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Article

Developing Soybean Protein Gel-Based Foods from Okara Using the Wet-Type Grinder Method

1
Department of Food Science, Faculty of Bioresources and Environmental Sciences, Ishikawa Prefectural University, 1-308, Suematsu, Nonoich 921-8836, Japan
2
Glyn O. Phillips Hydrocolloids Research Centre, School of Food and Biological Engineering, Hubei University of Technology, Wuhan 430068, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Antonio Cilla
Foods 2021, 10(2), 348; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020348
Received: 28 December 2020 / Revised: 1 February 2021 / Accepted: 1 February 2021 / Published: 6 February 2021
Okara, a by-product of tofu or soymilk, is rich in dietary fibers (DFs) that are mostly insoluble. A wet-type grinder (WG) system was used to produce nanocellulose (NC). We hypothesized that the WG system would increase the dispersion performance and viscosity of okara. These properties of WG-treated okara improve the gel-forming ability of soybean proteins. Here, the suspensions of 2 wt% okara were treated with WG for different passages (1, 3, and 5 times). The particle size distribution (PSD) and viscosity of WG-treated okara decreased and increased, respectively, with different passages. The five-time WG-treated okara homogeneously dispersed in water after 24 h, whereas untreated okara did not. The breaking stress, strain, and water holding capacity of soybean protein isolate (SPI) gels increased upon the addition of WG-treated okara. This effect increased as the number of WG treatments increased. The breaking stress and strain of SPI gels to which different concentrations of the five-time WG-treated okara were added also increased with increasing concentrations of WG-treated okara. These results suggest that NC technology can improve the physicochemical properties of okara and are useful in the development of protein gel-based foods. View Full-Text
Keywords: okara; wet-type grinder; nanocelluloses; soy protein isolate; heat-induced gel okara; wet-type grinder; nanocelluloses; soy protein isolate; heat-induced gel
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MDPI and ACS Style

Arai, Y.; Nishinari, K.; Nagano, T. Developing Soybean Protein Gel-Based Foods from Okara Using the Wet-Type Grinder Method. Foods 2021, 10, 348. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020348

AMA Style

Arai Y, Nishinari K, Nagano T. Developing Soybean Protein Gel-Based Foods from Okara Using the Wet-Type Grinder Method. Foods. 2021; 10(2):348. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020348

Chicago/Turabian Style

Arai, Yuya, Katsuyoshi Nishinari, and Takao Nagano. 2021. "Developing Soybean Protein Gel-Based Foods from Okara Using the Wet-Type Grinder Method" Foods 10, no. 2: 348. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020348

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