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Review

The Regulation of Flavivirus Infection by Hijacking Exosome-Mediated Cell–Cell Communication: New Insights on Virus–Host Interactions

1
Department of Infectomics and Molecular Pathogenesis, Center for Research and Advanced Studies (CINVESTAV-IPN), Mexico City 07320, Mexico
2
División de Medicina Genómica, CMN 20 de Noviembre-ISSSTE, Mexico City 03229, Mexico
3
Maestría en Ciencias en Biomedicina Molecular, Escuela Nacional de Medicina y Homeopatía, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Mexico City 07320, Mexico
4
Doctorado en Ciencias en Biotecnología, Escuela Nacional de Medicina y Homeopatía, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Mexico City 07320, Mexico
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2020, 12(7), 765; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12070765
Received: 17 April 2020 / Revised: 30 May 2020 / Accepted: 17 June 2020 / Published: 16 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses and Extracellular Vesicles)
The arthropod-borne flaviviruses are important human pathogens, and a deeper understanding of the virus–host cell interaction is required to identify cellular targets that can be used as therapeutic candidates. It is well reported that the flaviviruses hijack several cellular functions, such as exosome-mediated cell communication during infection, which is modulated by the delivery of the exosomal cargo of pro- or antiviral molecules to the receiving host cells. Therefore, to study the role of exosomes during flavivirus infections is essential, not only to understand its relevance in virus–host interaction, but also to identify molecular factors that may contribute to the development of new strategies to block these viral infections. This review explores the implications of exosomes in flavivirus dissemination and transmission from the vector to human host cells, as well as their involvement in the host immune response. The hypothesis about exosomes as a transplacental infection route of ZIKV and the paradox effect or the dual role of exosomes released during flavivirus infection are also discussed here. Although several studies have been performed in order to identify and characterize cellular and viral molecules released in exosomes, it is not clear how all of these components participate in viral pathogenesis. Further studies will determine the balance between protective and harmful exosomes secreted by flavivirus infected cells, the characteristics and components that distinguish them both, and how they could be a factor that determines the infection outcome. View Full-Text
Keywords: flavivirus; ZIKV; DENV; WNV; TBEV; exosomes; extracellular vesicles flavivirus; ZIKV; DENV; WNV; TBEV; exosomes; extracellular vesicles
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MDPI and ACS Style

Reyes-Ruiz, J.M.; Osuna-Ramos, J.F.; De Jesús-González, L.A.; Palacios-Rápalo, S.N.; Cordero-Rivera, C.D.; Farfan-Morales, C.N.; Hurtado-Monzón, A.M.; Gallardo-Flores, C.E.; Alcaraz-Estrada, S.L.; Salas-Benito, J.S.; del Ángel, R.M. The Regulation of Flavivirus Infection by Hijacking Exosome-Mediated Cell–Cell Communication: New Insights on Virus–Host Interactions. Viruses 2020, 12, 765. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12070765

AMA Style

Reyes-Ruiz JM, Osuna-Ramos JF, De Jesús-González LA, Palacios-Rápalo SN, Cordero-Rivera CD, Farfan-Morales CN, Hurtado-Monzón AM, Gallardo-Flores CE, Alcaraz-Estrada SL, Salas-Benito JS, del Ángel RM. The Regulation of Flavivirus Infection by Hijacking Exosome-Mediated Cell–Cell Communication: New Insights on Virus–Host Interactions. Viruses. 2020; 12(7):765. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12070765

Chicago/Turabian Style

Reyes-Ruiz, José M., Juan F. Osuna-Ramos, Luis A. De Jesús-González, Selvin N. Palacios-Rápalo, Carlos D. Cordero-Rivera, Carlos N. Farfan-Morales, Arianna M. Hurtado-Monzón, Carla E. Gallardo-Flores, Sofía L. Alcaraz-Estrada, Juan S. Salas-Benito, and Rosa M. del Ángel 2020. "The Regulation of Flavivirus Infection by Hijacking Exosome-Mediated Cell–Cell Communication: New Insights on Virus–Host Interactions" Viruses 12, no. 7: 765. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12070765

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