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Open AccessArticle

Cocirculation of Swine H1N1 Influenza A Virus Lineages in Germany

Section of Experimental Virology, Institute for Medical Microbiology, Jena University Hospital, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, D-07745 Jena, Germany
CF DNA Sequencing, Leibniz Institute on Aging, Fritz Lipmann Institute, D-07745 Jena, Germany
Institute of Infection Medicine, Kiel University and University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, D-24105 Kiel, Germany
Paul-Ehrlich-Institut, D-63225 Langen, Germany
Thermo Fisher Scientific GENEART GmbH, D-93059 Regensburg, Germany
Robert Koch Institute, D-13353 Berlin, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2020, 12(7), 762;
Received: 2 June 2020 / Revised: 10 July 2020 / Accepted: 14 July 2020 / Published: 15 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses)
The genome analysis of 328 H1N1 swine influenza virus isolates collected in a 13-year long-term swine influenza surveillance in Germany is reported. Viral genomes were sequenced with the Illumina next-generation sequencing technique and conventional Sanger methods. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted with Bayesian tree inference. The results indicate continued prevalence of Eurasian avian swine H1N1 but also emergence of a novel H1N1 reassortant, named Schneiderkrug/2013-like swine H1N1, with human-like hemagglutinin and avian-like neuraminidase and internal genes. Additionally, the evolution of an antigenic drift variant of A (H1N1) pdm09 was observed, named Wachtum/2014-like swine H1N1. Both variants were first isolated in northwest Germany, spread to neighboring German states and reached greater proportions of the H1N1 isolates of 2014 and 2015. The upsurge of Wachtum/2014-like swine H1N1 is of interest as this is the first documented persistent swine-to-swine spread of A (H1N1) pdm09 in Germany associated with antigenic variation. Present enzootic swine influenza viruses in Germany now include two or more co-circulating, antigenically variant viruses of each of the subtypes, H1N1 and H1N2. View Full-Text
Keywords: swine influenza virus; reassortment; H1N1; antigenic drift; phylogenetic analysis; Germany swine influenza virus; reassortment; H1N1; antigenic drift; phylogenetic analysis; Germany
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zell, R.; Groth, M.; Krumbholz, A.; Lange, J.; Philipps, A.; Dürrwald, R. Cocirculation of Swine H1N1 Influenza A Virus Lineages in Germany. Viruses 2020, 12, 762.

AMA Style

Zell R, Groth M, Krumbholz A, Lange J, Philipps A, Dürrwald R. Cocirculation of Swine H1N1 Influenza A Virus Lineages in Germany. Viruses. 2020; 12(7):762.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zell, Roland; Groth, Marco; Krumbholz, Andi; Lange, Jeannette; Philipps, Anja; Dürrwald, Ralf. 2020. "Cocirculation of Swine H1N1 Influenza A Virus Lineages in Germany" Viruses 12, no. 7: 762.

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