Special Issue "Physicochemical and Sensory Evaluation of Grain-Based Food"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Grain".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 February 2022) | Viewed by 16315

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Luca Serventi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Wine, Food and Molecular Biosciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Lincoln University, Lincoln 7647, New Zealand
Interests: product development; physicochemical properties of food; food chemistry; hydrocolloids; enzymes; plant-based nutrition; legumes; upcycling; Aquafaba; Liluva
Prof. Dr. Charles Brennan
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Dr. Rana Mustafa
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Plant Sciences, College of Agriculture and Bioresources, University of Saskatchewan, 51 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 5A8
Interests: value-added processing; plant-based egg substitute; food product development; process development and optimization; enzymatic oxidation of phenolic compounds; enzymatic browning

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

Consumers are increasingly demanding more sources of plant-based nutrition, and the food industry is responding by developing novel foods with grain-based ingredients. These products include dairy, egg and meat alternatives. Notably, in order for the production of these foods to be viable, the sustainability of the supply chain must improve and the product price must be lowered. Therefore, upcycling of grains by-products has been considered. However, the functionality and acceptability of functional foods made with upcycled ingredients from legumes and grains must be tested to ensure consumer compliance. This Special Issue of Foods aims to present the latest research on the physicochemical and sensory evaluation of plant-based alternatives to dairy, eggs and meat made with grains. Product categories include beverages, fermented beverages, dressings, bakery items and plant-based meats. Ingredients considered include, but are not limited to, protein concentrates and isolates, fibres, starches and enzymes. Particular emphasis will be given to potential applications of upcycled ingredients such as legume water (Aquafaba, Liluva), okara, spent grains and by-products of the starch industry (protein, fibre) and protein isolation (starches). Physicochemical evaluation encompasses determination of the functionality of ingredients (foaming, emulsifying and thickening), texture analysis, rheology (viscosity, pasting properties), thermal properties (thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry), water mobility (nuclear magnetic resonance) and image analysis. Sensory evaluation includes both trained panels and consumer preference.

Kind regards,

Dr. Luca Serventi
Prof. Dr. Charles Brennan
Dr.  Rana Mustafa
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • cereals
  • legumes
  • dairy alternatives
  • egg alternatives
  • meat alternatives
  • hydrocolloids
  • enzymes
  • physicochemical properties
  • sensory analysis
  • upcycling

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Physicochemical and Sensory Evaluation of Grain-Based Food
Foods 2022, 11(9), 1237; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11091237 - 26 Apr 2022
Viewed by 395
Abstract
Grain-based food is a staple of the human diet [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physicochemical and Sensory Evaluation of Grain-Based Food)

Research

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Article
Physicochemical Properties and Mouthfeel in Commercial Plant-Based Yogurts
Foods 2022, 11(7), 941; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11070941 - 24 Mar 2022
Viewed by 717
Abstract
There is a growing need for plant-based yogurts that meet consumer demands in terms of texture. However, more research is required to understand the relationship between physicochemical and mouthfeel properties in plant-based yogurts. The purpose of this study was to determine the physicochemical [...] Read more.
There is a growing need for plant-based yogurts that meet consumer demands in terms of texture. However, more research is required to understand the relationship between physicochemical and mouthfeel properties in plant-based yogurts. The purpose of this study was to determine the physicochemical properties of five commercial plant-based yogurt alternatives with different chemical compositions, making comparisons to dairy yogurts and thick, creamy, thin, and watery mouthfeel sensations. The physicochemical parameters studied included large and small deformation rheology, particle size, soluble solids, acidity, and chemical composition. Significant differences in flow behavior and small deformation rheology were found between dairy- and plant-based yogurts. Among plant-based yogurts thick, creamy, thin, and watery mouthfeel sensations were strongly associated with steady shear rates and apparent viscosity. The results highlight the importance of large deformation rheology to advance the use of plant-based ingredients in the development of yogurt alternatives. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that dairy- and plant-based yogurts with a similar mouthfeel profiles may have different viscoelastic properties, which indicates that instrumental and sensory methods should not be considered substitutive but complementary methods when developing plant-based yogurts in a cost-effective and timely manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physicochemical and Sensory Evaluation of Grain-Based Food)
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Article
Defining Amaranth, Buckwheat and Quinoa Flour Levels in Gluten-Free Bread: A Simultaneous Improvement on Physical Properties, Acceptability and Nutrient Composition through Mixture Design
Foods 2022, 11(6), 848; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11060848 - 16 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 583
Abstract
The study aimed to define the ideal proportions of pseudocereal flours (PF) in sensory-accepted gluten-free bread (GFB) formulations. The characteristics of GFB developed with PF (amaranth, buckwheat, and quinoa) were verified through a mixture design and response surface methodology. Three simplex-centroid designs were [...] Read more.
The study aimed to define the ideal proportions of pseudocereal flours (PF) in sensory-accepted gluten-free bread (GFB) formulations. The characteristics of GFB developed with PF (amaranth, buckwheat, and quinoa) were verified through a mixture design and response surface methodology. Three simplex-centroid designs were studied to analyze the effects of each PF and their interactions with potato starch (PS), and rice flour (RF) on GFB’s physical and sensory characteristics, each design producing three single, three binary and six ternary GFB formulations. Results showed that using PF alone resulted in unacceptable GFB. However, the interactions between PF and RF improved the loaf specific volume and the crumb softness and also enhanced appearance, color, odor, texture, flavor, and overall liking. Moreover, the composite formulations prepared with 50% PF and 50% RF (flour basis) presented physical properties and acceptability scores like those of white GFB, prepared with 100% RF or a 50% RF + 50% PS blend (flour basis). Maximum proportions of PF to obtain well-accepted GFB (scores ≥7 for all evaluated attributes on a 10-cm hybrid hedonic scale) were defined at 60% for amaranth flour (AF), 85% for buckwheat flour (BF), and 82% for quinoa flour (QF) in blends with RF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physicochemical and Sensory Evaluation of Grain-Based Food)
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Article
Textural, Color and Sensory Features of Spelt Wholegrain Snack Enriched with Betaine
Foods 2022, 11(3), 475; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11030475 - 06 Feb 2022
Viewed by 442
Abstract
The influence of different extrusion parameters, including screw speed (250–750 rpm), feed rate (15–25 kg/h) and feed moisture content (15–25%), on the textural and color properties of spelt wholegrain snack products produced on a co-rotating twin-screw extruder with added betaine was investigated. In [...] Read more.
The influence of different extrusion parameters, including screw speed (250–750 rpm), feed rate (15–25 kg/h) and feed moisture content (15–25%), on the textural and color properties of spelt wholegrain snack products produced on a co-rotating twin-screw extruder with added betaine was investigated. In order to determine the relative influence of input variables in the artificial neural network (ANN) model, Yoon’s interpretation method was used, and it was concluded that feed moisture content has the greatest influence on L* values, while screw speed has the greatest influence on a* and b* values. The softest samples were obtained at the lowest moisture content. Sensory analysis was carried out on selected samples, and it showed that betaine addition did not intensify the bitter taste. The sample with the largest expansion exhibited the lowest hardness and chewiness before and after immersion in milk, and this sample is the most suitable for enrichment with betaine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physicochemical and Sensory Evaluation of Grain-Based Food)
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Article
Physicochemical, Microbial, and Volatile Compound Characteristics of Gochujang, Fermented Red Pepper Paste, Produced by Traditional Cottage Industries
Foods 2022, 11(3), 375; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11030375 - 27 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 740
Abstract
Gochujang, fermented red pepper paste, is a grain-based Korean traditional food. The quality of gochujang produced by cottage industries is not well-documented. Thus, the present study aimed to analyze the quality of gochujang from 35 traditional cottage industries for physicochemical and microbial [...] Read more.
Gochujang, fermented red pepper paste, is a grain-based Korean traditional food. The quality of gochujang produced by cottage industries is not well-documented. Thus, the present study aimed to analyze the quality of gochujang from 35 traditional cottage industries for physicochemical and microbial characteristics, along with volatile compound contents. In addition to microbial characteristics, salinity, pH, free amino nitrogen, and alcohol content were evaluated. Ethanol was detected as the predominant alcohol and 57% of tested gochujang products harbored >1% of total alcohol content, which was above the recommended level for halal products. Gochujang products contained hexadecanoic and linoleic acids predominantly and several volatile compounds belonging to the classes of alcohols, aldehydes, alkanes, nitrogen-containing compounds, and terpenes. A wide range of aerobic mesophilic bacteria (2.79–8.73 log CFU/g) and yeast counts (1.56–7.15 log CFU/g) was observed. Five distinct yeast species were identified, including Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. Eight gochujang products were found to be contaminated with Bacillus cereus (>4 log CFU/g). This study suggests that there is a need to limit B. cereus contamination in cottage industry products and reduce alcohol content to comply with halal food guidelines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physicochemical and Sensory Evaluation of Grain-Based Food)
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Article
Standardization of Aquafaba Production and Application in Vegan Mayonnaise Analogs
Foods 2021, 10(9), 1978; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10091978 - 24 Aug 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2211
Abstract
Canning or boiling pulse seeds in water produces a by-product solution, called “aquafaba”, that can be used as a plant-based emulsifier. One of the major problems facing the commercialization of aquafaba is inconsistency in quality and functionality. In this study, chickpea aquafaba production [...] Read more.
Canning or boiling pulse seeds in water produces a by-product solution, called “aquafaba”, that can be used as a plant-based emulsifier. One of the major problems facing the commercialization of aquafaba is inconsistency in quality and functionality. In this study, chickpea aquafaba production and drying methods were optimized to produce standardized aquafaba powder. Aquafaba samples, both freeze-dried and spray-dried, were used to make egg-free, vegan mayonnaise. Mayonnaise and analog physicochemical characteristics, microstructure, and stability were tested and compared to mayonnaise prepared using egg yolk. Chickpeas steeped in water at 4 °C for 16 h, followed by cooking at 75 kPa for 30 min at 116 °C, yielded aquafaba that produced the best emulsion qualities. Both lyophilization and spray drying to dehydrate aquafaba resulted in powders that retained their functionality following rehydration. Mayonnaise analogs made with aquafaba powder remained stable for 28 days of storage at 4 °C, although their droplet size was significantly higher than the reference sample made with egg yolk. These results show that aquafaba production can be standardized for optimal emulsion qualities, and dried aquafaba can mimic egg functions in food emulsions and has the potential to produce a wide range of eggless food products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physicochemical and Sensory Evaluation of Grain-Based Food)
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Article
Effect of Vegetable Juice, Puree, and Pomace on Chemical and Technological Quality of Fresh Pasta
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1931; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081931 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 839
Abstract
Vegetable pasta is a premium product, and its consumption may deliver health benefits by increasing vegetable intake. This study investigated the replacement of semolina with juice, puree, and pomace of spinach and red cabbage. The effect of replacement on chemical composition, cooking performance [...] Read more.
Vegetable pasta is a premium product, and its consumption may deliver health benefits by increasing vegetable intake. This study investigated the replacement of semolina with juice, puree, and pomace of spinach and red cabbage. The effect of replacement on chemical composition, cooking performance (cooking loss, swelling index, water absorption), texture quality (elasticity, firmness), and colour was evaluated. The cooking loss of pasta made with spinach juice and spinach puree at 1 g/100 g substitution was the same as the control, while all other samples had a higher cooking loss. Spinach pasta had a higher breaking force but lower breaking distance in the tensile test than the control, while red cabbage pasta had a lower breaking force and breaking distance. Spinach juice fortified pasta was firmer than the control. Red cabbage juice pasta was less firm than other forms of fortified pasta at 1 g/100 g substitution level. Spinach and red cabbage juice are better colorants than puree or pomace as they change the colour of the pasta more dramatically at the same substitution level. Cooking performance and texture quality of spinach juice pasta were better than other samples, which indicates a premium pasta product for the food industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physicochemical and Sensory Evaluation of Grain-Based Food)
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Article
Delivery of Phenolic Compounds, Peptides and β-Glucan to the Gastrointestinal Tract by Incorporating Dietary Fibre-Rich Mushrooms into Sorghum Biscuits
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1812; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081812 - 05 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1143
Abstract
Sorghum biscuits were enriched with mushroom powders (Lentinula edodes, Auricularia auricula and Tremella fuciformis) at 5%, 10% and 15% substitution levels. An in vitro gastrointestinal digestion was used to evaluate the effect of this enrichment on the phenolic content and [...] Read more.
Sorghum biscuits were enriched with mushroom powders (Lentinula edodes, Auricularia auricula and Tremella fuciformis) at 5%, 10% and 15% substitution levels. An in vitro gastrointestinal digestion was used to evaluate the effect of this enrichment on the phenolic content and soluble peptide content as well as antioxidant activities of the gastric or intestinal supernatants (bio-accessible fractions), and the remaining portions of phenolic compounds, antioxidants and β-glucan in the undigested residue (non-digestible fraction). The phenolic content of the gastric and intestinal supernatants obtained from digested mushroom-enriched biscuits was found to be higher than that of control biscuit, and the phenolic content was positively correlated to the antioxidant activities in each fraction (p < 0.001). L. edodes and T. fuciformis enrichment increased the soluble protein content (small peptide) of sorghum biscuits after in vitro digestion. All mushroom enrichment increased the total phenolic content and β-glucan content of the undigested residue and they were positively correlated (p < 0.001). The insoluble dietary fibre of biscuits was positively correlated with β-glucan content (p < 0.001) of undigested residue. These findings suggested that enriching food with mushroom derived dietary fibre increases the bioavailability of the non-digestible β-glucan and phenolic compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physicochemical and Sensory Evaluation of Grain-Based Food)
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Article
Physicochemical Properties and Drivers of Liking and Disliking for Cooked Rice Containing Various Types of Processed Whole Wheat
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1470; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071470 - 25 Jun 2021
Viewed by 532
Abstract
For utilization of whole wheat (WW) in cooked rice products, WW was processed by four different methods (steeping (S_WW), milling (M_WW), enzymatic treatment (E_WW), and passing through a roll mill (1 mm) (R_WW)). Additionally, the physicochemical properties of cooked rice containing various processed [...] Read more.
For utilization of whole wheat (WW) in cooked rice products, WW was processed by four different methods (steeping (S_WW), milling (M_WW), enzymatic treatment (E_WW), and passing through a roll mill (1 mm) (R_WW)). Additionally, the physicochemical properties of cooked rice containing various processed wheat were investigated. The hardness of the cooked rice decreased significantly with R_WW and E_WW compared to WW. As a result of a consumer acceptance test, the cooked rice samples containing M_WW and E_WW with high liking scores frequently included ‘chewiness’ as a reason for liking, and the cooked rice with WW and S_WW was mentioned as being ‘too hard’ as a reason for disliking. The cooked rice with R_WW, which had the lowest liking score, was mentioned as having appearance characteristics such as ‘husk’, ‘clumpy appearance’, and ‘messy appearance’ as reasons for disliking. The overall results of this study suggest the inclusion of M_WW or E_WW with cooked rice considering health-related benefits and consumer acceptability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physicochemical and Sensory Evaluation of Grain-Based Food)
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Article
Effect of Spray-Drying and Freeze-Drying on the Composition, Physical Properties, and Sensory Quality of Pea Processing Water (Liluva)
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1401; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061401 - 17 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1244
Abstract
Spray-drying and freeze-drying can extend the shelf life and improve the transportability of high-nutritional foods such as Liluva (processing water of legumes). Nonetheless, the effects of these processes on nutrition, physiochemical properties, and sensory quality are unknown. In this study, particle sizes, protein [...] Read more.
Spray-drying and freeze-drying can extend the shelf life and improve the transportability of high-nutritional foods such as Liluva (processing water of legumes). Nonetheless, the effects of these processes on nutrition, physiochemical properties, and sensory quality are unknown. In this study, particle sizes, protein profiles, colour, and preliminary sensory profile of pea powder samples were determined by Mastersizer 3000, protein gels, chroma meter, and 9-point hedonic scale, respectively. Results indicated that no significant difference was found in the molecular weight distribution of protein bands in pea water and sensory profile after drying. Fibre content in pea water after spray-drying was higher while soluble carbohydrates and minerals were lower than those after freeze-drying. Spray-drying decreased pea water’s lysine content, particle size, redness colour, and yellowness colour, while it increased its light colour; however, freeze-drying showed the opposite results. Overall, spray-drying could be a better drying technology that can be applied to dry pea water. Further experiments are required, however, to determine the influence of drying technologies on emulsifying activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physicochemical and Sensory Evaluation of Grain-Based Food)
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Article
Reinvigorating Modern Breadmaking Based on Ancient Practices and Plant Ingredients, with Implementation of a Physicochemical Approach
Foods 2021, 10(4), 789; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040789 - 07 Apr 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1164
Abstract
In this study, the potential use of ancient plant ingredients in emerging bakery products based on possible prehistoric and/or ancient practices of grinding and breadmaking was explored. Various ancient grains, nuts and seeds (einkorn wheat, barley, acorn, lentil, poppy seeds, linseed) were ground [...] Read more.
In this study, the potential use of ancient plant ingredients in emerging bakery products based on possible prehistoric and/or ancient practices of grinding and breadmaking was explored. Various ancient grains, nuts and seeds (einkorn wheat, barley, acorn, lentil, poppy seeds, linseed) were ground using prehistoric grinding tool replicas. Barley-based sourdough prepared by multiple back-slopping steps was added to dough made from einkorn alone or mixed with the above ingredients (20% level) or commercial flours alone (common wheat, spelt, barley). Sieving analysis showed that 40% of the einkorn flour particles were >400 μm, whereas commercial barley and common wheat flours were finer. Differential scanning calorimetry revealed that lentil flour exhibited higher melting peak temperature and lower apparent enthalpy of starch gelatinization. Among all bread formulations tested, barley dough exhibited the highest elastic modulus and complex viscosity, as determined by dynamic rheometry; einkorn breads fortified with linseed and barley had the softest and hardest crust, respectively, as indicated by texture analysis; and common wheat gave the highest loaf-specific volume. Barley sourdough inclusion into einkorn dough did not affect the extent of starch retrogradation in the baked product. Generally, incorporation of ancient plant ingredients into contemporary bread formulations seems to be feasible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physicochemical and Sensory Evaluation of Grain-Based Food)
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Article
Diversifying the Utilization of Maize at Household Level in Zambia: Quality and Consumer Preferences of Maize-Based Snacks
Foods 2021, 10(4), 750; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040750 - 01 Apr 2021
Viewed by 874
Abstract
This study evaluated the nutritional, antinutritional properties, and consumer preferences of five maize-based snacks at the household level. The physical, nutritional, and antinutritional properties were analyzed with standard laboratory methods, while a structured questionnaire was used for the data collection on consumer preferences [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the nutritional, antinutritional properties, and consumer preferences of five maize-based snacks at the household level. The physical, nutritional, and antinutritional properties were analyzed with standard laboratory methods, while a structured questionnaire was used for the data collection on consumer preferences of the maize products. There were significant (p < 0.05) differences in the proximate parameters of the maize snack samples. Antinutritional properties among maize snacks all fell within the permissible range. Respondents from all districts showed no significant (p > 0.05) differences in maize chin-chin variants’ and maize finger variants’ except for Serenje and Mkushi districts where maize chin-chin and maize finger showed significant (p < 0.05) differences in their sensory ratings. However, across districts, the most rated maize finger variant was the spiced 100% maize finger. In conclusion, maize-based snacks enriched with soybean flour have proven nutritious with a reasonable acceptability level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physicochemical and Sensory Evaluation of Grain-Based Food)
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Review

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Review
Vegan Egg: A Future-Proof Food Ingredient?
Foods 2022, 11(2), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11020161 - 08 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1810
Abstract
Vegan eggs are designed with the aim to provide a healthier and more sustainable alternative to regular eggs. The major drivers of this industry are the increasing prevalence of egg allergies, awareness towards environmental sustainability, and the shift to vegan diets. This study [...] Read more.
Vegan eggs are designed with the aim to provide a healthier and more sustainable alternative to regular eggs. The major drivers of this industry are the increasing prevalence of egg allergies, awareness towards environmental sustainability, and the shift to vegan diets. This study intends to discuss, for the first time, the vegan egg market, including their formulation, nutritional aspects, and some applications (i.e., mayonnaise and bakery products). Recreating the complete functionality of eggs using plant-based ingredients is very challenging due to the complexity of eggs. Current, but scarce, research in this field is focused on making mixtures of plant-based ingredients to fit specific food formulations. Nutritionally, providing vegan eggs with similar or higher nutritional value to that of eggs can be of relevance to attract health-conscious consumers. Claims such as clean labels, natural, vegan, animal-free, gluten-free, and/or cholesterol-free can further boost the position of vegan eggs in the market in the coming year. At present, this market is still in its infancy stages, and clear regulations of labeling, safety, and risk assessment are deemed mandatory to organize the sector, and protect consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physicochemical and Sensory Evaluation of Grain-Based Food)
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