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Article

Carnosic Acid Attenuates an Early Increase in ROS Levels during Adipocyte Differentiation by Suppressing Translation of Nox4 and Inducing Translation of Antioxidant Enzymes

Department of Food and Nutrition, Hannam University, Daejeon 34504, Korea
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maurizio Battino
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(11), 6096; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22116096
Received: 3 May 2021 / Revised: 27 May 2021 / Accepted: 1 June 2021 / Published: 5 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
The objective of this study was to investigate molecular mechanisms underlying the ability of carnosic acid to attenuate an early increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels during MDI-induced adipocyte differentiation. The levels of superoxide anion and ROS were determined using dihydroethidium (DHE) and 2′-7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA), respectively. Both superoxide anion and ROS levels peaked on the second day of differentiation. They were suppressed by carnosic acid. Carnosic acid attenuates the translation of NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase 4 (Nox4), p47phox, and p22phox, and the phosphorylation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and NF-κB inhibitor (IkBa). The translocation of NF-κB into the nucleus was also decreased by carnosic acid. In addition, carnosic acid increased the translation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), γ–glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCSc), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) and both the translation and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Taken together, these results indicate that carnosic acid could down-regulate ROS level in an early stage of MPI-induced adipocyte differentiation by attenuating ROS generation through suppression of NF-κB-mediated translation of Nox4 enzyme and increasing ROS neutralization through induction of Nrf2-mediated translation of phase II antioxidant enzymes such as HO-1, γ-GCS, and GST, leading to its anti-adipogenetic effect. View Full-Text
Keywords: carnosic acid; ROS generation; ROS neutralization; Nox4 enzyme translation; NF-κB translocation; IkBα phosphorylation; HO-1 translation; Nrf2 translocation carnosic acid; ROS generation; ROS neutralization; Nox4 enzyme translation; NF-κB translocation; IkBα phosphorylation; HO-1 translation; Nrf2 translocation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, D.-K.; Jang, H.-D. Carnosic Acid Attenuates an Early Increase in ROS Levels during Adipocyte Differentiation by Suppressing Translation of Nox4 and Inducing Translation of Antioxidant Enzymes. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 6096. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22116096

AMA Style

Lee D-K, Jang H-D. Carnosic Acid Attenuates an Early Increase in ROS Levels during Adipocyte Differentiation by Suppressing Translation of Nox4 and Inducing Translation of Antioxidant Enzymes. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(11):6096. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22116096

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lee, Dae-Kun, and Hae-Dong Jang. 2021. "Carnosic Acid Attenuates an Early Increase in ROS Levels during Adipocyte Differentiation by Suppressing Translation of Nox4 and Inducing Translation of Antioxidant Enzymes" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 11: 6096. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22116096

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