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Open AccessArticle

Temperature Sensitivity: A Potential Method for the Generation of Vaccines against the Avian Coronavirus Infectious Bronchitis Virus

1
The Pirbright Institute, Pirbright, Surrey GU24 0NF, UK
2
Division of Infection and Immunity, The Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick), School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Midlothian EH25 9RG, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2020, 12(7), 754; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12070754
Received: 26 June 2020 / Revised: 9 July 2020 / Accepted: 13 July 2020 / Published: 14 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenesis of Human and Animal Coronaviruses)
The Gammacoronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a highly contagious economically important respiratory pathogen of domestic fowl. Reverse genetics allows for the molecular study of pathogenic determinants to enable rational vaccine design. The recombinant IBV (rIBV) Beau-R, a molecular clone of the apathogenic Beaudette strain, has previously been investigated as a vaccine platform. To determine tissues in which Beau-R could effectively deliver antigenic genes, an in vivo study in chickens, the natural host, was used to compare the pattern of viral dissemination of Beau-R to the pathogenic strain M41-CK. Replication of Beau-R was found to be restricted to soft tissue within the beak, whereas M41-CK was detected in beak tissue, trachea and eyelid up to seven days post infection. In vitro assays further identified that, unlike M41-CK, Beau-R could not replicate at 41 °C, the core body temperature of a chicken, but is able to replicate a 37 °C, a temperature relatable to the very upper respiratory tract. Using a panel of rIBVs with defined mutations in the structural and accessory genes, viral replication at permissive and non-permissive temperatures was investigated, identifying that the Beau-R replicase gene was a determinant of temperature sensitivity and that sub-genomic mRNA synthesis had been affected. The identification of temperature sensitive allelic lesions within the Beau-R replicase gene opens up the possibility of using this method of attenuation in other IBV strains for future vaccine development as well as a method to investigate the functions of the IBV replicase proteins. View Full-Text
Keywords: coronavirus; IBV; temperature sensitivity; replicase; RNA synthesis coronavirus; IBV; temperature sensitivity; replicase; RNA synthesis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Keep, S.; Stevenson-Leggett, P.; Steyn, A.; Oade, M.S.; Webb, I.; Stuart, J.; Vervelde, L.; Britton, P.; Maier, H.J.; Bickerton, E. Temperature Sensitivity: A Potential Method for the Generation of Vaccines against the Avian Coronavirus Infectious Bronchitis Virus. Viruses 2020, 12, 754. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12070754

AMA Style

Keep S, Stevenson-Leggett P, Steyn A, Oade MS, Webb I, Stuart J, Vervelde L, Britton P, Maier HJ, Bickerton E. Temperature Sensitivity: A Potential Method for the Generation of Vaccines against the Avian Coronavirus Infectious Bronchitis Virus. Viruses. 2020; 12(7):754. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12070754

Chicago/Turabian Style

Keep, Sarah; Stevenson-Leggett, Phoebe; Steyn, Angela; Oade, Michael S.; Webb, Isobel; Stuart, Jamie; Vervelde, Lonneke; Britton, Paul; Maier, Helena J.; Bickerton, Erica. 2020. "Temperature Sensitivity: A Potential Method for the Generation of Vaccines against the Avian Coronavirus Infectious Bronchitis Virus" Viruses 12, no. 7: 754. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12070754

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