Special Issue "10th Anniversary of JCM – New Era in Dermatology"

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Dermatology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2022 | Viewed by 5137

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Masutaka Furue
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan
Interests: atopic dermatitis; psoriasis; dioxin; aryl hydrocarbon receptor; skin neoplasms; melanoma; skin barrier; pruritus
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The skin is the outermost organ and protects the body from harmful environmental stimuli by forming a fine-tuned barrier system. It also provides a special immune surveillance system to maintain skin-specific immune homeostasis against external chemicals and allergens, surface microbiomes, ultraviolet ray radiation, etc. In addition, the skin serves a unique sensory organ to transduct pruritus, pain and other tactile neurologic signals. The malfunction or dysregulation of skin homeostasis causes a wide variety of cutaneous diseases, such as psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, melanoma and autoimmune diseases, including vitiligo, alopecia and scleroderma. Many skin diseases exhibit a long-term and intractable clinical course and impact the quality of life of the afflicted patients. However, recent advances in pathogenetic analysis provide a new therapeutic approach, such as specific biologics, JAK inhibitors and other molecularly targeted drugs. As with other areas in medicine, the dermatological field is now facing a new era for emerging cutting-edge therapies. The scope of this Special Issue is to provide an overview of recent topics in the field of dermatology. Please submit an original article or review to this Special Issue (case reports and short reviews are not accepted).

Prof. Dr. Masutaka Furue
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • dermatologic diseases
  • atopic dermatitis
  • psoriasis
  • vitiligo
  • alopecia
  • melanoma
  • scleroderma

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Article
Enhanced Fluctuations in Facial Pore Size, Redness, and TEWL Caused by Mask Usage Are Normalized by the Application of a Moisturizer
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(8), 2121; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11082121 - 11 Apr 2022
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Abstract
Mask wearing is described as one of the main public health measures against COVID-19. Mask wearing induces various types of subjective and objective facial skin damage, such as hair pore dilatation and redness. Facial pore size and redness show morning-to-evening intra-day fluctuations. It [...] Read more.
Mask wearing is described as one of the main public health measures against COVID-19. Mask wearing induces various types of subjective and objective facial skin damage, such as hair pore dilatation and redness. Facial pore size and redness show morning-to-evening intra-day fluctuations. It remains unknown whether mask usage affects fluctuations in pore size and redness. We measured facial skin hydration, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), pore size, and redness four times a day for 6 weeks in 20 healthy young women. After a 2-week no-mask-usage period (baseline period), all subjects wore unwoven masks for 2 weeks; then, for the following 2 weeks, they applied masks after the topical application of a moisturizer containing a Galactomyces ferment filtrate (GFF) skin care formula (Pitera™). We demonstrated that mask wearing significantly increased the intra-day fluctuations of pore size, redness, and TEWL. In addition, significant correlations were evident among these three parameters. Notably, these mask-induced skin changes were significantly improved, achieving a return to baseline levels, by the application of a GFF-containing moisturizer. In conclusion, mask wearing aggravates intra-day fluctuations in pore size and redness. Appropriate moisturization can minimize this mask-related skin damage, most likely by normalizing the elevated TEWL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of JCM – New Era in Dermatology)
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Article
Switching from Adalimumab Originator to Biosimilar: Clinical Experience in Patients with Hidradenitis Suppurativa
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(4), 1007; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11041007 - 15 Feb 2022
Viewed by 562
Abstract
Adalimumab is currently the only biological medicine approved by the FDA for the treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS). The breakout of biosimilar drugs made them more accessible due to their impact on pharmacoeconomics. However, packaging, formulation, or excipients are unique characteristics of each [...] Read more.
Adalimumab is currently the only biological medicine approved by the FDA for the treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS). The breakout of biosimilar drugs made them more accessible due to their impact on pharmacoeconomics. However, packaging, formulation, or excipients are unique characteristics of each drug. In that way, switching from adalimumab originator to biosimilar and between biosimilars could have implications in the clinical practice. The objective of this study is to describe our clinical experience in switching from adalimumab originator to biosimilar and switching back again. A single-center retrospective cohort study was conducted that included seventeen patients with HS treated with adalimumab originator in the maintenance phase, and that achieved Hidradenitis Suppurativa Clinical Response (HiSCR), who were switched to adalimumab biosimilar for no medical reasons. The reason for the change was to improve pharmacoeconomic efficiency, following our hospital policies on biologics. Median duration with adalimumab originator treatment before switching was 48 weeks. After switching, 41.2% of patients maintained HiSCR response without additional issues, while 58.8% (10/17) reported problems after the change. Switching from adalimumab originator to biosimilar in well-controlled patients could imply problems in efficacy and adherence. Switching back to adalimumab originator appears to solve most of the problems, but some patients can lose confidence in the drug and discontinue it. It would be worthwhile to evaluate the benefit–risk ratio individually when switching an HS patient to adalimumab biosimilar. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of JCM – New Era in Dermatology)
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Article
Dermoscopy and Trichoscopy in Dermatomyositis—A Cross-Sectional Study
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(2), 375; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11020375 - 13 Jan 2022
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Abstract
Background: (Video)dermoscopy is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that has a well-established role in dermatooncology. In recent years, this method has also been increasingly used in the assessment of inflammatory dermatoses. So far, little is known about the (video)dermoscopic features of dermatomyositis (DM). Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: (Video)dermoscopy is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that has a well-established role in dermatooncology. In recent years, this method has also been increasingly used in the assessment of inflammatory dermatoses. So far, little is known about the (video)dermoscopic features of dermatomyositis (DM). Methods: Consecutive patients with DM were included in the study and videodermoscopic assessments of the nailfolds, scalp, and active skin lesions were performed. Results: Fifteen patients with DM (10 women and 5 men) were included. Capillaroscopy showed elongated capillaries (90.9%), avascular areas (81.8%), disorganized vessel architecture (81.8%), tortuous capillaries (72.7%), dilated capillaries (72.7%), and hemorrhages (72.7%). The trichoscopic findings included linear branched vessels (80.0%), linear vessels (60.0%), linear curved vessels (53.3%), perifollicular pigmentation (40.0%), perifollicular erythema (33.3%), scaling (20.0%), white (20.0%) or yellow (20%) interfollicular scales, and white (20.0%) or pinkish (13.3%) structureless areas. Polymorphic vessels of an unspecific distribution and white or pink structureless areas were frequently observed under dermoscopy in cutaneous manifestations of DM, including Gottron’s papules and Gottron’s sign. Conclusions: Dermoscopy of the nailfolds (capillaroscopy), scalp (tricoscopy), and active cutaneous lesions may be of value in the preliminary diagnosis of DM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of JCM – New Era in Dermatology)
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Article
Impact of Water Exposure and Temperature Changes on Skin Barrier Function
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(2), 298; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11020298 - 07 Jan 2022
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Abstract
The frequency of hand hygiene has increased due to the COVID-19 pandemic, but there is little evidence regarding the impact of water exposure and temperature on skin. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of water exposure and temperature on [...] Read more.
The frequency of hand hygiene has increased due to the COVID-19 pandemic, but there is little evidence regarding the impact of water exposure and temperature on skin. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of water exposure and temperature on skin barrier function in healthy individuals. A prospective observational study was conducted. Temperature, pH, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema and stratum corneum hydration (SCH) were measured objectively before and after hot- and cold-water exposure and TempTest® (Microcaya TempTest, Bilbao, Spain) contact. Fifty healthy volunteers were enrolled. Hot-water exposure increased TEWL (25.75 vs. 58.58 g·h−1·m−2), pH (6.33 vs. 6.65) and erythema (249.45 vs. 286.34 AU). Cold-water immersion increased TEWL (25.75 vs. 34.96 g·h−1·m−2) and pH (6.33 vs. 6.62). TEWL (7.99 vs. 9.98 g·h−1·m−2) and erythema (209.07 vs. 227.79 AU) increased after being in contact with the hot region (44 °C) of the TempTest. No significant differences were found after contact with the cold region (4 °C) of the TempTest. In conclusion, long and continuous water exposure damages skin barrier function, with hot water being even more harmful. It would be advisable to use cold or lukewarm water for handwashing and avoid hot water. Knowing the proper temperature for hand washing might be an important measure to prevent flares in patients with previous inflammatory skin diseases on their hands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of JCM – New Era in Dermatology)
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Article
Lichen Planus Activity and Damage Index (LiPADI)–Creation of the Questionnaire
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11010023 - 22 Dec 2021
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Abstract
Introduction: Lichen planus (LP) is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects skin, oral and genital mucosa, and other sites. Basic difficulties in assessment of LP are multitude of disease forms and diverse locations of lesions. Moreover, there is lack of objective and consolidated [...] Read more.
Introduction: Lichen planus (LP) is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects skin, oral and genital mucosa, and other sites. Basic difficulties in assessment of LP are multitude of disease forms and diverse locations of lesions. Moreover, there is lack of objective and consolidated tool for assessment of disease severity and LP progression. Objective: The aim of the study was to develop a valid evaluation tool of LP severity, which will enable disease assessment in a repetitive way. Materials and methods: A combined tool called Lichen Planus Activity and Damage Index (LiPADI) was developed to assess the severity of LP skin, mucosal, and nail lesions as well as hair loss/scaring alopecia to provide an integrative scoring for LP activity and damage caused by the disease. Skin lesions were assessed in nine locations: scalp, face, chest, abdomen, back and buttocks, arms, hands, legs, and feet. The assessment of lesion activity included erythema, hypertrophy, and scaling, while the damage was reflected by the assessment of hyperpigmentation and scaring/atrophy. In addition, mucosal lesions, nail abnormalities, hair loss, and scarring alopecia were evaluated as well. LiPADI scoring was compared with quality of life assessed with the Dermatology Life Quality Index, EQ-5D calculator, pain and pruritus intensity assessed with the Numerical Rating Scale as well as with the patient and physician global assessment. Results: Our results show that LiPADI well reflects the LP patient’s clinical condition. The obtained results were in line with other indicators assessed. In addition, it was possible to evaluate patients with various forms and locations of LP, what indicates its versatility. Conclusions: LiPADI seems to be a useful tool for measurement the severity of the LP and its progress over time, which could help to monitor the effectiveness of the patients’ treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of JCM – New Era in Dermatology)
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Review

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Review
Itch in Hidradenitis Suppurativa/Acne Inversa: A Systematic Review
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(13), 3813; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11133813 - 30 Jun 2022
Viewed by 264
Abstract
Hidradenitis suppurativa/acne inversa (HS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit leading to formation of painful, inflammatory nodules, abscesses and tunnels in apocrine gland-bearing areas of the skin. Pain and drainage are the most important symptoms associated with reduction of quality [...] Read more.
Hidradenitis suppurativa/acne inversa (HS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit leading to formation of painful, inflammatory nodules, abscesses and tunnels in apocrine gland-bearing areas of the skin. Pain and drainage are the most important symptoms associated with reduction of quality of life in HS. On the other hand, an overlooked symptom in quality of life studies is itch, despite the fact that several studies have reported its importance. Various theories have tried to explain the pathogenesis of itch in HS, such as the presence of mast cells in the cell infiltrates and elevated Ig E levels in the lesional skin. Smoking and advanced stage of disease have been found to be associated with increased intensity of itch. A PUBMED search was conducted to perform a systematic literature review using the term “hidradenitis suppurativa” [all fields], the keywords “pruritus”, “itching”, “itch” [all fields] and with “AND” as operator. Mast cells and mTor signaling were found to be raised in both lesional and perilesional skin. Itch as a presenting symptom has been found in 35–82.6% of patients across multiple studies. It often co-presents with pain and may be misinterpreted as burning, stinging, tickling, tweaking, prickling, etc. The presence of itch is associated with reduced quality of life, depression and impairment of social life. Brodalumab, a monoclonal antibody against IL-17A receptor, produced significant improvements in itch, pain, QoL and depression in patients with moderate to severe HS. Statins have shown some reduction in itch intensity score. Further studies are required to gain a better understanding of the etiopathogenesis and optimal therapeutic modalities for itch in HS that will allow clinicians to better address issue and reduce its impact on quality of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of JCM – New Era in Dermatology)
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Review
Surgical Treatment in Hidradenitis Suppurativa
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(9), 2311; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11092311 - 21 Apr 2022
Viewed by 520
Abstract
Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic, progressive inflammatory disorder of follicular occlusion with pubertal onset that presents as painful inflammatory nodules, sinus tracts, and tunnelling in apocrine-gland-rich areas, such as the axilla, groin, lower back, and buttocks. The disease course is complicated by [...] Read more.
Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic, progressive inflammatory disorder of follicular occlusion with pubertal onset that presents as painful inflammatory nodules, sinus tracts, and tunnelling in apocrine-gland-rich areas, such as the axilla, groin, lower back, and buttocks. The disease course is complicated by contractures, keloids, and immobility and is often associated with a low quality of life. It is considered a disorder of follicular occlusion with secondary inflammation, though the exact cause is not known. Management can often be unsatisfactory and challenging due to the chronic nature of the disease and its adverse impact on the quality of life. A multidisciplinary approach is key to prompt optimal disease control. The early stages can be managed with medical treatment, but the advanced stages most likely require surgical intervention. Various surgical options are available, depending upon disease severity and patient preference. In this review an evidence-based outline of surgical options for the treatment of HS are discussed. Case reports, case series, cohort studies, case-control studies, and Randomized Clinical Trials (RCT)s available in medical databases regarding surgical options used in the treatment of HS were considered for the review presented in a narrative manner in this article. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of JCM – New Era in Dermatology)
Review
Thiol-Disulfide Homeostasis in Skin Diseases
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(6), 1507; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11061507 - 09 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 747
Abstract
Oxidative stress represents the imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants and has been associated with a wide range of diseases. Thiols are the most important compounds in antioxidant defense. There is an equilibrium between thiols and their oxidized forms, disulfides, known as dynamic thiol-disulfide [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress represents the imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants and has been associated with a wide range of diseases. Thiols are the most important compounds in antioxidant defense. There is an equilibrium between thiols and their oxidized forms, disulfides, known as dynamic thiol-disulfide homeostasis (TDH). In 2014, Erel and Neselioglu developed a novel automated assay to measure thiol and disulfide levels. Subsequently, many researchers have used this simple, inexpensive and fast method for evaluating TDH in various disorders. We have reviewed the literature on the role of TDH in skin diseases. We identified 26 studies that evaluated TDH in inflammatory diseases (psoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, vitiligo, acne vulgaris and rosacea), allergic diseases (acute and chronic urticaria) and infectious diseases (warts, pityriasis rosea and tinea versicolor). The results are heterogeneous, but in most cases indicate changes in TDH that shifted toward disulfides or toward thiols, depending on the extent of oxidative damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of JCM – New Era in Dermatology)
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