suppressed by the presence of HCV super-infection, rebounded following HCV clearance by DAA treatment and was accompanied by a reduced hepatic interferon response. In summary, major achievements in the treatment of HCV/HBV co-infection have been accomplished over the past 20 years. Future clinical trials should address measures to reduce or prevent HBV reactivation post HCV cure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Coinfection)
Open AccessArticle
Pteropine Orthoreovirus in an Angolan Soft-Furred Fruit Bat (Lissonycteris angolensis) in Uganda Dramatically Expands the Global Distribution of an Emerging Bat-Borne Respiratory Virus
Viruses 2020, 12(7), 740; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12070740 - 09 Jul 2020
Viewed by 194
Abstract
Pteropine orthoreovirus (PRV; Reoviridae: Spinareovirinae) is an emerging bat-borne zoonotic virus that causes influenza-like illness (ILI). PRV has thus far been found only in Australia and Asia, where diverse old-world fruit bats (Pteropodidae) serve as hosts. In this study, [...] Read more.
Pteropine orthoreovirus (PRV; Reoviridae: Spinareovirinae) is an emerging bat-borne zoonotic virus that causes influenza-like illness (ILI). PRV has thus far been found only in Australia and Asia, where diverse old-world fruit bats (Pteropodidae) serve as hosts. In this study, we report the discovery of PRV in Africa, in an Angolan soft-furred fruit bat (Lissonycteris angolensis ruwenzorii) from Bundibugyo District, Uganda. Metagenomic characterization of a rectal swab yielded 10 dsRNA genome segments, revealing this virus to cluster within the known diversity of PRV variants detected in bats and humans in Southeast Asia. Phylogeographic analyses revealed a correlation between geographic distance and genetic divergence of PRVs globally, which suggests a geographic continuum of PRV diversity spanning Southeast Asia to sub-Saharan Africa. The discovery of PRV in an African bat dramatically expands the geographic range of this zoonotic virus and warrants further surveillance for PRVs outside of Southeast Asia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Infection of a Lepidopteran Cell Line with Deformed Wing Virus
Viruses 2020, 12(7), 739; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12070739 - 09 Jul 2020
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Abstract
Many attempts to develop a reliable cell cultured-based system to study honey bee virus infections have encountered substantial difficulties. We investigated the ability of a cell line from a heterologous insect to sustain infection by a honey bee virus. For this purpose, we [...] Read more.
Many attempts to develop a reliable cell cultured-based system to study honey bee virus infections have encountered substantial difficulties. We investigated the ability of a cell line from a heterologous insect to sustain infection by a honey bee virus. For this purpose, we infected the Lepidopteran hemocytic cell line (P1) with Deformed wing virus (DWV). The genomic copies of DWV increased upon infection, as monitored by quantitative RT-PCR. Moreover, a tagged-primer-based RT-PCR analysis showed the presence of DWV negative-sense RNA in the cells, indicating virus replication. However, the DWV from infected cells was mildly infectious to P1 cells. Similar results were obtained when the virus was injected into Apis mellifera pupae. Thus, though the virus yields from the infected cells appeared to be very low, we show for the first time that DWV can replicate in a heterologous cell line. Given the availability of many other insect cell lines, our study paves the way for future exploration in this direction. In the absence of adequate A. mellifera cell lines, exploring the ability of alternative cell lines to enable honey bee virus infections could provide the means to study and understand the viral infectious cycle at the cellular level and facilitate obtaining purified isolates of these viruses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Honey Bee Virus Research)
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Open AccessReview
Phosphorylation of the Arginine-Rich C-Terminal Domains of the Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Core Protein as a Fine Regulator of the Interaction between HBc and Nucleic Acid
Viruses 2020, 12(7), 738; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12070738 - 08 Jul 2020
Viewed by 273
Abstract
The morphogenesis of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) viral particles is nucleated by the oligomerization of HBc protein molecules, resulting in the formation of an icosahedral capsid shell containing the replication-competent nucleoprotein complex made of the viral polymerase and the pre-genomic RNA (pgRNA). HBc [...] Read more.
The morphogenesis of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) viral particles is nucleated by the oligomerization of HBc protein molecules, resulting in the formation of an icosahedral capsid shell containing the replication-competent nucleoprotein complex made of the viral polymerase and the pre-genomic RNA (pgRNA). HBc is a phospho-protein containing two distinct domains acting together throughout the viral replication cycle. The N-terminal domain, (residues 1–140), shown to self-assemble, is linked by a short flexible domain to the basic C-terminal domain (residues 150–183) that interacts with nucleic acids (NAs). In addition, the C-terminal domain contains a series of phospho-acceptor residues that undergo partial phosphorylation and de-phosphorylation during virus replication. This highly dynamic process governs the homeostatic charge that is essential for capsid stability, pgRNA packaging and to expose the C-terminal domain at the surface of the particles for cell trafficking. In this review, we discuss the roles of the N-terminal and C-terminal domains of HBc protein during HBV morphogenesis, focusing on how the C-terminal domain phosphorylation dynamics regulate its interaction with nucleic acids throughout the assembly and maturation of HBV particles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Function and Structure of Viral Ribonucleoproteins Complexes)
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Open AccessArticle
Isolation and Characterization of Bacteriophages That Infect Citrobacter rodentium, a Model Pathogen for Intestinal Diseases
Viruses 2020, 12(7), 737; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12070737 - 08 Jul 2020
Viewed by 242
Abstract
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a major pathogen for diarrheal diseases among children. Antibiotics, when used appropriately, are effective; however, their overuse and misuse have led to the rise of antibiotic resistance worldwide. Thus, there are renewed efforts into the development of phage [...] Read more.
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a major pathogen for diarrheal diseases among children. Antibiotics, when used appropriately, are effective; however, their overuse and misuse have led to the rise of antibiotic resistance worldwide. Thus, there are renewed efforts into the development of phage therapy as an alternative antibacterial therapy. Because EPEC in vivo models have shortcomings, a surrogate is used to study the mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium in animal models. In this study, two new phages CrRp3 and CrRp10, which infect C. rodentium, were isolated and characterized. CrRp3 was found to be a new species within the genus Vectrevirus, and CrRp10 is a new strain within the species Escherichia virus Ime09, in the genus Tequatrovirus. Both phages appear to have independently evolved from E. coli phages, rather than other Citrobacter spp. phages. Neither phage strain carries known genes associated with bacterial virulence, antibiotic resistance, or lysogeny. CrRp3 is more potent, having a 24-fold faster adsorption rate and shorter lytic cycle when compared to the same properties of CrRp10. However, a lysis curve analysis revealed that CrRp10 prevented growth of C. rodentium for 18 h, whereas resistance developed against CrRp3 within 9 h. We also show that hypoxic (5% oxygen) conditions decreased CrRp3 ability to control bacterial densities in culture. In contrast, low oxygen conditions did not affect CrRp10 ability to replicate on C. rodentium. Together, CrRp10 is likely to be the better candidate for future phage therapy investigations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phage Ecology)
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Open AccessArticle
Whole Genomic Analysis and Comparison of Two Canine Papillomavirus Type 9 Strains in Malignant and Benign Skin Lesions
Viruses 2020, 12(7), 736; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12070736 - 08 Jul 2020
Viewed by 130
Abstract
Papillomaviruses (PVs) usually cause benign proliferative lesions in the stratified epithelium of various animal species. However, some high-risk types of PVs have been proven to lead to malignant transformations. In dogs, several canine papillomaviruses (CPVs) have been identified in malignant lesions and are [...] Read more.
Papillomaviruses (PVs) usually cause benign proliferative lesions in the stratified epithelium of various animal species. However, some high-risk types of PVs have been proven to lead to malignant transformations. In dogs, several canine papillomaviruses (CPVs) have been identified in malignant lesions and are suggested as one of the risk factors for the development of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). In the present study, the full genomes of two CPV9 strains from recurrent SCCs of Dog 1 and skin viral papilloma (viral plaque) of Dog 2 were sequenced. Alignment of the two CPV9 sequences with the genome of the reference CPV9 strain (accession no. JF800656.1) derived from a solitary pigmented plaque was performed. Compared with the reference strain, a 27 bp in-frame insertion in the E1 gene was identified in both CPV9 strains in this study. In comparison with the CPV9 strains derived from benign lesions, the CPV9 from the SCCs of Dog 1 exhibited a 328 bp deletion at the 3′ end of the E2 and spacer sequence, which encoded a truncated deduced E2 protein and a chimeric E8^E2 protein. However, there was no difference in the mRNA expression levels of viral oncoproteins of E6 and E7 between the two CPV9 cases, suggesting that the oncogenesis of CPV9 for malignant transformation might be different from that of human papillomaviruses. The roles of E2 and E8^E2 deleted CPV9 in the oncogenesis of benign and malignant lesions should be further investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Tumor Virology Research)
Open AccessArticle
Heat Inactivation of Different Types of SARS-CoV-2 Samples: What Protocols for Biosafety, Molecular Detection and Serological Diagnostics?
Viruses 2020, 12(7), 735; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12070735 - 07 Jul 2020
Viewed by 376
Abstract
Standard precautions to minimize the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission implies that infected cell cultures and clinical specimens may undergo some sort of inactivation to reduce or abolish infectivity. We evaluated three heat inactivation protocols (56 °C-30 min, 60 °C-60 min and 92 °C-15 [...] Read more.
Standard precautions to minimize the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission implies that infected cell cultures and clinical specimens may undergo some sort of inactivation to reduce or abolish infectivity. We evaluated three heat inactivation protocols (56 °C-30 min, 60 °C-60 min and 92 °C-15 min) on SARS-CoV-2 using (i) infected cell culture supernatant, (ii) virus-spiked human sera (iii) and nasopharyngeal samples according to the recommendations of the European norm NF EN 14476-A2. Regardless of the protocol and the type of samples, a 4 Log10 TCID50 reduction was observed. However, samples containing viral loads > 6 Log10 TCID50 were still infectious after 56 °C-30 min and 60 °C-60 min, although infectivity was < 10 TCID50. The protocols 56 °C-30 min and 60 °C-60 min had little influence on the RNA copies detection, whereas 92 °C-15 min drastically reduced the limit of detection, which suggests that this protocol should be avoided for inactivation ahead of molecular diagnostics. Lastly, 56 °C-30 min treatment of serum specimens had a negligible influence on the results of IgG detection using a commercial ELISA test, whereas a drastic decrease in neutralizing titers was observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenesis of Human and Animal Coronaviruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Hsv-1 Endocytic Entry into a Human Oligodendrocytic Cell Line Is Mediated by Clathrin and Dynamin but Not Caveolin
Viruses 2020, 12(7), 734; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12070734 - 07 Jul 2020
Viewed by 214
Abstract
Endocytosis is a pathway used by viruses to enter cells that can be classified based on the proteins involved, such as dynamin, clathrin or caveolin. Although the entry of herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) by endocytosis has been documented in different cell types, [...] Read more.
Endocytosis is a pathway used by viruses to enter cells that can be classified based on the proteins involved, such as dynamin, clathrin or caveolin. Although the entry of herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) by endocytosis has been documented in different cell types, its dependence on clathrin has not been described whereas its dependence on dynamin has been shown according to the cell line used. The present work shows how clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is one way that HSV-1 infects the human oligodendroglial (HOG) cell line. Partial dynamin inhibition using dynasore revealed a relationship between decrease of infection and dynamin inhibition, measured by viral titration and immunoblot. Co-localization between dynamin and HSV-1 was verified by immunofluorescence at the moment of viral entry into the cell. Inhibition by chlorpromazine revealed that viral progeny also decreased when clathrin was partially inhibited in our cell line. RT-qPCR of immediately early viral genes, specific entry assays and electron microscopy all confirmed clathrin’s participation in HSV-1 entry into HOG cells. In contrast, caveolin entry assays showed no effect on the entry of this virus. Therefore, our results suggest the participation of dynamin and clathrin during endocytosis of HSV-1 in HOG cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Open AccessReview
Of Keeping and Tipping the Balance: Host Regulation and Viral Modulation of IRF3-Dependent IFNB1 Expression
Viruses 2020, 12(7), 733; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12070733 - 07 Jul 2020
Viewed by 307
Abstract
The type I interferon (IFN) response is a principal component of our immune system that allows to counter a viral attack immediately upon viral entry into host cells. Upon engagement of aberrantly localised nucleic acids, germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors convey their find via [...] Read more.
The type I interferon (IFN) response is a principal component of our immune system that allows to counter a viral attack immediately upon viral entry into host cells. Upon engagement of aberrantly localised nucleic acids, germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors convey their find via a signalling cascade to prompt kinase-mediated activation of a specific set of five transcription factors. Within the nucleus, the coordinated interaction of these dimeric transcription factors with coactivators and the basal RNA transcription machinery is required to access the gene encoding the type I IFN IFNβ (IFNB1). Virus-induced release of IFNβ then induces the antiviral state of the system and mediates further mechanisms for defence. Due to its key role during the induction of the initial IFN response, the activity of the transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) is tightly regulated by the host and fiercely targeted by viral proteins at all conceivable levels. In this review, we will revisit the steps enabling the trans-activating potential of IRF3 after its activation and the subsequent assembly of the multi-protein complex at the IFNβ enhancer that controls gene expression. Further, we will inspect the regulatory mechanisms of these steps imposed by the host cell and present the manifold strategies viruses have evolved to intervene with IFNβ transcription downstream of IRF3 activation in order to secure establishment of a productive infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innate Immune Sensing of Viruses and Viral Evasion)
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Open AccessArticle
Phylogenetic and Timescale Analysis of Barmah Forest Virus as Inferred from Genome Sequence Analysis
Viruses 2020, 12(7), 732; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12070732 - 06 Jul 2020
Viewed by 245
Abstract
Barmah Forest virus (BFV) is a medically important mosquito-borne alphavirus endemic to Australia. Symptomatic disease can be a major cause of morbidity, associated with fever, rash, and debilitating arthralgia. BFV disease is similar to that caused by Ross River virus (RRV), the other [...] Read more.
Barmah Forest virus (BFV) is a medically important mosquito-borne alphavirus endemic to Australia. Symptomatic disease can be a major cause of morbidity, associated with fever, rash, and debilitating arthralgia. BFV disease is similar to that caused by Ross River virus (RRV), the other major Australian alphavirus. Currently, just four BFV whole-genome sequences are available with no genome-scale phylogeny in existence to robustly characterise genetic diversity. Thirty novel genome sequences were derived for this study, for a final 34-taxon dataset sampled over a 44 year period. Three distinct BFV genotypes were characterised (G1–3) that have circulated in Australia and Papua New Guinea (PNG). Evidence of spatio-temporal co-circulation of G2 and G3 within regions of Australia was noted, including in the South West region of Western Australia (WA) during the first reported disease outbreaks in the state’s history. Compared with RRV, the BFV population appeared more stable with less frequent emergence of novel lineages. Preliminary in vitro assessment of RRV and BFV replication kinetics found that RRV replicates at a significantly faster rate and to a higher, more persistent titre compared with BFV, perhaps indicating mosquitoes may be infectious with RRV for longer than with BFV. This investigation resolved a greater diversity of BFV, and a greater understanding of the evolutionary dynamics and history was attained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Molecular Epidemiology)
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Open AccessArticle
In Silico Prediction of Human Leukocytes Antigen (HLA) Class II Binding Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Peptides in Botswana
Viruses 2020, 12(7), 731; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12070731 - 06 Jul 2020
Viewed by 337
Abstract
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the primary cause of liver-related malignancies worldwide, and there is no effective cure for chronic HBV infection (CHB) currently. Strong immunological responses induced by T cells are associated with HBV clearance during acute infection; however, the repertoire of [...] Read more.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the primary cause of liver-related malignancies worldwide, and there is no effective cure for chronic HBV infection (CHB) currently. Strong immunological responses induced by T cells are associated with HBV clearance during acute infection; however, the repertoire of epitopes (epi) presented by major histocompatibility complexes (MHCs) to elicit these responses in various African populations is not well understood. In silico approaches were used to map and investigate 15-mers HBV peptides restricted to 9 HLA class II alleles with high population coverage in Botswana. Sequences from 44 HBV genotype A and 48 genotype D surface genes (PreS/S) from Botswana were used. Of the 1819 epi bindings predicted, 20.2% were strong binders (SB), and none of the putative epi bind to all the 9 alleles suggesting that multi-epitope, genotype-based, population-based vaccines will be more effective against HBV infections as opposed to previously proposed broad potency epitope-vaccines which were assumed to work for all alleles. In total, there were 297 unique epi predicted from the 3 proteins and amongst, S regions had the highest number of epi (n = 186). Epitope-densities (Depi) between genotypes A and D were similar. A number of mutations that hindered HLA-peptide binding were observed. We also identified antigenic and genotype-specific peptides with characteristics that are well suited for the development of sensitive diagnostic kits. This study identified candidate peptides that can be used for developing multi-epitope vaccines and highly sensitive diagnostic kits against HBV infection in an African population. Our results suggest that viral variability may hinder HBV peptide-MHC binding, required to initiate a cascade of immunological responses against infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hepatitis B Virus: From Diagnostics to Treatments)
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Open AccessArticle
Beyond Cholera: Characterization of zot-Encoding Filamentous Phages in the Marine Fish Pathogen Vibrio anguillarum
Viruses 2020, 12(7), 730; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12070730 - 06 Jul 2020
Viewed by 306
Abstract
Zonula occludens toxin (Zot) is a conserved protein in filamentous vibriophages and has been reported as a putative toxin in Vibrio cholerae. Recently, widespread distribution of zot-encoding prophages was found among marine Vibrio species, including environmental isolates. However, little is known [...] Read more.
Zonula occludens toxin (Zot) is a conserved protein in filamentous vibriophages and has been reported as a putative toxin in Vibrio cholerae. Recently, widespread distribution of zot-encoding prophages was found among marine Vibrio species, including environmental isolates. However, little is known about the dynamics of these prophages beyond V. cholerae. In this study, we characterized and quantified the zot-encoding filamentous phage VAIϕ, spontaneously induced from the fish pathogen V. anguillarum. VAIϕ contained 6117 bp encoding 11 ORFs, including ORF8pVAI, exhibiting 27%–73% amino acid identity to Inovirus Zot-like proteins. A qPCR method revealed an average of four VAIϕ genomes per host genome during host exponential growth phase, and PCR demonstrated dissemination of induced VAIϕ to other V. anguillarum strains through re-integration in non-lysogens. VAIϕ integrated into both chromosomes of V. anguillarum by recombination, causing changes in a putative ORF in the phage genome. Phylogenetic analysis of the V. anguillarum Inoviridae elements revealed mosaic genome structures related to mainly V. cholerae. Altogether, this study contributes to the understanding of Inovirus infection dynamics and mobilization of zot-like genes beyond human pathogenic vibrios, and discusses their potential role in the evolution of the fish pathogen V. anguillarum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses of Aquatic Ecosystems)
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Open AccessArticle
Targeting HIV-1 RNase H: N’-(2-Hydroxy-benzylidene)-3,4,5-Trihydroxybenzoylhydrazone as Selective Inhibitor Active against NNRTIs-Resistant Variants
Viruses 2020, 12(7), 729; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12070729 - 06 Jul 2020
Viewed by 229
Abstract
HIV-1 infection requires life-long treatment and with 2.1 million new infections/year, faces the challenge of an increased rate of transmitted drug-resistant mutations. Therefore, a constant and timely effort is needed to identify new HIV-1 inhibitors active against drug-resistant variants. The ribonuclease H (RNase [...] Read more.
HIV-1 infection requires life-long treatment and with 2.1 million new infections/year, faces the challenge of an increased rate of transmitted drug-resistant mutations. Therefore, a constant and timely effort is needed to identify new HIV-1 inhibitors active against drug-resistant variants. The ribonuclease H (RNase H) activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) is a very promising target, but to date, still lacks an efficient inhibitor. Here, we characterize the mode of action of N’-(2-hydroxy-benzylidene)-3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoylhydrazone (compound 13), an N-acylhydrazone derivative that inhibited viral replication (EC50 = 10 µM), while retaining full potency against the NNRTI-resistant double mutant K103N-Y181C virus. Time-of-addition and biochemical assays showed that compound 13 targeted the reverse-transcription step in cell-based assays and inhibited the RT-associated RNase H function, being >20-fold less potent against the RT polymerase activity. Docking calculations revealed that compound 13 binds within the RNase H domain in a position different from other selective RNase H inhibitors; site-directed mutagenesis studies revealed interactions with conserved amino acid within the RNase H domain, suggesting that compound 13 can be taken as starting point to generate a new series of more potent RNase H selective inhibitors active against circulating drug-resistant variants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antiretroviral Drug Development and HIV Cure Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Histone Deacetylase 6 Knockout Mice Exhibit Higher Susceptibility to Influenza A Virus Infection
Viruses 2020, 12(7), 728; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12070728 - 06 Jul 2020
Viewed by 229
Abstract
The host innate defence against influenza virus infection is an intricate system with a plethora of antiviral factors involved. We have identified host histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) as an anti-influenza virus factor in cultured cells. Consistent with this, we report herein that HDAC6 [...] Read more.
The host innate defence against influenza virus infection is an intricate system with a plethora of antiviral factors involved. We have identified host histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) as an anti-influenza virus factor in cultured cells. Consistent with this, we report herein that HDAC6 knockout (KO) mice are more susceptible to influenza virus A/PR/8/1934 (H1N1) infection than their wild type (WT) counterparts. The KO mice lost weight faster than the WT mice and, unlike WT mice, could not recover their original body weight. Consequently, more KO mice succumbed to infection, which corresponded with higher lung viral loads. Conversely, the expression of the critical innate antiviral response genes interferon alpha/beta, CD80, CXCL10 and IL15 was significantly downregulated in KO mouse lungs compared to WT mouse lungs. These data are consistent with the known function of HDAC6 of de-acetylating the retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I) and activating the host innate antiviral response cascade. Loss of HDAC6 thus leads to a blunted innate response and increased susceptibility of mice to influenza A virus infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Open AccessReview
Multifaceted Functions of CH25H and 25HC to Modulate the Lipid Metabolism, Immune Responses, and Broadly Antiviral Activities
Viruses 2020, 12(7), 727; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12070727 - 06 Jul 2020
Viewed by 222
Abstract
With the frequent outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases in recent years, an effective broad-spectrum antiviral drug is becoming an urgent need for global public health. Cholesterol-25-hydroxylase (CH25H) and its enzymatic products 25-hydroxycholesterol (25HC), a well-known oxysterol that regulates lipid metabolism, have been reported [...] Read more.
With the frequent outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases in recent years, an effective broad-spectrum antiviral drug is becoming an urgent need for global public health. Cholesterol-25-hydroxylase (CH25H) and its enzymatic products 25-hydroxycholesterol (25HC), a well-known oxysterol that regulates lipid metabolism, have been reported to play multiple functions in modulating cholesterol homeostasis, inflammation, and immune responses. CH25H and 25HC were recently identified as exerting broadly antiviral activities, including upon a variety of highly pathogenic viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Ebola virus (EBOV), Nipah virus (NiV), Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), and Zika virus (ZIKV). The underlying mechanisms for its antiviral activities are being extensively investigated but have not yet been fully clarified. In this study, we summarized the current findings on how CH25H and 25HC play multiple roles to modulate cholesterol metabolism, inflammation, immunity, and antiviral infections. Overall, 25HC should be further studied as a potential therapeutic agent to control emerging infectious diseases in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Antivirals & Vaccines)
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Open AccessReview
Human Endogenous Retrovirus K in Cancer: A Potential Biomarker and Immunotherapeutic Target
Viruses 2020, 12(7), 726; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12070726 - 06 Jul 2020
Viewed by 335
Abstract
In diseases where epigenetic mechanisms are changed, such as cancer, many genes show altered gene expression and inhibited genes become activated. Human endogenous retrovirus type K (HERV-K) expression is usually inhibited in normal cells from healthy adults. In tumor cells, however, HERV-K mRNA [...] Read more.
In diseases where epigenetic mechanisms are changed, such as cancer, many genes show altered gene expression and inhibited genes become activated. Human endogenous retrovirus type K (HERV-K) expression is usually inhibited in normal cells from healthy adults. In tumor cells, however, HERV-K mRNA expression has been frequently documented to increase. Importantly, HERV-K-derived proteins can act as tumor-specific antigens, a class of neoantigens, and induce immune responses in different types of cancer. In this review, we describe the function of the HERV-K HML-2 subtype in carcinogenesis as biomarkers, and their potential as targets for cancer immunotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endogenous Retroviruses in Development and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
A Cut above the Rest: Characterization of the Assembly of a Large Viral Icosahedral Capsid
Viruses 2020, 12(7), 725; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12070725 - 05 Jul 2020
Viewed by 346
Abstract
The head of Salmonella virus SPN3US is composed of ~50 different proteins and is unusual because within its packaged genome there is a mass (>40 MDa) of ejection or E proteins that enter the Salmonella cell. The assembly mechanisms of this complex structure [...] Read more.
The head of Salmonella virus SPN3US is composed of ~50 different proteins and is unusual because within its packaged genome there is a mass (>40 MDa) of ejection or E proteins that enter the Salmonella cell. The assembly mechanisms of this complex structure are poorly understood. Previous studies showed that eight proteins in the mature SPN3US head had been cleaved by the prohead protease. In this study, we present the characterization of SPN3US prohead protease mutants using transmission electron microscopy and mass spectrometry. In the absence of the prohead protease, SPN3US head formation was severely impeded and proheads accumulated on the Salmonella inner membrane. This impediment is indicative of proteolysis being necessary for the release and subsequent DNA packaging of proheads in the wild-type phage. Proteomic analyses of gp245- proheads that the normal proteolytic processing of head proteins had not occurred. Assays of a recombinant, truncated form of the protease found it was active, leading us to hypothesize that the C-terminal propeptide has a role in targeting the protease into the prohead core. Our findings provide new evidence regarding the essential role of proteolysis for correct head assembly in this remarkable parasite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Giant or Jumbo Phages)
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Open AccessArticle
STAT2 Limits Host Species Specificity of Human Metapneumovirus
Viruses 2020, 12(7), 724; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12070724 - 04 Jul 2020
Viewed by 255
Abstract
The host tropism of viral infection is determined by a variety of factors, from cell surface receptors to innate immune signaling. Many viruses encode proteins that interfere with host innate immune recognition in order to promote infection. STAT2 is divergent between species and [...] Read more.
The host tropism of viral infection is determined by a variety of factors, from cell surface receptors to innate immune signaling. Many viruses encode proteins that interfere with host innate immune recognition in order to promote infection. STAT2 is divergent between species and therefore has a role in species restriction of some viruses. To understand the role of STAT2 in human metapneumovirus (HMPV) infection of human and murine tissues, we first infected STAT2−/− mice and found that HMPV could be serially passaged in STAT2−/−, but not WT, mice. We then used in vitro methods to show that HMPV inhibits expression of both STAT1 and STAT2 in human and primate cells, but not in mouse cells. Transfection of the murine form of STAT2 into STAT2-deficient human cells conferred resistance to STAT2 inhibition. Finally, we sought to understand the in vivo role of STAT2 by infecting hSTAT2 knock-in mice with HMPV, and found that mice had increased weight loss, inhibition of type I interferon signaling, and a Th2-polarized cytokine profile compared to WT mice. These results indicate that STAT2 is a target of HMPV in human infection, while the murine version of STAT2 restricts tropism of HMPV for murine cells and tissue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From RSV to hMPV: Role of Innate Immunity in Pathogenesis)
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Open AccessBrief Report
Catching Common Cold Virus with a Net: Pyridostatin Forms Filaments in Tris Buffer That Trap Viruses—A Novel Antiviral Strategy?
Viruses 2020, 12(7), 723; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12070723 - 04 Jul 2020
Viewed by 340
Abstract
The neutrophil extracellular trap (ET) is a eukaryotic host defense machinery that operates by capturing and concentrating pathogens in a filamentous network manufactured by neutrophils and made of DNA, histones, and many other components. Respiratory virus-induced ETs are involved in tissue damage and [...] Read more.
The neutrophil extracellular trap (ET) is a eukaryotic host defense machinery that operates by capturing and concentrating pathogens in a filamentous network manufactured by neutrophils and made of DNA, histones, and many other components. Respiratory virus-induced ETs are involved in tissue damage and impairment of the alveolar–capillary barrier, but they also aid in fending off infection. We found that the small organic compound pyridostatin (PDS) forms somewhat similar fibrillary structures in Tris buffer in a concentration-dependent manner. Common cold viruses promote this process and become entrapped in the network, decreasing their infectivity by about 70% in tissue culture. We propose studying this novel mechanism of virus inhibition for its utility in preventing viral infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Antivirals & Vaccines)
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