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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Strategies for Modeling Regeneration Density in Relation to Distance from Adult Trees
Forests 2020, 11(1), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11010120 (registering DOI) - 19 Jan 2020
Abstract
Research Highlights: We proposed new methodologies for the spatial analysis of regeneration processes and compared with existing approaches. Background and Objectives: Identifying the spatial relationship between adult trees and new cohorts is fundamental to understanding the dynamics of regeneration and therefore helps us [...] Read more.
Research Highlights: We proposed new methodologies for the spatial analysis of regeneration processes and compared with existing approaches. Background and Objectives: Identifying the spatial relationship between adult trees and new cohorts is fundamental to understanding the dynamics of regeneration and therefore helps us to optimize the stand density and natural regeneration when undertaking regeneration fellings. Most of the statistical approaches analyzing the spatial dependence between adult trees and new individuals (seedlings or saplings) require a complete census and mapping of all individuals. However, approaches considering individuals grouped into sampling points or subplots (i.e., density data) are limited. In this study, we reviewed and compared approaches (intertype point pattern analyses and a generalized additive model) to describe the spatial relationship between adult trees and density regeneration in a Pinus sylvestris L. monospecific stand in Spain. We also proposed a new approach (intertype mark variance function) to disentangle the effect of the tree-size on sapling density and the effect of the spatial pattern. Materials and Methods: To this end, we used a half-hectare plot in which all the individuals of P. sylvestris have been mapped and measured. Results: Our results indicated that sapling distribution was related to distance from the adult trees, thus displaying distance-dependence patterns, but it was not related to the size of the adult trees. The intertype mark correlation function was an useful tool to distinguish the effect of the marks (sapling density and tree size) from the effect of the spatial pattern of the classes (trees cohorts in our case). Conclusions: The largest number of saplings was found with increased distance between adult trees (>11 m), and the generalized additive model may be useful to explain spatial relationships between adult trees and regenerating cohorts when other measured biotic variables (e.g., soil stoniness, etc.) and repeated measurements are available. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silviculture for Restoration and Regeneration)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Interregional Crown Width Models for Individual Trees Growing in Pure and Mixed Stands in Austria
Forests 2020, 11(1), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11010114 (registering DOI) - 16 Jan 2020
Abstract
Crown width is a functional trait that is commonly used to improve the estimation of above-ground biomass of forests and is often included as a predictor variable in forest growth models. Most of the existing crown width models reflect the relationship between crown [...] Read more.
Crown width is a functional trait that is commonly used to improve the estimation of above-ground biomass of forests and is often included as a predictor variable in forest growth models. Most of the existing crown width models reflect the relationship between crown width, tree size and competition variables, but do not consider the effect of species mixture. In this study, we developed crown width models for individual-tree of the major tree species growing in Austria. Because these models should be applicable for mixed and pure stands and should also take into account the characteristics of different sites, the relationship between crown width, site variables and species composition was investigated. For that purpose, we used data from a sub-sample of the Austrian National Forest Inventory, which comprises crown width measurements of about 8900 trees from 1508 sample plots. Because of the hierarchical structure of the data set (i.e., trees nested within the plot) which destroys the independencies between observations, linear mixed-effects models were used. The species composition of the stand was included via the species-specific relative proportions of basal area. To describe the interregional variability of crown width, dummy variables were introduced, which account for region-specific differences. Site characteristics were incorporated through the altitude, slope and aspect of the site. For Norway spruce, silver fir, Scots pine, European larch, European beech, oak species and ash/maple species it was possible to develop crown width models, which reflect the effects of site characteristics and species composition of the stand. The crown widths of shade-tolerant species reacted mainly positively to admixture, whereas light-demanding species reacted with decreasing crown widths. Coniferous species were not as strongly affected by mixture as broadleaf species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling Mixing Effects in Forest Stands)
Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Chemical Fingerprinting of Wood Sampled along a Pith-to-Bark Gradient for Individual Comparison and Provenance Identification
Forests 2020, 11(1), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11010107 (registering DOI) - 15 Jan 2020
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The origin of traded timber is one of the main questions in the enforcement of regulations to combat the illegal timber trade. Substantial efforts are still needed to develop techniques that can determine the exact geographical provenance of timber and [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The origin of traded timber is one of the main questions in the enforcement of regulations to combat the illegal timber trade. Substantial efforts are still needed to develop techniques that can determine the exact geographical provenance of timber and this is vital to counteract the destructive effects of illegal logging, ranging from economical loss to habitat destruction. The potential of chemical fingerprints from pith-to-bark growth rings for individual comparison and geographical provenance determination is explored. Materials and Methods: A wood sliver was sampled per growth ring from four stem disks from four individuals of Pericopsis elata (Democratic Republic of the Congo) and from 14 stem disks from 14 individuals of Terminalia superba (Côte d’Ivoire and Democratic Republic of the Congo). Chemical fingerprints were obtained by analyzing these wood slivers with Direct Analysis in Real Time Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (DART TOFMS). Results: Individual distinction for both species was achieved but the accuracy was dependent on the dataset size and number of individuals included. As this is still experimental, we can only speak of individual comparison and not individual distinction at this point. The prediction accuracy for the country of origin increases with increasing sample number and a random sample can be placed in the correct country. When a complete disk is removed from the training dataset, its rings (samples) are correctly attributed to the country with an accuracy ranging from 43% to 100%. Relative abundances of ions appear to contribute more to differentiation compared to frequency differences. Conclusions: DART TOFMS shows potential for geographical provenancing but is still experimental for individual distinction; more research is needed to make this an established method. Sampling campaigns should focus on sampling tree cores from pith-to-bark, paving the way towards a chemical fingerprint database for species provenance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wood Science and Tropical Forest Ecology)
Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Corrosiveness of Thermally Modified Wood
Forests 2020, 11(1), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11010050 (registering DOI) - 31 Dec 2019
Abstract
Thermally modified wood is becoming commercially available in North America for use in outdoor applications. While there have been many studies on how thermal modification affects the dimensional stability, water vapor sorption, and biodeterioration of wood, little is known about whether thermally modified [...] Read more.
Thermally modified wood is becoming commercially available in North America for use in outdoor applications. While there have been many studies on how thermal modification affects the dimensional stability, water vapor sorption, and biodeterioration of wood, little is known about whether thermally modified wood is corrosive to metal fasteners and hangers used to hold these members in place. As thermally modified wood is used in outdoor applications, it has the potential to become wet which may lead to corrosion of embedded fasteners. Here, we examine the corrosiveness of thermally modified ash and oak in an exposure test where stainless steel, hot-dip galvanized steel, and carbon steel nails are driven into wood and exposed to a nearly 100% relative humidity environment at 27 °C for one year. The corrosion rates were compared against control specimens of untreated and preservative-treated southern pine. Stainless steel fasteners did not corrode in any specimens regardless of the treatment. The thermal modification increased the corrosiveness of the ash and oak, however, an oil treatment that is commonly applied by the manufacturer to the wood after the heat treatment reduced the corrosiveness. The carbon steel fasteners exhibited higher corrosion rates in the thermally modified hardwoods than in the preservative-treated pine control. Corrosion rates of galvanized fasteners in the hardwoods were much lower than carbon steel fasteners. These data can be used to design for corrosion when building with thermally modified wood, and highlight differences between corrosion of metals embedded in wood products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wood Protection and Preservation)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Machine Learning Models with Quantitative Wood Anatomy Data Can Discriminate between Swietenia macrophylla and Swietenia mahagoni
Forests 2020, 11(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11010036 (registering DOI) - 25 Dec 2019
Abstract
Illegal logging and associated trade aggravate the over-exploitation of Swietenia species, of which S. macrophylla King, S. mahagoni (L.) Jacq, and S. humilis Zucc. have been listed in Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) Appendix Ⅱ. [...] Read more.
Illegal logging and associated trade aggravate the over-exploitation of Swietenia species, of which S. macrophylla King, S. mahagoni (L.) Jacq, and S. humilis Zucc. have been listed in Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) Appendix Ⅱ. Implementation of CITES necessitates the development of efficient forensic tools to identify wood species accurately, and ideally ones readily deployable in wood anatomy laboratories across the world. Herein, a method using quantitative wood anatomy data in combination with machine learning models to discriminate between three Swietenia species is presented, in addition to a second model focusing only on the two historically more important species S. mahagoni and S. macrophylla. The intra- and inter-specific variations in nine quantitative wood anatomical characters were measured and calculated based on 278 wood specimens, and four machine learning classifiers—Decision Tree C5.0, Naïve Bayes (NB), Support Vector Machine (SVM), and Artificial Neural Network (ANN)—were used to discriminate between the species. Among these species, S. macrophylla exhibited the largest intraspecific variation, and all three species showed at least partly overlapping values for all nine characters. SVM performed the best of all the classifiers, with an overall accuracy of 91.4% and a per-species correct identification rate of 66.7%, 95.0%, and 80.0% for S. humilis, S. macrophylla, and S. mahagoni, respectively. The two-species model discriminated between S. macrophylla and S. mahagoni with accuracies of over 90.0% using SVM. These accuracies are lower than perfect forensic certainty but nonetheless demonstrate that quantitative wood anatomy data in combination with machine learning models can be applied as an efficient tool to discriminate anatomically between similar species in the wood anatomy laboratory. It is probable that a range of previously anatomically inseparable species may become identifiable by incorporating in-depth analysis of quantitative characters and appropriate statistical classifiers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Inventory, Quantitative Methods and Remote Sensing)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Multifunctional Forestry and Interaction with Site Quality
Forests 2020, 11(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11010029 (registering DOI) - 23 Dec 2019
Abstract
Several studies have shown the economic value of various ecosystem services provided by the forest. However, the economic value of how site-specific ecological conditions interact with other functions provided by the forest, such as timber value and carbon sequestration, has been less studied. [...] Read more.
Several studies have shown the economic value of various ecosystem services provided by the forest. However, the economic value of how site-specific ecological conditions interact with other functions provided by the forest, such as timber value and carbon sequestration, has been less studied. As a result, this paper constructs a numerical discrete dynamic optimization model to estimate the economic value of site quality, taking into account its interaction with timber value and carbon sequestration, in Swedish forests. Analytical results show that the inclusion of the interaction of site quality with forest growth affects the optimal volume of harvest per year, compared to the case without consideration of site quality. The empirical results show that net present value, when considering timber values plus carbon sequestration and site quality interaction, is higher than the case where only timber and carbon sequestration were considered. However, the calculated net present value is sensitive to, in particular, the price of carbon sequestration and discount rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Economics and Human Dimensions)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Assessment of Preservative-Treated Wooden Poles Using Drilling-Resistance Measurements
Forests 2020, 11(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11010020 (registering DOI) - 21 Dec 2019
Abstract
An IML-Resi PD-400 drilling tool with two types of spade drill bits (IML System GmbH, Wiesloch, Germany) was used to evaluate the internal conditions of 3 m wooden poles made from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Drilling tests were performed on poles [...] Read more.
An IML-Resi PD-400 drilling tool with two types of spade drill bits (IML System GmbH, Wiesloch, Germany) was used to evaluate the internal conditions of 3 m wooden poles made from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Drilling tests were performed on poles that were industrially vacuum-pressure-impregnated with a copper-based preservative (Korasit KS-M) and untreated reference poles. Both types of poles were subject to 10.5 years of in-ground exposure. Wood moisture content (MC) was measured using a resistance-type moisture meter. MC varied between 15% and 60% in the radial and axial directions in both treated and untreated poles. A higher MC was detected in the underground, top, and outer (sapwood) parts of the poles. Typical drilling-resistance (DR) profiles of poles with internal defects were analyzed. Preservative treatment had a significant influence on wood durability in the underground part of the poles. Based on DR measurements, we found that untreated wood that was in contact with soil was severely degraded by insects and wood-destroying fungi. Conversely, treated wood generally showed no reduction in DR or feeding resistance (FR). DR profiling is a potential method for the in-situ or in vitro assessment and quality monitoring of preservative treatments and wood durability. The technological benefits of using drill bits with one major cutting edge, instead of standard drill bits with center-spiked tips and two major cutting edges, were not evident. A new graphical method was applied to present DR data and their spatial distribution in the poles. Future studies should focus on the impact of preservative treatments, thermal modification, and chemical modification on the DR and FR of wood. This may further elucidate the predictive value of DR and FR for wood properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wood Protection and Preservation)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Dynamics and Management of Rising Outbreak Spruce Budworm Populations
Forests 2019, 10(9), 748; https://doi.org/10.3390/f10090748 - 01 Sep 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Management of spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.), outbreak spread requires understanding the demographic processes occurring in low, but rising populations. For the first time, detailed observations were made in the early stages of outbreak development. We sampled populations over a three-year period in [...] Read more.
Management of spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.), outbreak spread requires understanding the demographic processes occurring in low, but rising populations. For the first time, detailed observations were made in the early stages of outbreak development. We sampled populations over a three-year period in both treated and untreated populations in the Lower St-Lawrence region of Quebec, Canada, and measured the density-dependence of survival and population growth rates, and the impact of natural enemies and insecticides. Insecticides tested were Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner 1915) and tebufenozide. We recorded strong density-dependence of survival between early larval stages and adult emergence, explained largely by the variation of natural enemy impacts and overcrowding. We also observed inverse density-dependence of apparent fecundity: net immigration into lower-density populations and net emigration from the higher, linked to a threshold of ~25% defoliation. Because of high migration rates, none of the 2013 treatments reduced egg populations at the end of summer. However lower migration activity in 2014 allowed population growth to be reduced in treated plots. This evidence lends support to the conclusion that, for a budworm population to increase to outbreak density, it must be elevated via external perturbations, such as immigration, above a threshold density of ~4 larvae per branch tip (L4). Once a population has increased beyond this threshold, it can continue growing and itself become a source of further spread by moth migration. These findings imply that populations can be brought down by insecticide applications to a density where mortality from natural enemies can keep the reduced population in check, barring subsequent immigration. While we recognize that other factors may occasionally cause a population to exceed the Allee threshold and reach outbreak level, the preponderance of immigration implies that if all potential sources of significant numbers of moths are reduced on a regional scale by insecticide applications, a widespread outbreak can be prevented, stopped or slowed down by reducing the supply of migrating moths. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protection Strategy against Spruce Budworm) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Measuring Livelihood Diversification and Forest Conservation Choices: Insights from Rural Cameroon
Forests 2019, 10(2), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/f10020081 - 22 Jan 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
While forests’ contribution to rural livelihoods has been unearthed scientifically, the patterns, determinants and forest conservation policy implications of livelihood diversification still beg for more scientific and policy edification. This paper makes a contribution in this regard, using household data (N = [...] Read more.
While forests’ contribution to rural livelihoods has been unearthed scientifically, the patterns, determinants and forest conservation policy implications of livelihood diversification still beg for more scientific and policy edification. This paper makes a contribution in this regard, using household data (N = 200) from eight villages around the Kilum-Ijim Forest Landscape of Cameroon. The ordinary least square and the logit model are used to explore the determinants of livelihood diversification and the likelihood of forest dependence, respectively. The diversification patterns were analysed using a simple t-test, and the multinomial logit for conservation choices. We find that forest-related activities are a source of livelihood diversification for 63% of households, with non-timber forest products (NTFP) domestication (31%) and medicinal plant extraction (30%) being the most preferred. For non-forest activities, migration is the most preferred diversification strategy. Generally, households with favourable socio-economic status prefer non-forest to forest activities for livelihood diversification. The regression estimates indicate that older respondents are more likely to depend on the forest than the young, whereas males and individuals with at least some secondary education are less likely than their respective counterparts to rely on the forest. The results also suggest those who participated in training, educated household heads and older individuals are significantly more likely to choose high-valued diversification strategies. Concerning conservation activities, households with favourable socio-economic status are on average less likely to adopt NTFP domestication and more likely to adopt bee-keeping as a conservation choice. The results suggest the need for policy considerations to: (i) effectively integrate women in forest management processes, (ii) intensify trainings for conservation-friendly diversification approaches, (iii) regulate unclean energy use and (iv) encourage value chain improvement for conservation-friendly products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Economics and Human Dimensions)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
Functional Role of Extrafloral Nectar in Boreal Forest Ecosystems under Climate Change
Forests 2020, 11(1), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11010067 (registering DOI) - 06 Jan 2020
Abstract
Carbohydrate-rich extrafloral nectar (EFN) is produced in nectaries on the leaves, stipules, and stems of plants and provides a significant energy source for ants and other plant mutualists outside of the flowering period. Our review of literature on EFN indicates that only a [...] Read more.
Carbohydrate-rich extrafloral nectar (EFN) is produced in nectaries on the leaves, stipules, and stems of plants and provides a significant energy source for ants and other plant mutualists outside of the flowering period. Our review of literature on EFN indicates that only a few forest plant species in cool boreal environments bear EFN-producing nectaries and that EFN production in many boreal and subarctic plant species is poorly studied. Boreal forest, the world’s largest land biome, is dominated by coniferous trees, which, like most gymnosperms, do not produce EFN. Notably, common deciduous tree species that can be dominant in boreal forest stands, such as Betula and Alnus species, do not produce EFN, while Prunus and Populus species are the most important EFN-producing tree species. EFN together with aphid honeydew is known to play a main role in shaping ant communities. Ants are considered to be keystone species in mixed and conifer-dominated boreal and mountain forests because they transfer a significant amount of carbon from the canopy to the soil. Our review suggests that in boreal forests aphid honeydew is a more important carbohydrate source for ants than in many warmer ecosystems and that EFN-bearing plant species might not have a competitive advantage against herbivores. However, this hypothesis needs to be tested in the future. Warming of northern ecosystems under climate change might drastically promote the invasion of many EFN-producing plants and the associated insect species that consume EFN as their major carbohydrate source. This may result in substantial changes in the diet preferences of ant communities, the preventative roles of ants against insect pest outbreaks, and the ecosystem services they provide. However, wood ants have adapted to using tree sap that leaks from bark cracks in spring, which may mitigate the effects of improved EFN availability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Ecology and Management)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
Forest Climax Phenomenon: An Invariance of Scale
Forests 2020, 11(1), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11010056 (registering DOI) - 02 Jan 2020
Abstract
We can think of forests as multiscale multispecies networks, constantly evolving toward a climax or potential natural community—the successional process-pattern of natural regeneration that exhibits sensitivity to initial conditions. This is why I look into forest succession in light of the Red Queen [...] Read more.
We can think of forests as multiscale multispecies networks, constantly evolving toward a climax or potential natural community—the successional process-pattern of natural regeneration that exhibits sensitivity to initial conditions. This is why I look into forest succession in light of the Red Queen hypothesis and focus on the key aspects of ecological self-organisation: dynamical criticality, evolvability and intransitivity. The idea of the review is that forest climax should be associated with habitat dynamics driven by a large continuum of ecologically equivalent time scales, so that the same ecological conclusions could be drawn statistically from any scale. A synthesis of the literature is undertaken in order to (1) present the framework for assessing habitat dynamics and (2) present the types of successional trajectories based on tree regeneration mode in forest gaps. In general, there are four types of successional trajectories within the process-pattern of forest regeneration that exhibits sensitivity to initial conditions: advance reproduction specialists, advance reproduction generalists, early reproduction generalists and early reproduction specialists. A successional trajectory is an expression of a fractal connectivity among certain patterns of natural regeneration in the multiscale multispecies networks of landscape habitats. Theoretically, the organically derived measures of pattern diversity, integrity and complexity, determined by the rates of recruitment, growth and mortality of forest tree species, are the means to test the efficacy of specific interventions to avert the disturbance-related decline in forest regeneration. That is of relevance to the emerging field of biocomplexity research. Full article
Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
Treeline Research—From the Roots of the Past to Present Time. A Review
Forests 2020, 11(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11010038 (registering DOI) - 26 Dec 2019
Abstract
Elevational and polar treelines have been studied for more than two centuries. The aim of the present article is to highlight in retrospect the scope of treeline research, scientific approaches and hypotheses on treeline causation, its spatial structures and temporal change. Systematic treeline [...] Read more.
Elevational and polar treelines have been studied for more than two centuries. The aim of the present article is to highlight in retrospect the scope of treeline research, scientific approaches and hypotheses on treeline causation, its spatial structures and temporal change. Systematic treeline research dates back to the end of the 19th century. The abundance of global, regional, and local studies has provided a complex picture of the great variety and heterogeneity of both altitudinal and polar treelines. Modern treeline research started in the 1930s, with experimental field and laboratory studies on the trees’ physiological response to the treeline environment. During the following decades, researchers’ interest increasingly focused on the altitudinal and polar treeline dynamics to climate warming since the Little Ice Age. Since the 1970s interest in treeline dynamics again increased and has considerably intensified from the 1990s to today. At the same time, remote sensing techniques and GIS application have essentially supported previous analyses of treeline spatial patterns and temporal variation. Simultaneously, the modelling of treeline has been rapidly increasing, often related to the current treeline shift and and its implications for biodiversity, and the ecosystem function and services of high-elevation forests. It appears, that many seemingly ‘new ideas’ already originated many decades ago and just confirm what has been known for a long time. Suggestions for further research are outlined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alpine and Polar Treelines in a Changing Environment)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
Tropical Dry Forest Diversity, Climatic Response, and Resilience in a Changing Climate
Forests 2019, 10(5), 443; https://doi.org/10.3390/f10050443 - 23 May 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Central and South America tropical dry forest (TDF) is a water-limited biome with a high number of endemic species and numerous ecosystem services which has experienced a boom in research in the last decade. Although the number of case studies across these seasonal, [...] Read more.
Central and South America tropical dry forest (TDF) is a water-limited biome with a high number of endemic species and numerous ecosystem services which has experienced a boom in research in the last decade. Although the number of case studies across these seasonal, water-limited, tropical forests has increased, there has not been a comprehensive review to assess the physiological variability of this biome across the continent and assess how these forests respond to climatic variables. Additionally, understanding forest change and resilience under climatic variability, currently and in the future, is essential for assessing the future extent and health of forests in the future. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to provide a literature review on the variability of TDF diversity and structure across a latitudinal gradient and to assess how these components respond to differences in climatic variables across this geographic area. We first assess the current state of understanding of the structure, biomass, phenological cycles, and successional stages across the latitudinal gradient. We subsequently review the response of these five areas to differences in precipitation, temperature, and extreme weather events, such as droughts and hurricanes. We find that there is a range of adaptability to precipitation, with many areas exhibiting drought tolerance except under the most extreme circumstances, while being susceptible to damage from increased extreme precipitation events. Finally, we use this climatic response to provide a commentary on the projected resilience of TDFs under climatic changes, finding a likelihood of resilience under drying scenarios, although model projections do not agree on the magnitude or direction of precipitation change. This review of quantitative studies will provide more concrete details on the current diversity that encompasses the TDF, the natural climatic ranges under which this ecosystem can survive and thrive, and can help inform future forest management practices under climate change scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Ecophysiology and Biology)
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