Next Issue
Volume 13, April
Previous Issue
Volume 13, February
 
 

Forests, Volume 13, Issue 3 (March 2022) – 128 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Proactive silviculture treatments (e.g., thinning) may increase C sequestration contributing to climate change mitigation, although, there are still questions about this effect in Mediterranean pine forests. The aim of this research was to quantify the storage of biomass and soil organic carbon in Pinus forests along a climatic gradient from North to South of the Iberian Peninsula. Nine experimental Pinus spp trials were selected along a latitudinal gradient from the pre-Pyrenees to southern Spain. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
13 pages, 2340 KiB  
Article
Genetic Diversity Maximization as a Strategy for Resilient Forest Ecosystems: A Case Study on Norway Spruce
by Radka Kelblerová, Jakub Dvořák and Jiří Korecký
Forests 2022, 13(3), 489; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13030489 - 21 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2394
Abstract
Norway spruce, economically and ecologically one of the most important European forest tree species, rapidly declines due to massive bark beetle outbreaks across many countries. As a prerequisite of ecosystem stability facing climate changes of uncertain predictions, the reforestation management promoting locally adapted [...] Read more.
Norway spruce, economically and ecologically one of the most important European forest tree species, rapidly declines due to massive bark beetle outbreaks across many countries. As a prerequisite of ecosystem stability facing climate changes of uncertain predictions, the reforestation management promoting locally adapted resources of broad genetic diversity should be prioritized, especially in nature conservation areas. In our case study carried out in the national park, Krkonoše Mountains (the Giant Mountains, the Czech Republic), we demonstrated a tree breeding strategy aiming at maximizing genetic diversity. More than four hundred unique Norway spruce accessions were genotyped on 15 microsatellite loci (Ne = 5.764, I = 1.713 and He = 0.685). Two core collection selection approaches were proposed to establish a new deployment population providing local gene sources of high genetic diversity. Namely, the Core Hunter selection algorithm, with average entry-to-nearest-entry distance (EN) optimization, was applied to identify the most diverse core collection set with the highest genetic diversity parameters obtained for 57 selected individuals (Ne = 6.507, I = 1.807, and He = 0.731). The latter core collection method proposed is innovative, based on choosing appropriate genotypes from a clustered heatmap. For simplicity, we demonstrated the principle of selection strategy on a reduced dataset. It is vital to promote panmixia of a newly established production population from a core collection to complete the conservation breeding effort. Thus, we demonstrated the utilization of the Optimum Neighborhood Algorithm (ONA) deployment that outperformed other deployment algorithms, especially in the case of balanced clone representation and uneven shapes of planting plots. We believe that the case study presented can be generalized and considered as a guideline for analogical tree breeding intentions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Importance of Genetic Diversity for Forest and Landscape Restoration)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 3445 KiB  
Article
Alterations in Population Distribution of Liriodendron chinense (Hemsl.) Sarg. and Liriodendron tulipifera Linn. Caused by Climate Change
by Yiwei Cao, Jiajie Feng, Delight Hwarari, Baseer Ahmad, Haozhengji Wu, Jinhui Chen and Liming Yang
Forests 2022, 13(3), 488; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13030488 - 21 Mar 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2503
Abstract
Climate change has a significant impact on species population size and distribution, global biodiversity, and ecological status. The Liriodendron genus contains two species: Liriodendron chinense and Liriodendron tulipifera, both playing important roles in timber, medicinal, and landscape purposes. However, little is known [...] Read more.
Climate change has a significant impact on species population size and distribution, global biodiversity, and ecological status. The Liriodendron genus contains two species: Liriodendron chinense and Liriodendron tulipifera, both playing important roles in timber, medicinal, and landscape purposes. However, little is known about their population distribution characteristics and important climatic factors shaping their suitability. In this research, we used the geological record data, 19 climate components, MaxEnt, and ArcGIS to recreate and analyze the potential population distribution and their alterations of Liriodendron within the world beneath the current and future scenarios of RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, and RCP 8.5 in 2050 and 2070. Our results showed that: Liriodendron is suitable to grow in subtropical monsoon climate areas, and that the climatic factor of precipitation of warmest quarter exerts the greatest impact on L. chinense, with a contribution rate of 57.6%. Additionally, we showed that the climatic factor of precipitation of the driest month exerts the greatest impact on L. tulipifera, with a contribution rate of 60.5%. Further analysis exhibited that low temperature and temperature fluctuations are major temperature factors affecting L. chinense and L. tulipifera, respectively. Therefore, we predicted that by the 2050s and 2070s, the areas of Liriodendron suitable habitats would increase first and then decrease in three scenarios; except the area of L. tulipifera suitable habitats under RCP8.5, which shows a slight increase. We then conclude that the Liriodendron suitable areas would shift to high latitudes due to global climate warming. The information gained from this study will provide a reference for developing forest cultivation, management, and conservation strategies for these two important tree species, and also a basis for subsequent biogeographic research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Ecology and Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 2775 KiB  
Article
Effect of Two Exogenous Organic Acids on the Excitation Effect of Soil Organic Carbon in Beijing, China
by Yongli Xiao, Yanni Yu, Yue Wang, Xuqin Wang, Yuanyuan Wang, Wei Dai and Yaning Luan
Forests 2022, 13(3), 487; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13030487 - 21 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2086
Abstract
Significance: The study of the effects and pathways of catechol and pyrogallic acid on soil organic carbon mineralization has a positive effect on mastering soil carbon transformation. Methods and objectives: In this study, we took 0–20 cm soil from Pinus tabulaeformis forest as [...] Read more.
Significance: The study of the effects and pathways of catechol and pyrogallic acid on soil organic carbon mineralization has a positive effect on mastering soil carbon transformation. Methods and objectives: In this study, we took 0–20 cm soil from Pinus tabulaeformis forest as an object to investigate the effects of catechol and pyrogallic acid with different concentrations on soil organic carbon mineralization through a 60-day mineralization incubation test. The soil active carbon content and changes in soil microbial diversity and community composition were analyzed by using single exponential fitting, quantitative PCR, and high-throughput sequencing to explore the influencing mechanisms of catechol and pyrogallic acid on soil organic carbon excitation. Results: Catechol and pyrogallic acid had the effect of enhancing the soil organic carbon mineralization and soil active carbon content, and the higher the concentration, the stronger the enhancement effect. Catechol reduced the Ace index, Chao1 index, and Shannon index of bacteria and fungi, and further changed the relative abundance of two dominant groups (Proteobacteria and Acidobacteriota) in bacteria and Basidiomycota in fungi at high concentrations. There was no obvious regularity in the effects of pyrogallic acid on bacteria and fungi, but the Ace index and Chao1 index of bacteria underwent drastic and disordered changes. Conclusions: Catechol and pyrogallic acid can trigger positive excitation of the soil organic carbon through two pathways: increasing the soil active carbon content and modulating soil microorganisms, but the way they modulate soil microorganisms are different. Catechol regulates soil microorganisms by reducing the number, richness, and evenness of the bacteria and fungi species, as well as the community composition, while the way pyrogallic acid regulates only closely relates to the changes in the number, richness, and evenness of bacteria species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Soil Carbon and Climate Changes)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 3347 KiB  
Article
Allometric Equations to Estimate Aboveground Biomass in Spotted Gum (Corymbia citriodora Subspecies variegata) Plantations in Queensland
by Trinh Huynh, Tom Lewis, Grahame Applegate, Anibal Nahuel A. Pachas and David J. Lee
Forests 2022, 13(3), 486; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13030486 - 21 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4468
Abstract
Accurate equations are critical for estimating biomass and carbon accumulation for forest carbon projects, bioenergy, and other inventories. Allometric equations can provide a reliable and accurate method for estimating and predicting biomass and carbon sequestration. Cross-validatory assessments are also essential to evaluate the [...] Read more.
Accurate equations are critical for estimating biomass and carbon accumulation for forest carbon projects, bioenergy, and other inventories. Allometric equations can provide a reliable and accurate method for estimating and predicting biomass and carbon sequestration. Cross-validatory assessments are also essential to evaluate the prediction ability of the selected model with satisfactory accuracy. We destructively sampled and weighed 52 sample trees, ranging from 11.8 to 42.0 cm in diameter at breast height from three plantations in Queensland to determine biomass. Weighted nonlinear models were used to explore the influence of different variables using two datasets: the first dataset (52 trees) included diameter at breast height (D), height (H) and wood density (ρ); and the second dataset (40 trees) also included crown diameter (CD) and crown volume (CV). Cross validation of independent data showed that using D alone proved to be the best performing model, with the lowest values of AIC = 434.4, bias = −2.2% and MAPE = 7.2%. Adding H and ρ improved the adjusted. R2 (Δ adj. R2 from 0.099 to 0.135) but did not improve AIC, bias and MAPE. Using the single variable of CV to estimate aboveground biomass (AGB) was better than CD, with smaller AIC and MAPE less than 2.3%. We demonstrated that the allometric equations developed and validated during this study provide reasonable estimates of Corymbia citriodora subspecies variegata (spotted gum) biomass. This equation could be used to estimate AGB and carbon in similar spotted gum plantations. In the context of global forest AGB estimations and monitoring, the CV variable could allow prediction of aboveground biomass using remote sensing datasets. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 2289 KiB  
Article
Within-Stem Differences in Moisture Content Loss during Transpiration and Air-Drying of Felled Oak Trees
by Arkadiusz Tomczak, Karol Tomczak, Tomasz Jelonek and Bartłomiej Naskrent
Forests 2022, 13(3), 485; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13030485 - 21 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1958
Abstract
This study evaluated within-stem differences in the moisture content of stored summer-harvested oak wood with respect to drying method. The felled oaks were naturally dried for eight weeks, from 4 July to 29 August 2017. We analyzed two methods of preparation and storage: [...] Read more.
This study evaluated within-stem differences in the moisture content of stored summer-harvested oak wood with respect to drying method. The felled oaks were naturally dried for eight weeks, from 4 July to 29 August 2017. We analyzed two methods of preparation and storage: a transpiration drying method (W), and an air-drying method for stem-wood (L). Transpiration drying is a better method for oak stems than air-drying. Statistically significant differences between drying methods were found after six weeks of storage. This coincided with complete wilting of the leaves. However, signs of wilting and leaf color change appeared earlier, between the second and fourth weeks of storage. In parallel, in scenario W, a statistically significant difference in MC of sapwood was observed between the second and fourth weeks of storage. Such a phenomenon was not observed in scenario L. The MC of heartwood also gradually decreased, especially in scenario W. Explanation of this phenomenon lay outside the scope of this study; however, it indicates how the structure and properties of wood, in addition to storage conditions and methods, influence the efficiency of biomass drying in the harvesting area. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 78296 KiB  
Article
GIS-AHP Approach in Forest Logging Planning to Apply Sustainable Forest Operations
by Francesco Latterini, Walter Stefanoni, Rachele Venanzi, Damiano Tocci and Rodolfo Picchio
Forests 2022, 13(3), 484; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13030484 - 21 Mar 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3339
Abstract
This study represents the first attempt of integration, within a Forest Management Plan (FMP), of a Geographic Information System (GIS) and an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) approach for the selection of the most suitable logging method. It is important to underline that the [...] Read more.
This study represents the first attempt of integration, within a Forest Management Plan (FMP), of a Geographic Information System (GIS) and an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) approach for the selection of the most suitable logging method. It is important to underline that the developed methodology is applicable worldwide in each environmental context in which there is a need for planning the intervention and selecting from among several possible logging methods or harvesting systems. Schematically, the main aims of this study were: (i) to develop a GIS-AHP method based on open-access GIS software; (ii) to compare the results of the simulations developed from the statements of two different groups of experts from around the world, to determine the reliability of the predictive probability of the method. The selection of the extraction methods performed with RTS (experts from research and technical sector) input data showed that the most suitable option in the major part of the study area was the cable skidder, followed by the cable yarder, and finally the forwarder. The extraction system selection performed with OS (people from the operative sector) input data revealed limited differences. Thus, considering what was reported above, it is possible to assert that the applied GIS-AHP methodology showed good performance and high consistency in the selection of the best alternatives among different extraction methods. The idea of comparing the results obtained from a survey based on a pool of researchers and forest engineers (RTS) was taken as a target simulation to be evaluated. The method based on data derived from a pool of expert forest operators (OS) was used to check for the results of the other simulation. This is an innovation in these kinds of studies. The results from the consistency check were encouraging, considering that for 51 sub-compartments, only two changed the selected extraction system between RTS and OS. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

25 pages, 4216 KiB  
Article
Effects of Soil Amelioration and Vegetation Introduction on the Restoration of Abandoned Coal Mine Spoils in South Korea
by Bong-Soon Lim, A-Reum Kim, Jaewon Seol, Woo-Seok Oh, Ji-Hong An, Chi-Hong Lim and Chang-Seok Lee
Forests 2022, 13(3), 483; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13030483 - 20 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2806
Abstract
In order to ecologically restore coal mine spoils, tolerant species were selected through vegetation surveys on the abandoned coal mine spoils and natural forests established on the poor environment similarly to there. In addition, tolerant species were selected through cultivation experiments in the [...] Read more.
In order to ecologically restore coal mine spoils, tolerant species were selected through vegetation surveys on the abandoned coal mine spoils and natural forests established on the poor environment similarly to there. In addition, tolerant species were selected through cultivation experiments in the laboratory. Many C4 plants were included among the tolerant species selected through cultivation experiments. Soil was ameliorated by applying commercial organic fertilizer that can improve both physical and chemical properties of soil at the same time. Vegetation introduced for restoration was prepared by combining plant species tolerant to the degraded environment of coal mine spoils and the reference information. The treatment with a soil ameliorator improved the chemical properties of soil, such as the pH and nutrient contents, and promoted the growth of sample plants significantly. However, additional improvements were required compared with the chemical properties of healthy forest soil. The sites restored by ameliorating soil and introducing tolerant species showed a more similar species composition to the reference sites compared with the afforested and non-restored sites in both lowland and upland areas. However, such restoration did not play a significant role in increasing species diversity or excluding exotic plants. In this respect, more active restoration is recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Restoration and Secondary Succession)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 2311 KiB  
Article
Understanding the Limiting Climatic Factors on the Suitable Habitat of Chinese Alfalfa
by Yanru Zhang, Guan Liu, Qi Lu, Dongyang Xiong, Guoqing Li and Sheng Du
Forests 2022, 13(3), 482; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13030482 - 20 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2162
Abstract
Chinese alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is one of the most widely planted species in China. It has considerable economic potential and plays an important role in soil and water conservation. In order to conduct scientific cultivation of Chinese alfalfa, we collected 100 [...] Read more.
Chinese alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is one of the most widely planted species in China. It has considerable economic potential and plays an important role in soil and water conservation. In order to conduct scientific cultivation of Chinese alfalfa, we collected 100 occurrence records from herbarium and publications and 19 climatic variables from BIOCLIM to simulate potential suitable habitat and identified the key climatic factors of Chinese alfalfa by MaxEnt and GIS software. The result shows that the MaxEnt model performed well, with an average test AUC value of 0.86 with 10-fold cross validation. The potential distribution of Chinese alfalfa is mainly in arid and semi-arid areas of north and northwest China, about 15.2% (1.46 million km2) of China’s total land area, and the highly suitable area is Loess Hilly region and Xinjiang. The main climatic factors affecting the distribution of this species is hydrological-related factors (PDM, PS, AP, PDQ and PCQ), which explained 58.6% of the variation, and the climatic factors limiting the southern, northern, northwestern and Tibetan plateau boundaries were PDM, AMT, AP and MTCM, respectively. The climatic thresholds of the core area of Chinese alfalfa are 0.0–14.0 mm of PDM, 23.8–108.2% of PS, 3.9–15.5 °C of AMT, 14.0–664.0 mm of AP, 1.0–47.0 mm of PDQ, 2.0–51.0 mm of PCQ. The results improve our understanding of limiting climatic factors for Chinese alfalfa and suggest a priority management measures for areas with corresponding limiting climatic factor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Ecology and Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1500 KiB  
Article
Integrating Tree Species Identity and Diversity in Particulate Matter Adsorption
by Matthias Steinparzer, Daniela Haluza and Douglas L. Godbold
Forests 2022, 13(3), 481; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13030481 - 19 Mar 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2232
Abstract
The amount of PM bound by tree canopies depends on leaf traits, but also the leaf area available, both of which are dependent on tree identity. We investigated four species (Acer platanoides L., Tilia cordata Mill., Quercus robur L., [...] Read more.
The amount of PM bound by tree canopies depends on leaf traits, but also the leaf area available, both of which are dependent on tree identity. We investigated four species (Acer platanoides L., Tilia cordata Mill., Quercus robur L., Carpinus betulus L.) grown in monocultures and in two and four species polycultures. The amount of PM on the leaves of these species was determined by washing and fractionation of the PM into PM2.5, PM10 and PM100 size classes using a filtering method. The leaf area index was estimated by litter collection. The amount of PM2.5 per m2 leaf area was significantly higher in T. cordata compared to Q. robur and A. platanoides, and in C. betulus compared to A. platanoides. The leaf area index in monocultures was similar for all species except T. cordata which was considerably lower. Overyielding of LAI was shown in the two species polyculture of T. cordata and A. platanoides, and also in the four species polyculture. In polyculture, higher amounts of PM were determined in the two species polyculture of Q. robur and C. betulus and also in the four species polyculture. The result show that both tree identity and mixture influence the amount of PM in the canopy, and this is related to tree leaf traits, and also to overyielding of LAI in the polyculture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Ecology and Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 4513 KiB  
Article
Improved Prediction of Forest Fire Risk in Central and Northern China by a Time-Decaying Precipitation Model
by Jiajun Chen, Xiaoqing Wang, Ying Yu, Xinzhe Yuan, Xiangyin Quan and Haifeng Huang
Forests 2022, 13(3), 480; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13030480 - 19 Mar 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2235
Abstract
With the increase in extreme climate events, forest fires burn in much larger areas. Therefore, it is important to accurately predict forest fire frequencies. Precipitation is an important factor that affects the probability of future forest fires. Previous models used average precipitation values, [...] Read more.
With the increase in extreme climate events, forest fires burn in much larger areas. Therefore, it is important to accurately predict forest fire frequencies. Precipitation is an important factor that affects the probability of future forest fires. Previous models used average precipitation values, but the attenuation of precipitation was not considered. In this study, a time-decaying precipitation algorithm was used to calculate the comprehensive precipitation index. This method can better represent the effect of precipitation in predicting the occurrence of forest fires. Moreover, observed fire spots were converted into a continuous density of fire spots. The structure of the prediction model is more realistic, which is conducive to obtaining higher-precision prediction results. Additionally, the support vector machine (SVM) regression model was used to construct a forest fire warning model. When the comprehensive precipitation index was compared with the average precipitation value, the accuracy of the four forest areas in central and northern China in the test set was improved by approximately 10%. The findings are relevant to forest ecologists and managers for future mitigation of forest fires, and also for successful prediction of other fire-prone areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Hazards and Risk Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

27 pages, 6527 KiB  
Article
New Detection Method for Fungal Infection in Silver Fir Seeds
by Piotr Borowik, Marcin Stocki, Maria Fasano, Aleh Marozau, Tadeusz Malewski, Tomasz Oszako, Tom Hsiang, Miłosz Tkaczyk and Rafał Tarakowski
Forests 2022, 13(3), 479; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13030479 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2493
Abstract
Silver fir trees have cycles of low and high seed production, and thus it is necessary to collect seeds in high production years to save them for low production years to ensure the continuity of nursery production. Tree seeds can be stored loosely [...] Read more.
Silver fir trees have cycles of low and high seed production, and thus it is necessary to collect seeds in high production years to save them for low production years to ensure the continuity of nursery production. Tree seeds can be stored loosely in piles or containers, but they need to be checked for viability before planting. The objective of this study was to find a quick and inexpensive method to determine the suitability of seed lots for planting. The working hypothesis was that an electronic nose device could be used to detect odors from fungi or from decomposing organic material, and thus aid in determination of whether seeds could be sown or discarded. To affirm and supplement results from the electronic nose, we used gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to detect volatile secondary metabolites such as limonene and cadienes, which were found at the highest concentrations in both, infected and uninfected seeds. Uninfected seeds contained exceptionally high concentrations of pinene, which are known to be involved in plant resistance responses. Statistically higher levels of terpineol were found in infected seeds than in uninfected seeds. A prototype of our electronic nose partially discriminated between healthy and spoiled seeds, and between green and white fungal colonies grown on incubated seeds. These preliminary observations were encouraging and we plan to develop a practical device that will be useful for forestry and horticulture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Forest Tree Seedling Cultivation Technology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 1710 KiB  
Article
Price Modeling of Eucalyptus Wood under Different Silvicultural Management for Real Options Approach
by Rafaele Almeida Munis, Diego Aparecido Camargo, Richardson Barbosa Gomes da Silva, Miriam Harumi Tsunemi, Siti Nur Iqmal Ibrahim and Danilo Simões
Forests 2022, 13(3), 478; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13030478 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2040
Abstract
Choosing the ideal number of rotations of planted forests under a silvicultural management regime results in uncertainties in the cash flows of forest investment projects. We verified if there is parity in the Eucalyptus wood price modeling through fractional Brownian motion and geometric [...] Read more.
Choosing the ideal number of rotations of planted forests under a silvicultural management regime results in uncertainties in the cash flows of forest investment projects. We verified if there is parity in the Eucalyptus wood price modeling through fractional Brownian motion and geometric Brownian motion to incorporate managerial flexibilities into investment projects in planted forests. We use empirical data from three production cycles of forests planted with Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla in the projection of discounted cash flows. The Eucalyptus wood price, assumed as uncertainty, was modeled using fractional and geometric Brownian motion. The discrete-time pricing of European options was obtained using the Monte Carlo method. The root mean square error of fractional and geometric Brownian motions was USD 1.4 and USD 2.2, respectively. The real options approach gave the investment projects, with fractional and geometric Brownian motion, an expanded present value of USD 8,157,706 and USD 9,162,202, respectively. Furthermore, in both models, the optimal harvest ages execution was three rotations. Thus, with an indication of overvaluation of 4.9% when assimilating the geometric Brownian motion, there is no parity between stochastic processes, and three production cycles of Eucalyptus planted forests are economically viable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Economics, Policy, and Social Science)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 5012 KiB  
Article
Short-Term Effects of Droughts and Cold Winters on the Growth of Scots Pine at Coastal Sand Dunes around the South Baltic Sea
by Karolina Janecka, Sandra Metslaid, Marek Metslaid, Jill E. Harvey and Martin Wilmking
Forests 2022, 13(3), 477; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13030477 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2326
Abstract
Coastal dunes near the Baltic Sea are often stabilized by Scots pine forests and are characterized by a mild climate. These ecosystems are affected by water shortages and might be influenced by climate extremes. Considering future climate change, utilizing tree rings could help [...] Read more.
Coastal dunes near the Baltic Sea are often stabilized by Scots pine forests and are characterized by a mild climate. These ecosystems are affected by water shortages and might be influenced by climate extremes. Considering future climate change, utilizing tree rings could help assess the role of climate extremes on coastal forest growth. We used superposed epoch analysis to study Scots pine responses to droughts and cold winters, with focus on frequency, timing, and duration. We measured ring widths (RW) and latewood blue intensity (LBI) on samples extracted from trees growing at dune ridge and bottom microsites at the south Baltic Sea. At the regional scale, we observed some similarities in tree responses to both extremes between RW and LBI within the same microsite type and region. At the local scale, RW and LBI were more frequently influenced by cold winters than droughts. RW and LBI from dune ridges were more frequently influenced by droughts than RW and LBI from dune bottoms. LBI from both microsites was more often influenced by droughts than RW. RW and LBI from both microsites were similarly often influenced by cold winters. At both scales, the response time of RW and LBI after droughts predominantly lagged by one year, while cold winters were recorded in the same year. The typical duration of growth reductions after both extremes was one year for both RW and LBI. Our study indicates that Scots pine from the Baltic Sea region is sensitive to climate extremes, especially cold winters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic and Biotic Stress in Forest and Plantation Trees)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 5323 KiB  
Article
Transient Flooding and Soil Covering Interfere with Decomposition Dynamics of Populus euphratica Leaf Litter: Changes of Mass Loss and Stoichiometry of C, N, P, and K
by Yuhai Yang, Honghua Zhou, Wanrui Wang, Chenggang Zhu, Dong Cui and Zhaoxia Ye
Forests 2022, 13(3), 476; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13030476 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1981
Abstract
Litter decomposition plays a critical role in carbon and nutrient cycling in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. However, the effects transient flooding and soil covering have on leaf litter decomposition remain unclear. The changes of litter mass loss and stoichiometric ratio of C:N (the [...] Read more.
Litter decomposition plays a critical role in carbon and nutrient cycling in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. However, the effects transient flooding and soil covering have on leaf litter decomposition remain unclear. The changes of litter mass loss and stoichiometric ratio of C:N (the ratio of carbon to nitrogen), C:K (the ratio of carbon to potassium), C:P (the ratio of carbon to phosphorus), N:P (the ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus), and N:K (the ratio of nitrogen to potassium) of fresh Populus euphratica (P. euphratica) leaves in surface, transient flooding, and soil covering treatments were studied using litterbags in a desert riparian forest in a field decomposition experiment for a period of 640 d. The results showed that there was a significant influence of disturbance type and incubation time on litter mass loss rate and stoichiometric ratios of C:N, C:K, C:P, N:P, and N:K of fresh P. euphratica leaves, but no significant influence of the interaction between disturbance type and incubation time on leaf litter mass loss. In three treatments, five sequential phases of leaf litter mass loss rate and different temporal change patterns of stoichiometric ratio were identified within 640 d. Transient flooding was shown to affect P. euphratica leaf litter mass loss phases compared to that in no-disturbance conditions, and especially promote leaf litter mass loss within 0–173 d of incubation time. It was also demonstrated that transient flooding and soil covering can influence leaf litter decomposition, which led to the leaf litter mass loss rate and the stoichiometric ratios of C:N, C:K, C:P, N:P, and N:K exhibiting varied patterns and phases in different treatments during decay. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon and Nutrient Cycling in Forests under Climate Change)
Show Figures

Figure 1

33 pages, 6854 KiB  
Article
Driving Forces of Forest Expansion Dynamics across the Iberian Peninsula (1987–2017): A Spatio-Temporal Transect
by Mario Padial-Iglesias, Miquel Ninyerola, Pere Serra, Òscar González-Guerrero, Josep Maria Espelta, Joan Pino and Xavier Pons
Forests 2022, 13(3), 475; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13030475 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2594
Abstract
This study analyzes the spatio-temporal dynamics of the drivers of forest expansion in the Iberian Peninsula for the periods 1987–2002–2017 through a 185 km-wide north–south Landsat scene transect. The analysis has considered a variety of biogeographical regions [0–3500 m.a.s.l, annual rainfalls 150–2200 mm] [...] Read more.
This study analyzes the spatio-temporal dynamics of the drivers of forest expansion in the Iberian Peninsula for the periods 1987–2002–2017 through a 185 km-wide north–south Landsat scene transect. The analysis has considered a variety of biogeographical regions [0–3500 m.a.s.l, annual rainfalls 150–2200 mm] and 30 explanatory variables. A rigorous map production at 30 m resolution, including detailed filtering methods and uncertainty management at pixel scale, provided high-quality land cover maps. The main forest expansion trajectories were related to explanatory variables using boosted regression trees. Proximity to previous forests was a key common factor for forest encroachment in all forest types, with other factors being distance to the hydrographic network, temperature and precipitation for broadleaf deciduous forests (BDF), precipitation, temperature and solar radiation for broadleaf evergreen forests (BEF) and precipitation, distance to province capitals, and solar radiation for needleleaf evergreen forests (NEFs). Results also showed contrasting forest expansion trajectories and drivers per biogeographic region, with a high dynamism of grasslands towards new forest in the Eurosiberian and the mountainous Mediterranean regions, a high importance of croplands as land cover origin of new forest in the Mesomediterranean, and increasing importance over time of socioeconomic drivers (such as those employed in the industry sector and the utilized agricultural area) in the Supramediterranean region but the opposite pattern in the Southern Mesomediterranean. Lower precipitation rates favored new NEFs from shrublands in the Thermomediterraean region which, together with the Northern Mesomediterranean, exhibited the highest relative rates of new forests. These findings provide reliable insights to develop policies considering the ecological and social impacts of land abandonment and subsequent forest expansion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Ecology and Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 2612 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Three Machine Learning Techniques with Open-Access Geographic Data for Forest Fire Susceptibility Monitoring—Evidence from Southern Ecuador
by Fabián Reyes-Bueno and Julia Loján-Córdova
Forests 2022, 13(3), 474; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13030474 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2809
Abstract
Forest fires have become a habitual threat in all types of ecosystems, which is the reason why it is necessary to improve management of the territories and optimization of prevention and means of extinction. This study compares three machine learning techniques: logistic regression, [...] Read more.
Forest fires have become a habitual threat in all types of ecosystems, which is the reason why it is necessary to improve management of the territories and optimization of prevention and means of extinction. This study compares three machine learning techniques: logistic regression, logistic decision tree, and multivariate adaptive regression spline to identify areas susceptible to forest fires in the Loja canton. In the training of the machine learning models, a multitemporal database with 1436 points was used, fed with the information from seven variables related to fuel moisture, proximity to anthropic activities, and ground elevation. After analyzing the performance of the three models, better results were observed with the LMT, thus offering application ease for local decision-makers. The results show that the technique used allowed generating a model with a good predictive capacity and that the maps resulting from the model can be updated in short periods of time. However, it is necessary to highlight the lack meteorological data availability at the local level and to encourage future researchers to implement improvements in this regard. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Inventory, Modeling and Remote Sensing)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 4135 KiB  
Article
Experiencing Urban Green and Blue Spaces in Urban Wetlands as a Nature-Based Solution to Promote Positive Emotions
by Hongyan Li, Jiaxi Peng, Yang Jiao and Shengshu Ai
Forests 2022, 13(3), 473; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13030473 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3440
Abstract
Green and blue spaces are nature-based solutions (NBSs) that evoke positive emotions of experiencers therein. There is an impetus to optimize wetland forest landscapes by planning the geographical arrangement of metrics that promote positive emotion. The facial expressions of nature experiencers in photos, [...] Read more.
Green and blue spaces are nature-based solutions (NBSs) that evoke positive emotions of experiencers therein. There is an impetus to optimize wetland forest landscapes by planning the geographical arrangement of metrics that promote positive emotion. The facial expressions of nature experiencers in photos, downloaded from social media databases with landscape metrics, were evaluated for emotions and given scores. Happy and sad scores were rated by FireFACE v1.0 software and positive response index (PRI) was calculated as happy score minus sad score. Spatial areas and tree height were evaluated from Landsat 8 images and digital model maps, respectively. Visitors at middle and senior ages smiled more frequently in southern parts than in northern parts, and females had higher happy scores and PRI than males. Both green- and blue-space areas had positive relationships with PRI scores, while blue spaces and their area to park area ratios had positive contributions to happy scores and PRI scores in multivariate linear regression models. Elevation had a negative relationship with positive facial emotion. Overall, based on spatial distributions of blue-space area and elevation, regional landscape was optimized so people perceived more happiness in wetlands around Zhejiang and Shanghai, while people in wetlands of Jiangxi and Hubei showed more net emotional expressions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Economics, Policy, and Social Science)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 8400 KiB  
Article
Responses of Early Distribution and Developmental Traits of Male and Female Trees to Stand Density in Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr. Plantation
by Wei Li, Yunlong Zhang, Xing Wei and Qingyu Wei
Forests 2022, 13(3), 472; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13030472 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1681
Abstract
Density plays an important role in tree growth and development. Exploring the growth of males and females in the early stage of gender differentiation and the distribution pattern in different densities are beneficial to assess the influence earlier caused by density of the [...] Read more.
Density plays an important role in tree growth and development. Exploring the growth of males and females in the early stage of gender differentiation and the distribution pattern in different densities are beneficial to assess the influence earlier caused by density of the productivity and reproductive potential of dioecious plantations. We observed the numbers, distribution pattern and phenotypic traits of the males and females of Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr. in four initial densities (D1: 1.5 × 3 m; D2: 2 × 2 m; D3: 1.5 × 1.5 m; D4: 1 × 1 m). The results showed that the number of males and females gradually decreased with the increase in stand density, and they were randomly distributed in each density. With the increase in density, the total volume of males and females increased first and then decreased, and the highest value appeared in the D2 (2 × 2 m) density. The phenotypic traits of males and females had no significant difference within the same density. With increasing density, the crown width and the diameter of males and females all gradually decreased. There was a larger leaf area, larger specific leaf weight, and less leaf index for males, but for females, there was a relatively stable leaf area, larger leaf biomass, and less living under branch height. In the current stage, the D2 (2 × 2 m) planting density has advantages in the number and quality of males and females. Our results emphasize that suitable stand density can promote the volume of timber accumulation and reproduction of males and females in plantations with dioecious trees. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Ecology and Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 2656 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Forest Management in Large Areas Arising from Grouping of Several Management Bodies: An Application in Northern Portugal
by Margarida Cabral, Teresa Fidalgo Fonseca and Adelaide Cerveira
Forests 2022, 13(3), 471; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13030471 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2224
Abstract
The success of forest management towards achieving desired outcomes depends on various factors and can be improved through forest planning based on optimization approaches. Regardless of the owner type (state, private or common land) and/or governance model, the number of owners or management [...] Read more.
The success of forest management towards achieving desired outcomes depends on various factors and can be improved through forest planning based on optimization approaches. Regardless of the owner type (state, private or common land) and/or governance model, the number of owners or management bodies considered in most studies is low, typically involving one owner/management body or a very small group. This study extends the approach of formulating a Forest Management Plan (FMP) to a large forest area, consisting of areas with different management bodies. The FMP model returns the harvest schedule that maximizes the volume of wood harvested during the planning horizon, while ensuring (1) sustainability and environmental constraints at the overall scale and (2) independent revenues for each management body. The FMP is tested in a real forested area, consisting of 22 common lands, governed by local communities for a planning period of 30 years. The results show that our approach is appropriate for several management bodies. When evaluating the impact of grouping areas (and their owner bodies) on the total volume removed, a comparison of the FMP model with an alternative model that allows for independent management (FMP-IND) showed significant differences, in terms of total volume removed at the end of the horizon. Global management leads to a reduction of about 8.6% in the total removed volume; however, it will ensure a heritage of well-diversified stands, in terms of age classes. The results highlight the importance of managing multi-stakeholder forest areas as a whole, instead of being managed independently, if the aim is to assure more sustainable management of forest resources in the mid and long term. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling and Managing the Dynamics of Pine Forests)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 4031 KiB  
Article
Differences in Growth–Climate Relationships among Scots Pines Growing on Various Dune Generations on the Southern Baltic Coast
by Anna Cedro, Bernard Cedro and Marek Podlasiński
Forests 2022, 13(3), 470; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13030470 - 17 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1888
Abstract
This study focuses on analyzing the growth rate and growth–climate relationship in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing on coastal dunes of different ages on the Southern Baltic coast. Podzols have developed on these dunes. Depending on dune age, however, podzols are [...] Read more.
This study focuses on analyzing the growth rate and growth–climate relationship in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing on coastal dunes of different ages on the Southern Baltic coast. Podzols have developed on these dunes. Depending on dune age, however, podzols are characterized by a different degree of development and richness, which represents the main factor differentiating the studied habitats: the oldest brown dunes (BD), younger yellow dunes (YD), and the youngest white dunes (WD). Samples were taken from 68 trees using Pressler borers. Using classic cross-dating methods, local chronologies were compiled that served as the basis for further analyses. Basic analyses of soil properties were also performed. Trees growing on brown dunes display the widest tree-rings and the highest rate of cumulative radial growth. Both rates are the lowest for trees growing on white dunes (WD). The dominant meteorological factor shaping tree-ring widths is late winter/early spring air temperature (February/March). However, in poorer habitats with inferior soil air–water conditions, rainfall sums and rainfall distribution through the year become progressively more significant factors. On white dunes (WD), the strongest growth–climate correlations are obtained for summer precipitation. These results identify habitat richness as the main factor shaping growth dynamics in Scots pines growing on dunes. Due to the protective function of the studied tree stands (coast protection), and in light of the rising sea levels and increasing storm intensities, further studies are required, aiming at understanding all interrelationships occurring in these valuable ecosystems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Ecology and Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 2983 KiB  
Article
Ecological Stoichiometry in Pinus massoniana L. Plantation: Increasing Nutrient Limitation in a 48-Year Chronosequence
by Ashfaq Ali, Majid Hussain, Saqib Ali, Kashif Akhtar, Mamoona Wali Muhammad, Ahmad Zamir, Arshad Ali, Syed Moazzam Nizami, Bilal Ahmad, Matthew Tom Harrison, Shah Fahad, Zhixiang Zhou and Shanjun Yi
Forests 2022, 13(3), 469; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13030469 - 17 Mar 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2760
Abstract
Stoichiometric ratios of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) are considered indicators of nutrient status and ultimate ecosystem health. A detailed investigation of these elements in the leaves, branches, forest layer vegetation and soil, depending on stand age, was carried out. We [...] Read more.
Stoichiometric ratios of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) are considered indicators of nutrient status and ultimate ecosystem health. A detailed investigation of these elements in the leaves, branches, forest layer vegetation and soil, depending on stand age, was carried out. We investigated the effects of stand age (9-, 18-, 28-, and 48-year) on the aboveground plant parts (leaf, branch, herb, shrub, plant litter) and belowground pools (soil, roots) of P. massoniana plantations. The CNP stoichiometry of trees was affected by stand age. Mean N content in the aboveground parts in the nine-yr stand was greater than the other stands (18-, 28-, 48-yr), which decreased with increasing stand age. As stands aged, the nutrient demands of the plantations increased as well as their N:P ratios in soil. C content in the soil ranged from 30 to 105, the total N was 0.06 to 1.6, and the total P content ranged from 3.3–6.4 g kg−1. Soil C, N and P contents were greatly influenced by both stand age and soil depth, because surface soil sequester C and N more actively compared to deeper horizons, and more nutrients are released to the topsoil by the plant litter layer. Similarly, the ratios of other layers had a similar pattern as CNP because more nutrients were taken up by the plantations, decreasing nutrient supply in the deeper soil horizons. The green leaves N:P ratios (16) indicate limited growth of P. massoniana, as the range for global nutrient limitation for woody plants oscillated between 14–16, indicating N and P limitation. Young stands were observed to have greater P content and P resorption efficiency (56.9%–67.3%), with lower C:P and N:P ratios (704.4; 14.8). We conclude that with stand development, the nutrient demands of the plantations also increase, and soil N:P stoichiometry shows that these improve soil quality. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 5501 KiB  
Article
Climate Change Effects on Height–Diameter Allometric Relationship Vary with Tree Species and Size for Larch Plantations in Northern and Northeastern China
by Qigang Xu, Xiangdong Lei, Hao Zang and Weisheng Zeng
Forests 2022, 13(3), 468; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13030468 - 17 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2148
Abstract
Tree height–diameter relationship is very important in forest investigation, describing forest structure and estimating carbon storage. Climate change may modify the relationship. However, our understanding of the effects of climate change on the height–diameter allometric relationship is still limited at large scales. In [...] Read more.
Tree height–diameter relationship is very important in forest investigation, describing forest structure and estimating carbon storage. Climate change may modify the relationship. However, our understanding of the effects of climate change on the height–diameter allometric relationship is still limited at large scales. In this study, we explored how climate change effects on the relationship varied with tree species and size for larch plantations in northern and northeastern China. Based on the repeated measurement data of 535 plots from the 6th to 8th national forest inventory of China, climate-sensitive tree height–diameter models of larch plantations in north and northeast China were developed using two-level nonlinear mixed effect (NLME) method. The final model was used to analyze the height–diameter relationship of different larch species under RCP2.6, RCP 4.5, and RCP8.5 climate change scenarios from 2010 to 2100. The adjusted coefficient of determination Radj2, mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean squared error (RMSE) of the NLME models for calibration data were 0.92, 0.76 m and 1.06 m, respectively. The inclusion of climate variables mean annual temperature (MAT) and Hargreaves climatic moisture deficit (CMD) with random effects was able to increase Radj2 by 19.5% and reduce the AIC (Akaike’s information criterion), MAE and RMSE by 22.2%, 44.5% and 41.8%, respectively. The climate sensitivity of larch species was ranked as L. gmelinii > the unidentified species group > L. principis > L. kaempferi > L. olgensis under RCP4.5, but L. gmelinii > L. principis > the unidentified species group > L. olgensis > L. kaempferi under RCP2.6 and RCP8.5. Large trees were more sensitive to climate change than small trees. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Forest Growth and Site Productivity Modeling)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 5385 KiB  
Article
Weatherability of Bamboo Scrimber: Enhance in Photostability of Substrate and Coatings
by Yang Yang, Lei Zhang, Hongfei Huo, Minzhen Bao, Zaixing Wu, Yongjie Bao, Yuhe Chen, Zhongfeng Zhang and Neng Li
Forests 2022, 13(3), 467; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13030467 - 17 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2129
Abstract
Enhancing the weatherability of bamboo-based products is essential for increasing their application lifespan. In this study, a composite protective coating containing organic and inorganic UV absorbers and a hindered amine light stabilizer (HALS) was investigated for outdoor bamboo scrimber (OBS). The optical properties [...] Read more.
Enhancing the weatherability of bamboo-based products is essential for increasing their application lifespan. In this study, a composite protective coating containing organic and inorganic UV absorbers and a hindered amine light stabilizer (HALS) was investigated for outdoor bamboo scrimber (OBS). The optical properties of weathered coated and uncoated samples were investigated by colorimetry and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to determine the physicochemical properties of the coating. The addition of HALS improved the photostability of the coating and preserved the properties of OBS. Compared to resin-coated samples, alicyclic amines in HALS inhibit photooxidation reactions between bamboo lignin and the coating adhesive. This inhibition is critical for maintaining the UV-shielding performance of the coating. We have developed a photostable protective coating for bamboo-based products whose widespread use can significantly help conserve critical forest resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Wood Science and Forest Products)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 2500 KiB  
Review
The Effects of Environmental Changes on Plant Species and Forest Dependent Communities in the Amazon Region
by Diego Oliveira Brandão, Lauro Euclides Soares Barata and Carlos Afonso Nobre
Forests 2022, 13(3), 466; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13030466 - 16 Mar 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 8424
Abstract
We review the consequences of environmental changes caused by human activities on forest products and forest-dependent communities in the Amazon region—the vast Amazonas River basin and the Guiana Shield in South America. We used the 2018 and 2021 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [...] Read more.
We review the consequences of environmental changes caused by human activities on forest products and forest-dependent communities in the Amazon region—the vast Amazonas River basin and the Guiana Shield in South America. We used the 2018 and 2021 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change reports and recent scientific studies to present evidence and hypotheses for changes in the ecosystem productivity and geographical distribution of plants species. We have identified species associated with highly employed forest products exhibiting reducing populations, mainly linked with deforestation and selective logging. Changes in species composition along with a decline of valuable species have been observed in the eastern, central, and southern regions of the Brazilian Amazon, suggesting accelerated biodiversity loss. Over 1 billion native trees and palms are being lost every two years, causing economic losses estimated between US$1–17 billion. A decrease in native plant species can be abrupt and both temporary or persistent for over 20 years, leading to reduced economic opportunities for forest-dependent communities. Science and technology investments are considered promising in implementing agroforestry systems recovering deforested and degraded lands, which could engage companies that use forest products due to supply chain advantages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Dynamic Interaction between People and Forest Ecosystems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 1520 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Factors Affecting Termite Damage to Wooden Architectural Heritage Buildings in Korea
by Si-Hyun Kim and Yong-Jae Chung
Forests 2022, 13(3), 465; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13030465 - 16 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3822
Abstract
Many wooden architectural heritage buildings exist in Korea, and the authenticity and structural stability of these cultural assets are being affected by termites. This study aimed to identify the degree of termite damage and related factors in these buildings. The degree of termite [...] Read more.
Many wooden architectural heritage buildings exist in Korea, and the authenticity and structural stability of these cultural assets are being affected by termites. This study aimed to identify the degree of termite damage and related factors in these buildings. The degree of termite damage to 182 nationally designated wooden architectural heritage buildings (national treasures and treasures) in Korea was quantified, and data were collected for 11 factors affecting termite damage, such as the surrounding environment and architectural features. Based on the results of a general linear model analysis, the following three factors were identified to have a significant effect on termite damage: the type of contact between the ground and wooden structural items, the number of days of termite activity, and the proportion of forests in the land surrounding the property. This study is the first attempt to statistically analyze factors affecting termite damage to wooden heritage buildings, and our results provide initial data for the preservation and management of these properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wood as Cultural Heritage Material)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 1786 KiB  
Article
The Environmental Impact of Poplar Stand Management: A Life Cycle Assessment Study of Different Scenarios
by Simone Cantamessa, Laura Rosso, Achille Giorcelli and Pier Mario Chiarabaglio
Forests 2022, 13(3), 464; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13030464 - 16 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2129 | Correction
Abstract
The circular economy will play an important role in the reduction of carbon emissions and poplar might be one of the winning choices according to sustainable development. As for agricultural crops, high-quality production is strictly related to genetic variability and best management practice. [...] Read more.
The circular economy will play an important role in the reduction of carbon emissions and poplar might be one of the winning choices according to sustainable development. As for agricultural crops, high-quality production is strictly related to genetic variability and best management practice. The main objective of this study was to analyze different stand management options to quantify differences on carbon emission and environmental impacts. Moreover, the study was focused on the assessment of differences between standard poplar management for veneer and poplar management according to sustainable production (such as the PEFC certification scheme). The system boundaries embraced fertilization (inorganic or organic), agricultural operations, machinery, and field emissions associated with poplar cultivation. The environmental impacts were quantified by a life cycle assessment (LCA) calculation using SIMAPRO software v8.0 with different databases. The primary data of poplar stands were collected during a decades-long Italian experience. A reduction of carbon emissions was observed in the stand managed with MSA clones (Case “Mezzi PEFC”), and negative emissions were observed due to organic fertilization (scenarios 7m-29 t CO2-eq ha−1 and 26M-129 t CO2-eq ha−1). In all cultivation scenarios, the environmental impacts were lower than conventional crops in the study area, such as corn. A higher impact was observed in the 26M scenario with oversized machinery for stand management. These data can also contribute to poplar stand modeling and represent a basis for future research developments in this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Ecology and Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 25237 KiB  
Article
Nonlinear Mixed Effect Model Used in a Simulation of the Impact of Climate Change on Height Growth of Cyclobalanopsis glauca
by Huiliang Duan and Gui Zhang
Forests 2022, 13(3), 463; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13030463 - 16 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1766
Abstract
Localized climate is sensitive to terrain, underlying surface material, building distribution, green coverage and CO2 emissions. The Regional Climate Model (RegCM) was used to make a statistical detailed analysis of the climate change data in a specific study area to obtain fine-scale [...] Read more.
Localized climate is sensitive to terrain, underlying surface material, building distribution, green coverage and CO2 emissions. The Regional Climate Model (RegCM) was used to make a statistical detailed analysis of the climate change data in a specific study area to obtain fine-scale distribution of climatic elements data over time. The effects of climate change factors on height growth trends of a climate-sensitive tree species (Cyclobalanopsis glauca) were simulated based on historical climate base line data (1961–2010) and future climate change (2010–2100) predictions. Cyclobalanopsis glauca growth trends were simulated and analyzed by using a nonlinear mixed effect model (NLME). The results showed that under the RCP8.5 emissions scenario, the growth promotion effect on the height growth of Cyclobalanopsis glauca will be obvious. Under RCP4.5 and RCP2.6 emissions scenarios, although the inhibition intensity is not exactly the same, height growth will still be inhibited to a certain extent, which may lead to the gradual extinction of this species, affecting the composition of dominant tree species in the study area. The results indirectly reflect the impact of climate change on tree species diversity in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Inventory, Modeling and Remote Sensing)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 4464 KiB  
Article
Environmental Factors Indirectly Impact the Nematode Carbon Budget of Subalpine Spruce Forests
by Hongyang Zhou, Kaiwen Pan, Xiaoming Sun, Belayneh Azene, Piotr Gruba, Xiaogang Wu, Lin Zhang, Meng Zhang, Tianwen Tang and Renhuan Zhu
Forests 2022, 13(3), 462; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13030462 - 16 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2131
Abstract
Nematodes play a significant role in soil biogeochemical cycling. However, our understanding of their community carbon budget response for a shift in the environmental conditions of natural and planted forests is limited. Therefore, we investigated the nematode community composition, daily carbon used in [...] Read more.
Nematodes play a significant role in soil biogeochemical cycling. However, our understanding of their community carbon budget response for a shift in the environmental conditions of natural and planted forests is limited. Therefore, we investigated the nematode community composition, daily carbon used in production and daily carbon budget, environmental variables, and the interaction among trophic groups in the moss, litter and 0–5 cm soil layers of natural subalpine spruce forest and plantations in western Sichuan, China. The result revealed that plantations increased the total nematode daily carbon budget by approximately 52% through the herbivore channel in the 0–5 cm soil layer. The herbivorous nematodes’ daily carbon budget and production in the moss layer of plantations decreased by approximately 60% compared to natural forests. Nematode daily carbon used in production and carbon budget had a strong negative correlation with genus richness. The water content and total carbon was the most important environmental factor that affected the nematode carbon budget and production, respectively. However, the environmental factors indirectly affect the daily carbon budget of herbivore nematodes through omnivore top-down control in subalpine forest ecosystems. Our findings highlight that the planted ecosystems have a certain capacity to maintain abundance, richness, and carbon budget of soil nematode but increase the risk of herbivorous pests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Nematode in Forests)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2844 KiB  
Article
Analyzing the Consequences of Sharing Principles on Different Economies: A Case Study of Short Rotation Coppice Poplar Wood Panel Production Value Chain
by Enrique Alejandro Perdomo Echenique, Morten Ryberg, Eldbjørg Blikra Vea, Peter Schwarzbauer and Franziska Hesser
Forests 2022, 13(3), 461; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13030461 - 16 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2557
Abstract
Quantifying the environmental impacts of value chains on the earth’s ecological limits is crucial to designing science-based strategies for environmental sustainability. Combining the Planetary Boundaries (PB) and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) framework can be used to estimate if a value chain can be [...] Read more.
Quantifying the environmental impacts of value chains on the earth’s ecological limits is crucial to designing science-based strategies for environmental sustainability. Combining the Planetary Boundaries (PB) and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) framework can be used to estimate if a value chain can be considered as Absolute Environmentally Sustainable (AES) in relation to the PB. One of the crucial steps in implementing the PB-LCA framework is using sharing principals to downscale the global PB to smaller scales (e.g., country) and calculate an assigned Safe Operating Space (aSOS). This study assesses the potential AES of a wood panel value chain in Austria and Slovakia to understand the consequences of applying diverse sharing principles on different economies. Two economic and one emission-based sharing principles were compared. The results show that depending on the sharing principle implemented, different conclusions on the AES and potential strategies at a value chain and national level are achieved. Economic-based sharing principles are biased to the value chain’s economical contribution. As for the emission-based approach, greater aSOS is given to systems with a higher contribution of emissions. A potential downside of either approach is that it can lead to misleading environmental strategies, such as hindering the development of less wealthy value chains and giving less incentive to improve environmental efficiency. These outcomes highlight the importance of further research into resolving the issues about just assignment of SOS. Moreover, our study contributes to the effort of making the PB-LCA framework relevant for strategic decision-making at a value chain level. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 2086 KiB  
Review
Informal Employment in the Forest Sector: A Scoping Review
by Shannon Cui, Rattiya Suddeephong Lippe and Jörg Schweinle
Forests 2022, 13(3), 460; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13030460 - 15 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2896
Abstract
Informal employment has been observed for decades and inevitably accompanies the formal economy globally, and it does not disappear to date along with economic growth. Particularly in developing countries, informal employment has increased beyond expectation. This scoping literature review, therefore, aims to identify [...] Read more.
Informal employment has been observed for decades and inevitably accompanies the formal economy globally, and it does not disappear to date along with economic growth. Particularly in developing countries, informal employment has increased beyond expectation. This scoping literature review, therefore, aims to identify and analyze the magnitude, causes, characteristics and socioeconomic effects of informal employment in the forest sector on a global scale. The literature analysis reveals that informal employment is predominant in the forest sector. Poverty, lack of education and migration are the causes of informal employment both in general and in the forest sector. Informal employment in the forest sector has various decent work deficits. At the same time, informal employment in the forest sector has induced and enlarged socioeconomic effects of working poverty and occupational accidents and illnesses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Economics, Policy, and Social Science)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop