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Topical Collection "Feature Papers in Bioactives and Nutraceuticals"

Editor

Prof. Dr. Maurizio Battino
grade E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
1. Department of Odontostomatologic and Specialized Clinical Sciences, Sez-Biochimica, Faculty of Medicine, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Via Ranieri 65, 60100 Ancona, Italy
2. International Research Center for Food Nutrition and Safety, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China
Interests: nutrition; periodontal diseases/periodontitis; oxidative stress; nutrition; aging; mitochondrial function and diseases; berries (strawberry, blueberry, bilberry, cranberry, etc.); olive oil (dietary fats); honey, polyphenols; flavonoids; antioxidants, apoptosis
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Topical Collection entitled “Feature Papers in Bioactives and Nutraceuticals” aims to collect high-quality research articles, communications, and review articles in the cutting-edge field of bioactive compounds and nutraceutical products. Since the aim of this Topical Collection is to illustrate, through selected works, frontier research in bioactives and nutraceuticals, we encourage Editorial Board Members of the Section of the International Journal of Molecular Sciences to contribute feature papers reflecting the latest progress in their research field or to invite relevant experts and colleagues to do so.

Topics include, but are not limited to:

  • the discovery of novel bioactive natural products
  • the role of these products in manipulating food structure and hence their potential physiological mediation for human nutrition
  • the use of in vitro and in vivo bioactivity research involving cell lines and animal models as exemplars of human physiology

Prof. Dr. Maurizio Battino
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Published Papers (14 papers)

2021

Jump to: 2020

Review
Targeting Mammalian 5-Lipoxygenase by Dietary Phenolics as an Anti-Inflammatory Mechanism: A Systematic Review
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(15), 7937; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22157937 - 25 Jul 2021
Viewed by 382
Abstract
5-Lipoxygenase (5-LOX) plays a key role in inflammation through the biosynthesis of leukotrienes and other lipid mediators. Current evidence suggests that dietary (poly)phenols exert a beneficial impact on human health through anti-inflammatory activities. Their mechanisms of action have mostly been associated with the [...] Read more.
5-Lipoxygenase (5-LOX) plays a key role in inflammation through the biosynthesis of leukotrienes and other lipid mediators. Current evidence suggests that dietary (poly)phenols exert a beneficial impact on human health through anti-inflammatory activities. Their mechanisms of action have mostly been associated with the modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β), prostaglandins (PGE2), and the interaction with NF-κB and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) pathways. Much less is known about the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) pathway as a target of dietary (poly)phenols. This systematic review aimed to summarize how dietary (poly)phenols target the 5-LOX pathway in preclinical and human studies. The number of studies identified is low (5, 24, and 127 human, animal, and cellular studies, respectively) compared to the thousands of studies focusing on the COX-2 pathway. Some (poly)phenolics such as caffeic acid, hydroxytyrosol, resveratrol, curcumin, nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), and quercetin have been reported to reduce the formation of 5-LOX eicosanoids in vitro. However, the in vivo evidence is inconclusive because of the low number of studies and the difficulty of attributing effects to (poly)phenols. Therefore, increasing the number of studies targeting the 5-LOX pathway would largely expand our knowledge on the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of (poly)phenols. Full article
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Article
Glycyrrhizin Attenuates Portal Hypertension and Collateral Shunting via Inhibition of Extrahepatic Angiogenesis in Cirrhotic Rats
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(14), 7662; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22147662 - 17 Jul 2021
Viewed by 387
Abstract
Portal hypertension develops along with liver cirrhosis then induces the formation of portal-systemic collaterals and lethal complications. Extrahepatic angiogenesis plays an important role. Glycyrrhizin has been found to exhibit anti-angiogenic features, which leads to its extensive use. However, the relevant effects of glycyrrhizin [...] Read more.
Portal hypertension develops along with liver cirrhosis then induces the formation of portal-systemic collaterals and lethal complications. Extrahepatic angiogenesis plays an important role. Glycyrrhizin has been found to exhibit anti-angiogenic features, which leads to its extensive use. However, the relevant effects of glycyrrhizin on liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension have not been evaluated. This study thus aimed to investigate the impact of glycyrrhizin on portal hypertension-related derangements in cirrhotic rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received bile duct ligation (BDL) to induce cirrhosis or sham operation as control. The rats were subdivided to receive glycyrrhizin (150 mg/kg/day, oral gavage) or vehicle beginning on the 15th day post operation, when BDL-induced liver fibrosis developed. The effects of glycyrrhizin were determined on the 28th day, the typical timing of BDL-induced cirrhosis. Glycyrrhizin significantly reduced portal pressure (p = 0.004). The splanchnic inflow as measured by superior mesenteric arterial flow decreased by 22% (p = 0.029). The portal-systemic collateral shunting degree reduced by 30% (p = 0.024). The mesenteric angiogenesis and phospho-VEGFR2 protein expression were also downregulated (p = 0.038 and 0.031, respectively). Glycyrrhizin did not significantly influence the liver biochemistry data. Although glycyrrhizin tended to reverse liver fibrosis, statistical significance was not reached (p = 0.069). Consistently, hepatic inflow from portal side, hepatic vascular resistance, and liver fibrosis-related protein expressions were not affected. Glycyrrhizin treatment at the stage of hepatic fibrosis still effectively attenuated portal hypertension and portosystemic collateral shunting. These beneficial effects were attributed to, at least in part, the suppression of mesenteric angiogenesis by VEGF signaling pathway downregulation. Full article
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Article
Influence of the Anthocyanin and Cofactor Structure on the Formation Efficiency of Naturally Derived Pyranoanthocyanins
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(13), 6708; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22136708 - 23 Jun 2021
Viewed by 370
Abstract
Pyranoanthocyanins are anthocyanin-derived pigments with higher stability to pH and storage. However, their slow formation and scarcity in nature hinder their industrial application. Pyranoanthocyanin formation can be accelerated by selecting anthocyanin substitutions, cofactor concentrations, and temperature. Limited information is available on the impacts [...] Read more.
Pyranoanthocyanins are anthocyanin-derived pigments with higher stability to pH and storage. However, their slow formation and scarcity in nature hinder their industrial application. Pyranoanthocyanin formation can be accelerated by selecting anthocyanin substitutions, cofactor concentrations, and temperature. Limited information is available on the impacts of the chemical structure of the cofactor and anthocyanin; therefore, we evaluated their impacts on pyranoanthocyanin formation efficiency under conditions reported as favorable for the reaction. Different cofactors were evaluated including pyruvic acid, acetone, and hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic, and sinapic acid) by incubating them with anthocyanins in a molar ratio of 1:30 (anthocyanin:cofactor), pH 3.1, and 45 °C. The impact of the anthocyanin aglycone was evaluated by incubating delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, or malvidin derivatives with the most efficient cofactor (caffeic acid) under identical conditions. Pigments were identified using UHPLC-PDA and tandem mass spectrometry, and pyranoanthocyanin formation was monitored for up to 72 h. Pyranoanthocyanin yields were the highest with caffeic acid (~17% at 72 h, p < 0.05). When comparing anthocyanins, malvidin-3-O-glycosides yielded twice as many pyranoanthocyanins after 24 h (~20%, p < 0.01) as cyanidin-3-O-glycosides. Petunidin- and delphinidin-3-O-glycosides yielded <2% pyranoanthocyanins. This study demonstrated the importance of anthocyanin and cofactor selection in pyranoanthocyanin production. Full article
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Article
Carnosic Acid Attenuates an Early Increase in ROS Levels during Adipocyte Differentiation by Suppressing Translation of Nox4 and Inducing Translation of Antioxidant Enzymes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(11), 6096; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22116096 - 05 Jun 2021
Viewed by 542
Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate molecular mechanisms underlying the ability of carnosic acid to attenuate an early increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels during MDI-induced adipocyte differentiation. The levels of superoxide anion and ROS were determined using dihydroethidium (DHE) [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to investigate molecular mechanisms underlying the ability of carnosic acid to attenuate an early increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels during MDI-induced adipocyte differentiation. The levels of superoxide anion and ROS were determined using dihydroethidium (DHE) and 2′-7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA), respectively. Both superoxide anion and ROS levels peaked on the second day of differentiation. They were suppressed by carnosic acid. Carnosic acid attenuates the translation of NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase 4 (Nox4), p47phox, and p22phox, and the phosphorylation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and NF-κB inhibitor (IkBa). The translocation of NF-κB into the nucleus was also decreased by carnosic acid. In addition, carnosic acid increased the translation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), γ–glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCSc), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) and both the translation and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Taken together, these results indicate that carnosic acid could down-regulate ROS level in an early stage of MPI-induced adipocyte differentiation by attenuating ROS generation through suppression of NF-κB-mediated translation of Nox4 enzyme and increasing ROS neutralization through induction of Nrf2-mediated translation of phase II antioxidant enzymes such as HO-1, γ-GCS, and GST, leading to its anti-adipogenetic effect. Full article
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Article
Prenylated Flavonoids with Potential Antimicrobial Activity: Synthesis, Biological Activity, and In Silico Study
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(11), 5472; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22115472 - 22 May 2021
Viewed by 472
Abstract
Prenylated flavonoids are an important class of naturally occurring flavonoids with important biological activity, but their low abundance in nature limits their application in medicines. Here, we showed the hemisynthesis and the determination of various biological activities of seven prenylated flavonoids, named 7–13 [...] Read more.
Prenylated flavonoids are an important class of naturally occurring flavonoids with important biological activity, but their low abundance in nature limits their application in medicines. Here, we showed the hemisynthesis and the determination of various biological activities of seven prenylated flavonoids, named 7–13, with an emphasis on antimicrobial ones. Compounds 9, 11, and 12 showed inhibitory activity against human pathogenic fungi. Compounds 11, 12 (flavanones) and 13 (isoflavone) were the most active against clinical isolated Staphylococcus aureus MRSA, showing that structural requirements as prenylation at position C-6 or C-8 and OH at positions C-5, 7, and 4′ are key to the antibacterial activity. The combination of 11 or 12 with commercial antibiotics synergistically enhanced the antibacterial activity of vancomycin, ciprofloxacin, and methicillin in a factor of 10 to 100 times against drug-resistant bacteria. Compound 11 combined with ciprofloxacin was able to decrease the levels of ROS generated by ciprofloxacin. According to docking results of S enantiomer of 11 with ATP-binding cassette transporter showed the most favorable binding energy; however, more studies are needed to support this result. Full article
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Article
A Phenylacetamide Resveratrol Derivative Exerts Inhibitory Effects on Breast Cancer Cell Growth
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(10), 5255; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22105255 - 17 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 517
Abstract
Resveratrol (RSV) is a natural compound that displays several pharmacological properties, including anti-cancer actions. However, its clinical application is limited because of its low solubility and bioavailability. Here, the antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory activity of a series of phenylacetamide RSV derivatives has been evaluated [...] Read more.
Resveratrol (RSV) is a natural compound that displays several pharmacological properties, including anti-cancer actions. However, its clinical application is limited because of its low solubility and bioavailability. Here, the antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory activity of a series of phenylacetamide RSV derivatives has been evaluated in several cancer cell lines. These derivatives contain a monosubstituted aromatic ring that could mimic the RSV phenolic nucleus and a longer flexible chain that could confer a better stability and bioavailability than RSV. Using MTT assay, we demonstrated that most derivatives exerted antiproliferative effects in almost all of the cancer cell lines tested. Among them, derivative 2, that showed greater bioavailability than RSV, was the most active, particularly against estrogen receptor positive (ER+) MCF7 and estrogen receptor negative (ER-) MDA-MB231 breast cancer cell lines. Moreover, we demonstrated that these derivatives, particularly derivative 2, were able to inhibit NO and ROS synthesis and PGE2 secretion in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated U937 human monocytic cells (derived from a histiocytoma). In order to define the molecular mechanisms underlying the antiproliferative effects of derivative 2, we found that it determined cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase, modified the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins, and ultimately triggered apoptotic cell death in both breast cancer cell lines. Taken together, these results highlight the studied RSV derivatives, particularly derivative 2, as promising tools for the development of new and more bioavailable derivatives useful in the treatment of breast cancer. Full article
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Review
Immunological Aspects of SARS-CoV-2 Infection and the Putative Beneficial Role of Vitamin-D
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(10), 5251; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22105251 - 16 May 2021
Viewed by 1254
Abstract
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is still an ongoing global health crisis. Immediately after the inhalation of SARS-CoV-2 viral particles, alveolar type II epithelial cells harbor and initiate local innate immunity. These particles can infect circulating [...] Read more.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is still an ongoing global health crisis. Immediately after the inhalation of SARS-CoV-2 viral particles, alveolar type II epithelial cells harbor and initiate local innate immunity. These particles can infect circulating macrophages, which then present the coronavirus antigens to T cells. Subsequently, the activation and differentiation of various types of T cells, as well as uncontrollable cytokine release (also known as cytokine storms), result in tissue destruction and amplification of the immune response. Vitamin D enhances the innate immunity required for combating COVID-19 by activating toll-like receptor 2. It also enhances antimicrobial peptide synthesis, such as through the promotion of the expression and secretion of cathelicidin and β-defensin; promotes autophagy through autophagosome formation; and increases the synthesis of lysosomal degradation enzymes within macrophages. Regarding adaptive immunity, vitamin D enhances CD4+ T cells, suppresses T helper 17 cells, and promotes the production of virus-specific antibodies by activating T cell-dependent B cells. Moreover, vitamin D attenuates the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines by CD4+ T cells through nuclear factor κB signaling, thereby inhibiting the development of a cytokine storm. SARS-CoV-2 enters cells after its spike proteins are bound to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors. Vitamin D increases the bioavailability and expression of ACE2, which may be responsible for trapping and inactivating the virus. Activation of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAS) is responsible for tissue destruction, inflammation, and organ failure related to SARS-CoV-2. Vitamin D inhibits renin expression and serves as a negative RAS regulator. In conclusion, vitamin D defends the body against SARS-CoV-2 through a novel complex mechanism that operates through interactions between the activation of both innate and adaptive immunity, ACE2 expression, and inhibition of the RAS system. Multiple observation studies have shown that serum concentrations of 25 hydroxyvitamin D are inversely correlated with the incidence or severity of COVID-19. The evidence gathered thus far, generally meets Hill’s causality criteria in a biological system, although experimental verification is not sufficient. We speculated that adequate vitamin D supplementation may be essential for mitigating the progression and severity of COVID-19. Future studies are warranted to determine the dosage and effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation among different populations of individuals with COVID-19. Full article
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Article
Active Components from Cassia abbreviata Prevent HIV-1 Entry by Distinct Mechanisms of Action
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(9), 5052; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22095052 - 10 May 2021
Viewed by 681
Abstract
Cassia abbreviata is widely used in Sub-Saharan Africa for treating many diseases, including HIV-1 infection. We have recently described the chemical structures of 28 compounds isolated from an alcoholic crude extract of barks and roots of C. abbreviata, and showed that six [...] Read more.
Cassia abbreviata is widely used in Sub-Saharan Africa for treating many diseases, including HIV-1 infection. We have recently described the chemical structures of 28 compounds isolated from an alcoholic crude extract of barks and roots of C. abbreviata, and showed that six bioactive compounds inhibit HIV-1 infection. In the present study, we demonstrate that the six compounds block HIV-1 entry into cells: oleanolic acid, palmitic acid, taxifolin, piceatannol, guibourtinidol-(4α→8)-epiafzelechin, and a novel compound named as cassiabrevone. We report, for the first time, that guibourtinidol-(4α→8)-epiafzelechin and cassiabrevone inhibit HIV-1 entry (IC50 of 42.47 µM and 30.96 µM, respectively), as well as that piceatannol interacts with cellular membranes. Piceatannol inhibits HIV-1 infection in a dual-chamber assay mimicking the female genital tract, as well as HSV infection, emphasizing its potential as a microbicide. Structure-activity relationships (SAR) showed that pharmacophoric groups of piceatannol are strictly required to inhibit HIV-1 entry. By a ligand-based in silico study, we speculated that piceatannol and norartocarpetin may have a very similar mechanism of action and efficacy because of the highly comparable pharmacophoric and 3D space, while guibourtinidol-(4α→8)-epiafzelechin and cassiabrevone may display a different mechanism. We finally show that cassiabrevone plays a major role of the crude extract of CA by blocking the binding activity of HIV-1 gp120 and CD4. Full article
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Article
Chrysin Inhibits TNFα-Induced TSLP Expression through Downregulation of EGR1 Expression in Keratinocytes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(9), 4350; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094350 - 21 Apr 2021
Viewed by 514
Abstract
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is an epithelial cell-derived cytokine that acts as a critical mediator in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD). Various therapeutic agents that prevent TSLP function can efficiently relieve the clinical symptoms of AD. However, the downregulation of TSLP expression [...] Read more.
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is an epithelial cell-derived cytokine that acts as a critical mediator in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD). Various therapeutic agents that prevent TSLP function can efficiently relieve the clinical symptoms of AD. However, the downregulation of TSLP expression by therapeutic agents remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the mode of action of chrysin in TSLP suppression in an AD-like inflammatory environment. We observed that the transcription factor early growth response (EGR1) contributed to the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)-induced transcription of TSLP. Chrysin attenuated TNFα-induced TSLP expression by downregulating EGR1 expression in HaCaT keratinocytes. We also showed that the oral administration of chrysin improved AD-like skin lesions in the ear and neck of BALB/c mice challenged with 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene. We also showed that chrysin suppressed the expression of EGR1 and TSLP by inhibiting the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) 1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Collectively, the findings of this study suggest that chrysin improves AD-like skin lesions, at least in part, through the downregulation of the ERK1/2 or JNK1/2-EGR1-TSLP signaling axis in keratinocytes. Full article
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Article
The Biochemical Pathways of Nicotinamide-Derived Pyridones
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(3), 1145; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22031145 - 24 Jan 2021
Viewed by 642
Abstract
As catabolites of nicotinamide possess physiological relevance, pyridones are often included in metabolomics measurements and associated with pathological outcomes in acute kidney injury (AKI). Pyridones are oxidation products of nicotinamide, its methylated form, and its ribosylated form. While they are viewed as markers [...] Read more.
As catabolites of nicotinamide possess physiological relevance, pyridones are often included in metabolomics measurements and associated with pathological outcomes in acute kidney injury (AKI). Pyridones are oxidation products of nicotinamide, its methylated form, and its ribosylated form. While they are viewed as markers of over-oxidation, they are often wrongly reported or mislabeled. To address this, we provide a comprehensive characterization of these catabolites of vitamin B3, justify their nomenclature, and differentiate between the biochemical pathways that lead to their generation. Furthermore, we identify an enzymatic and a chemical process that accounts for the formation of the ribosylated form of these pyridones, known to be cytotoxic. Finally, we demonstrate that the ribosylated form of one of the pyridones, the 4-pyridone-3-carboxamide riboside (4PYR), causes HepG3 cells to die by autophagy; a process that occurs at concentrations that are comparable to physiological concentrations of this species in the plasma in AKI patients. Full article
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2020

Jump to: 2021

Article
Double Gamers—Can Modified Natural Regulators of Higher Plants Act as Antagonists against Phytopathogens? The Case of Jasmonic Acid Derivatives
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(22), 8681; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21228681 - 17 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 655
Abstract
As key players in biotic stress response of plants, jasmonic acid (JA) and its derivatives cover a specific and prominent role in pathogens-mediated signaling and hence are promising candidates for a sustainable management of phytopathogenic fungi. Recently, JA directed antimicrobial effects on plant [...] Read more.
As key players in biotic stress response of plants, jasmonic acid (JA) and its derivatives cover a specific and prominent role in pathogens-mediated signaling and hence are promising candidates for a sustainable management of phytopathogenic fungi. Recently, JA directed antimicrobial effects on plant pathogens has been suggested, supporting the theory of oxylipins as double gamers in plant-pathogen interaction. Based on these premises, six derivatives (dihydrojasmone and cis-jasmone, two thiosemicarbazonic derivatives and their corresponding complexes with copper) have been evaluated against 13 fungal species affecting various economically important herbaceous and woody crops, such as cereals, grapes and horticultural crops: Phaeoacremonium minimum, Neofusicoccum parvum, Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, Fomitiporia mediterranea, Fusarium poae, F. culmorum, F. graminearum, F. oxysporum f. sp. lactucae,F. sporotrichioides, Aspergillus flavus, Rhizoctonia solani,Sclerotinia spp. and Verticillium dahliae. The biological activity of these compounds was assessed in terms of growth inhibition and, for the two mycotoxigenic species A. flavus and F. sporotrichioides, also in terms of toxin containment. As expected, the inhibitory effect of molecules greatly varied amongst both genera and species; cis-jasmone thiosemicarbazone in particular has shown the wider range of effectiveness. However, our results show that thiosemicarbazones derivatives are more effective than the parent ketones in limiting fungal growth and mycotoxins production, supporting possible applications for the control of pathogenic fungi. Full article
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Review
The Beneficial Effects of Morusin, an Isoprene Flavonoid Isolated from the Root Bark of Morus
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(18), 6541; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21186541 - 07 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 783
Abstract
The root bark of Morus has long been appreciated as an antiphlogistic, diuretic and expectorant drug in Chinese herbal medicine, albeit with barely known targets and mechanisms of action. In the 1970s, the development of analytic chemistry allowed for the discovery of morusin [...] Read more.
The root bark of Morus has long been appreciated as an antiphlogistic, diuretic and expectorant drug in Chinese herbal medicine, albeit with barely known targets and mechanisms of action. In the 1970s, the development of analytic chemistry allowed for the discovery of morusin as one of 7 different isoprene flavonoid derivatives in the root bark of Morus. However, the remarkable antioxidant capacity of morusin with the unexpected potential for health benefits over the other flavonoid derivatives has recently sparked scientific interest in the biochemical identification of target proteins and signaling pathways and further clinical relevance. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the understanding of the functional roles of morusin in multiple biological processes such as inflammation, apoptosis, metabolism and autophagy. We also highlight recent in vivo and in vitro evidence on the clinical potential of morusin treatment for multiple human pathologies including inflammatory diseases, neurological disorders, diabetes, cancer and the underlying mechanisms. Full article
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Article
New Methodology for the Identification of Metabolites of Saccharides and Cyclitols by Off-Line EC-MALDI-TOF-MS
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(15), 5265; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21155265 - 24 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 869
Abstract
A combination of electrochemistry (EC) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (off-line EC-MALDI-TOF-MS) was applied for determination of the studied biologically active compounds (D-glucose, D-fructose, D-galactose, D-pinitol, L-chiro-inositol, and myo-inositol) and their possible electrochemical metabolites. In this work, [...] Read more.
A combination of electrochemistry (EC) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (off-line EC-MALDI-TOF-MS) was applied for determination of the studied biologically active compounds (D-glucose, D-fructose, D-galactose, D-pinitol, L-chiro-inositol, and myo-inositol) and their possible electrochemical metabolites. In this work, boron-doped diamond electrode (BDD) was used as a working electrode. MALDI-TOF-MS experiments were carried out (both in positive and negative ion modes and using two matrices) to identify the structures of electrochemical products. This was one of the first applications of the EC system for the generation of electrochemical products produced from saccharides and cyclitols. Moreover, exploratory data analysis approaches (correlation networks, hierarchical cluster analysis, weighted plots) were used in order to present differences/similarities between the obtained spectra, regarding the class of analyzed compounds, ionization modes, and used matrices. This work presents the investigation and comparison of fragmentation patterns of sugars, cyclitols, and their respective products generated through the electrochemistry (EC) process. Full article
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Review
Interactions of Whey Proteins with Metal Ions
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(6), 2156; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21062156 - 20 Mar 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1368
Abstract
Whey proteins tend to interact with metal ions, which have implications in different fields related to human life quality. There are two impacts of such interactions: they can provide opportunities for applications in food and nutraceuticals, but may lead to analytical challenges related [...] Read more.
Whey proteins tend to interact with metal ions, which have implications in different fields related to human life quality. There are two impacts of such interactions: they can provide opportunities for applications in food and nutraceuticals, but may lead to analytical challenges related to their study and outcomes for food processing, storage, and food interactions. Moreover, interactions of whey proteins with metal ions are complicated, requiring deep understanding, leading to consequences, such as metalloproteins, metallocomplexes, nanoparticles, or aggregates, creating a biologically active system. To understand the phenomena of metal–protein interactions, it is important to develop analytical approaches combined with studies of changes in the biological activity and to analyze the impact of such interactions on different fields. The aim of this review was to discuss chemistry of β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, and lactotransferrin, their interactions with different metal ions, analytical techniques used to study them and the implications for food and nutraceuticals. Full article
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