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The Fantastic World of Free Radicals and Antioxidants: A Themed Issue Dedicated to Professor Dr. Etsuo Niki

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Medicinal Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2022) | Viewed by 6628

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Department of Odontostomatologic and Specialized Clinical Sciences, Sez-Biochimica, Faculty of Medicine, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Via Ranieri 65, 60100 Ancona, Italy
Interests: nutrition; periodontal diseases/periodontitis; oxidative stress; nutrition; aging; mitochondrial function and diseases; berries (strawberry, blueberry, bilberry, cranberry, etc.); olive oil (dietary fats); honey; polyphenols; flavonoids; antioxidants; apoptosis
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Free radicals and antioxidants have attracted the attention, curiosity, and research of thousands of scholars worldwide since the beginning of the 1980s when the topic underwent a drastic transformation from a field of “super-experts” usually involved in basic theory and hard science (mainly chemistry) to a matter of daily discussion with dozens of applied examples in biology, botany, veterinary science, nutrition, as well as a plethora of clinical (both physiological and pathological) conditions.

Basic pioneering studies carried out by outstanding scientists such as Prof. Etsuo Niki have pushed new generations of researchers to study and apply the chemistry of free radicals and of antioxidants to make them as familiar as any other routine assays.

The contributions of Prof. Etsuo Niki in unraveling the behavior of vitamin E (and its analogs) activity and in explaining how, when, and why antioxidant capacity may be a valuable marker in numerous research studies is not easily quantifiable, and this is why we have decided to celebrate his scientific achievements together with the entire scientific community. This issue is dedicated to honoring what he has given so far and what he is yet to give to science.

Thank you, Professor Dr. Etsuo NIki!

Prof. Dr. Maurizio Battino
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • free radicals
  • antioxidants
  • vitamin E
  • vitamin E analogs
  • total antioxidant capacity
  • antioxidant capacity assays

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

18 pages, 3928 KiB  
Article
13C CP MAS NMR and DFT Studies of 6-Chromanyl Ethereal Derivatives
by Piotr Wałejko, Łukasz Szeleszczuk, Dariusz Maciej Pisklak and Sławomir Wojtulewski
Molecules 2022, 27(14), 4630; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27144630 - 20 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1839
Abstract
Vitamin E consists of a group of compounds including α- β- γ- and δ-tocopherols and α- β- γ- and δ-tocotrienols, containing the chroman-6-ol system. The recognition of the structural and dynamic properties of this system, present in all vitamers, seems to be important [...] Read more.
Vitamin E consists of a group of compounds including α- β- γ- and δ-tocopherols and α- β- γ- and δ-tocotrienols, containing the chroman-6-ol system. The recognition of the structural and dynamic properties of this system, present in all vitamers, seems to be important for the full explanation of the mechanism of the biological activity of vitamin E. This paper presents results of the structural analysis of the chosen 6-chromanyl ethereal derivatives using experimental (13 C NMR-in solution and solid state, as well as variable temperature experiments; single crystal X-ray diffraction) and theoretical (DFT) methods. For one of the studied compounds, 2,2,5,7,8-pentamethyl-6-((tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)oxy) chroman, the splitting of some signals was observed in the 13C dynamic NMR spectra. This observation was explained by the application of a conformational analysis and subsequent DFT optimization, followed by the calculation of NMR properties. Full article
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10 pages, 2389 KiB  
Article
Positive Association between Aqueous Humor Hydroxylinoleate Levels and Intraocular Pressure
by Aya Umeno, Yasukazu Yoshida, Sachiko Kaidzu and Masaki Tanito
Molecules 2022, 27(7), 2215; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27072215 - 29 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1475
Abstract
We previously proposed the total assessment of hydroxylinoleates (HODEs) by LC-MS/MS after saponification and reduction of the biologic samples as biomarkers to investigate pathogenesis, disease progression, and prognosis. In this study, HODE levels were estimated in aqueous humor (AH) samples from 63 eyes [...] Read more.
We previously proposed the total assessment of hydroxylinoleates (HODEs) by LC-MS/MS after saponification and reduction of the biologic samples as biomarkers to investigate pathogenesis, disease progression, and prognosis. In this study, HODE levels were estimated in aqueous humor (AH) samples from 63 eyes (41 Japanese subjects; 15 men; mean age, 77.3 ± 6.8 years) with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) or cataracts. The correlations between intraocular HODE levels and background parameters, including intraocular pressure (IOP), were analyzed to assess the possible involvement of oxidative stress in glaucoma pathology. Univariate analyses showed that linoleic acid (LA) (p = 0.034) and arachidonic acid (AA) (p = 0.0041) levels were associated negatively with age; 13-(Z,E)-HODE (p = 0.018) and 13-(E,E)-HODE (p = 0.021) were associated positively with IOP; 9-(Z,E)-HODE (p = 0.039), 13-(Z,E)-HODE (p = 0.021), totally assessed-HODE (t-HODE, p = 0.023), LA (p = 0.0080), and AA (p = 0.0051) were higher in eyes with glaucoma than cataract. No gender differences were seen. A mixed-effect regression model showed that higher 13-(Z,E)-HODE (p = 0.0040) and higher t-HODE (p = 0.040) were associated with glaucoma rather than cataracts; and higher levels of 13-(Z,E)-HODE/LA (p = 0.043), 13-(E,E)-HODE/LA (p = 0.042), 13-(Z,E)-HODE (p = 0.0054), and 13-(E,E)-HODE (p = 0.027) were associated with higher IOP. Linoleate-derived oxidation products were quantified successfully in AH samples from patients with glaucoma and cataracts. A free radical oxidation mechanism can be associated with IOP elevation, while enzymatic oxidation may be involved, specifically, in the pathogenesis of POAG. Full article
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11 pages, 3121 KiB  
Article
Tocopheryl Phosphate Inhibits Rheumatoid Arthritis-Related Gene Expression In Vitro and Ameliorates Arthritic Symptoms in Mice
by Susumu Hama, Naoko Kirimura, Aki Obara, Hirokatsu Takatsu and Kentaro Kogure
Molecules 2022, 27(4), 1425; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27041425 - 20 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1982
Abstract
Anti-rheumatoid arthritis (RA) effects of α-tocopherol (α-T) have been shown in human patients in a double-blind trial. However, the effects of α-T and its derivatives on fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) during the pathogenesis of RA remain unclear. In the present study, we compared the [...] Read more.
Anti-rheumatoid arthritis (RA) effects of α-tocopherol (α-T) have been shown in human patients in a double-blind trial. However, the effects of α-T and its derivatives on fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) during the pathogenesis of RA remain unclear. In the present study, we compared the expression levels of genes related to RA progression in FLS treated with α-T, succinic ester of α-T (TS), and phosphate ester of α-T (TP), as determined via RT-PCR. The mRNA levels of interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3, and MMP-13 were reduced by treatment with TP without cytotoxicity, while α-T and TS did not show such effects. Furthermore, intraperitoneal injection of TP ameliorated the edema of the foot and joint and improved the arthritis score in laminarin-induced RA model mice. Therefore, TP exerted anti-RA effects through by inhibiting RA-related gene expression. Full article
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