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Topical Collection "Featured Papers in Electrical Power and Energy System"

Editors

Prof. Dr. Nicu Bizon
E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Faculty of Electronics, Communication and Computers, University of Pitesti, 110040 Pitesti, Romania
Interests: electrical engineering; power electronics; power converters; inverters; renewable energy; energy efficiency; energy storage; fuel cell; hybrid power systems; control; optimization; MATLAB simulation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Mihai Oproescu
E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Faculty of Electronics, Communication and Computers, University of Pitesti, 110040 Pitesti, Romania
Interests: electrical engineering; power electronics; power converters; renewable energy technologies; control systems engineering; MATLAB simulation; power systems simulation; power systems analysis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Philippe Poure
E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Institut Jean Lamour (UMR7198), Université de Lorraine, Campus Artem - BP 50840, F-54511 Nancy, France
Interests: energy harvesting; solar energy; power and energy architectures; energy conversion and storage; energy conversion and efficiency; maximum power point tracking techniques; energy management; DC-DC conversion; operation under faulty conditions; prognostics and diagnostics; fault tolerant operation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Rocío Pérez de Prado
E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Department of Telecommunication Engineering, University of Jaén, 23071 Jaén, Spain
Interests: consumption; data centers; scientific workflows; machine learning; soft computing; artificial intelligence; optical communications; cloud computing
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Abdessattar Abdelkefi
E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003, USA
Interests: energy harvesting; nonlinear dynamics; vibration and control; smart materials; aeroelasticity; fluid-structure interactions; micro-/nanoelectromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS); flight dynamics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

The exponential growth of global energy demand and the demand for sustainable energy development in recent years can both be addressed systemically by implementing innovative solutions for the generation, transmission, distribution and use of electricity.

This Topical Collection, "Featured Papers in Electrical Power and Energy System", will provide a focused analysis of the state of the art in the field of the power and energy systems, both in terms of the individual elements of the power system and their integration, as well as from the point of view of the interaction between the subsystems.

Thus, this Topical Collection will cover modelling of power subsystems, use of the new technologies, the design, control and optimization of the power systems, their implementation and performance evaluation in operation.

The present Topical Collection of Energies, which is an SCIE journal (2020 IF = 3.004), aims to collect innovative solutions and experimental research, as well as state-of-the-art studies, in the following topics:

  • Power plants and substations;
  • Current power systems;
  • AC and DC grids;
  • Green power systems;
  • Smart transmission grids;
  • Smart distribution grids;
  • Advanced reliability, resiliency and safety solutions for the power systems;
  • Information and communication infrastructure for smart power systems;
  • Energy harvesting systems.

The papers received are subject to a rigorous, but fast, peer review procedure, ensuring the wide dissemination of research results accepted for this Topical Collection.

We are writing to invite you to submit your original work to this Topical Collection. We are looking forward to receiving your outstanding research outcomes.

Prof. Dr. Nicu Bizon
Dr. Mihai Oproescu
Prof. Dr. Philippe Poure
Dr. Rocío Pérez de Prado
Dr. Abdessattar Abdelkefi
Collection Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Instrumentation
  • Monitorization
  • Automation
  • Control
  • Modeling
  • Simulation
  • Renewable energy sources
  • Energy storage devices
  • Power storage devices
  • Fuel cell systems
  • Distributed energy resources
  • Energy conversion
  • Power quality
  • System stability
  • Electric machines
  • Metering
  • Testing
  • Protection
  • FACTS
  • Transmission and distribution (EHV/HV/MV/LV)
  • AC microgrids
  • DC microgrids
  • Nanogrids
  • Microgrids
  • Smart buildings
  • Home energy systems
  • Vehicle-to-everything (V2X)
  • Energy management systems
  • Distribution management systems
  • Vehicle, trains, ships and aircrafts powering
  • Electromagnetic compatibility
  • Carbon capture
  • Energy market
  • Planning and economics
  • Blockchain
  • Smart contracts
  • Cyber-security
  • Information and communication technology (ICT)
  • Big data
  • Energy harvesting systems

Published Papers (18 papers)

2022

Jump to: 2021

Article
Scalable IoT Architecture for Monitoring IEQ Conditions in Public and Private Buildings
Energies 2022, 15(6), 2270; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15062270 - 21 Mar 2022
Viewed by 516
Abstract
This paper presents a scalable IoT architecture based on the edge–fog–cloud paradigm for monitoring the Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) parameters in public buildings. Nowadays, IEQ monitoring systems are becoming important for several reasons: (1) to ensure that temperature and humidity conditions are adequate, [...] Read more.
This paper presents a scalable IoT architecture based on the edge–fog–cloud paradigm for monitoring the Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) parameters in public buildings. Nowadays, IEQ monitoring systems are becoming important for several reasons: (1) to ensure that temperature and humidity conditions are adequate, improving the comfort and productivity of the occupants; (2) to introduce actions to reduce energy consumption, contributing to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG); and (3) to guarantee the quality of the air—a key concern due to the COVID-19 worldwide pandemic. Two kinds of nodes compose the proposed architecture; these are the so-called: (1) smart IEQ sensor nodes, responsible for acquiring indoor environmental measures locally, and (2) the IEQ concentrators, responsible for collecting the data from smart sensor nodes distributed along the facilities. The IEQ concentrators are also responsible for configuring the acquisition system locally, logging the acquired local data, analyzing the information, and connecting to cloud applications. The presented architecture has been designed using low-cost open-source hardware and software—specifically, single board computers and microcontrollers such as Raspberry Pis and Arduino boards. WiFi and TCP/IP communication technologies were selected, since they are typically available in corporative buildings, benefiting from already available communication infrastructures. The application layer was implemented with MQTT. A prototype was built and deployed at the Faculty of Engineering of Vitoria-Gasteiz, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), using the existing network infrastructure. This prototype allowed for collecting data within different academic scenarios. Finally, a smart sensor node was designed including low-cost sensors to measure temperature, humidity, eCO2, and VOC. Full article
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Article
Performance Investigation and Cogging Torque Reduction in a Novel Modular Stator PM Flux Reversal Machine
Energies 2022, 15(6), 2261; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15062261 - 19 Mar 2022
Viewed by 467
Abstract
In this research paper, various performances of five different rotor pole topologies of the proposed novel modular stator (MS) permanent magnet (PM) flux reversal machine were investigated. The proposed design had concentrated, non-overlapping winding, which offered high average torque capability at a wide [...] Read more.
In this research paper, various performances of five different rotor pole topologies of the proposed novel modular stator (MS) permanent magnet (PM) flux reversal machine were investigated. The proposed design had concentrated, non-overlapping winding, which offered high average torque capability at a wide speed range. The no-load performances such as coil test analysis, three-phase flux linkage, flux distribution, back-EMF, and cogging torque, and load analysis, such as average torque versus current density, instantaneous torque, and average electromagnetic torque, were compared. The PM modular stator machine had high cogging torque, which created vibration and noise in the machine. Different cogging torque reduction techniques, such as notching, arc, flange and hybrid technique arc flange, arc notch, notch flange, and arc notch flange, were applied to reduce the cogging torque, improve average load torque, and reduce the induced voltage, harmonics, and torque ripples. The maximum cogging torque decreased by 87.66% and 82% when the arc notch flange and notch arc techniques were applied, respectively, and the minimum effect on cogging torque by the flange technique was 20.66%. Furthermore, the arc flange technique reduced the average torque by 66.72%. The maximum induced voltage was reduced by up to 12.83% using the notch arc technique. The hybrid technique of arc notch flange reduced the harmonics content in flux by 40% and enhanced electromagnetic performance. When applying the hybrid arc notch flange technique, torque ripples were reduced to 90.11%. Full article
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Article
Evolution of Solar Energy in Chile: Residential Opportunities in Arica and Parinacota
Energies 2022, 15(2), 551; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15020551 - 13 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 422
Abstract
Chile has set itself to achieve Greenhouse Gas emission neutrality, with at least 70% of electricity coming from renewable energy sources by 2050. To this end, institutional and regulatory frameworks have been improved, resulting in significant progress in medium and large-scale projects. However, [...] Read more.
Chile has set itself to achieve Greenhouse Gas emission neutrality, with at least 70% of electricity coming from renewable energy sources by 2050. To this end, institutional and regulatory frameworks have been improved, resulting in significant progress in medium and large-scale projects. However, solar energy production at residential level and its surplus injection to all distribution networks has been very limited. This paper analyzes the evolution of the regulatory energy policies in Chile in order to contrast it with an economic evaluation of residential projects. The analysis focuses on the city of Arica, one of the highest potential regions in terms of solar energy within the country. There, a particularly low penetration of residential solar energy usage has been observed. Based on the current situation, projections are made for Arica in 2050, through the identification of barriers and opportunities on a residential scale development. According to some recommendations, there is the need to design policies that take into account the particular characteristics of each region within the country. Full article
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2021

Jump to: 2022

Article
Use of Energy Storage to Reduce Transmission Losses in Meshed Power Distribution Networks
Energies 2021, 14(21), 7304; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14217304 - 04 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 570
Abstract
One of the challenges which the electrical power industry has been facing nowadays is the adaptation of the power system to the energy transition which has been taking place before our very eyes. With the increasing share of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) in [...] Read more.
One of the challenges which the electrical power industry has been facing nowadays is the adaptation of the power system to the energy transition which has been taking place before our very eyes. With the increasing share of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) in energy production, the development of electromobility and the increasing environmental awareness of the society, the power system must constantly evolve to meet its expectations regarding a reliable electricity supply. This paper presents the issue of deploying energy storage facilities in the meshed power distribution network in order to reduce transmission losses. The presented multi-objective approach provides an opportunity to solve this issue using multi-objective optimisation methods such as Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II), Multiobjective Particle Swarm Optimization (MPSO) and Biased Random Keys Genetic Algorithm (BRKGA). In order to increase the efficiency optimisation process, the Pareto Adaptive ϵ-dominance (paϵ-dominance) was used. It was demonstrated that the use of energy storages that cooperate with RES can significantly reduce transmission losses. Full article
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Article
Forecasting of Market Clearing Volume Using Wavelet Packet-Based Neural Networks with Tracking Signals
Energies 2021, 14(19), 6065; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14196065 - 23 Sep 2021
Viewed by 538
Abstract
In order to analyze the nature of electrical demand series in deregulated electricity markets, various forecasting tools have been used. All these forecasting models have been developed to improve the accuracy of the reliability of the model. Therefore, a Wavelet Packet Decomposition (WPD) [...] Read more.
In order to analyze the nature of electrical demand series in deregulated electricity markets, various forecasting tools have been used. All these forecasting models have been developed to improve the accuracy of the reliability of the model. Therefore, a Wavelet Packet Decomposition (WPD) was implemented to decompose the demand series into subseries. Each subseries has been forecasted individually with the help of the features of that series, and features were chosen on the basis of mutual correlation among all-time lags using an Auto Correlation Function (ACF). Thus, in this context, a new hybrid WPD-based Linear Neural Network with Tapped Delay (LNNTD) model, with a cyclic one-month moving window for a one-year market clearing volume (MCV) forecasting has been proposed. The proposed model has been effectively implemented in two years (2015–2016) and unconstrained MCV data collected from the Indian Energy Exchange (IEX) for 12 grid regions of India. The results presented by the proposed models are better in terms of accuracy, with a yearly average MAPE of 0.201%, MAE of 9.056 MWh, and coefficient of regression (R2) of 0.9996. Further, forecasts of the proposed model have been validated using tracking signals (TS’s) in which the values of TS’s lie within a balanced limit between −492 to 6.83, and universality of the model has been carried out effectively using multiple steps-ahead forecasting up to the sixth step. It has been found out that hybrid models are powerful forecasting tools for demand forecasting. Full article
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Article
A Quasi-Oppositional Heap-Based Optimization Technique for Power Flow Analysis by Considering Large Scale Photovoltaic Generator
Energies 2021, 14(17), 5382; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14175382 - 30 Aug 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 826
Abstract
Load flow analysis is an essential tool for the reliable planning and operation of interconnected power systems. The constant increase in power demand, apart from the increased intermittency in power generation due to renewable energy sources without proportionate augmentation in transmission system infrastructure, [...] Read more.
Load flow analysis is an essential tool for the reliable planning and operation of interconnected power systems. The constant increase in power demand, apart from the increased intermittency in power generation due to renewable energy sources without proportionate augmentation in transmission system infrastructure, has driven the power systems to function nearer to their limits. Though the power flow (PF) solution may exist in such circumstances, the traditional Newton–Raphson based PF techniques may fail due to computational difficulties owing to the singularity of the Jacobian Matrix during critical conditions and faces difficulties in solving ill-conditioned systems. To address these problems and to assess the impact of large-scale photovoltaic generator (PVG) integration in power systems on power flow studies, a derivative-free quasi-oppositional heap-based optimization (HBO) (QOHBO) technique is proposed in the present paper. In the proposed approach, the concept of quasi-oppositional learning is applied to HBO to enhance the convergence speed. The efficacy and effectiveness of the proposed QOHBO-PF technique are verified by applying it to the standard IEEE and ill-conditioned systems. The robustness of the algorithm is validated under the maximum loadability limits and high R/X ratios, comparing the results with other well-known methods suggested in the literature. The results thus obtained show that the proposed QOHBO-PF technique has less computation time, further enhancement of reliability in the presence of PVG, and has the ability to provide multiple PF solutions that can be utilized for voltage stability analysis. Full article
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Article
Robust Design of Dual-Input Power System Stabilizer Using Chaotic JAYA Algorithm
Energies 2021, 14(17), 5294; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14175294 - 26 Aug 2021
Viewed by 517
Abstract
This work aims to improve the stability of a system that consists of one generator using a dual-input stabilizer of a power system. For this purpose, a new design method based on a chaotic JAYA algorithm is proposed. This algorithm hybridizes the original [...] Read more.
This work aims to improve the stability of a system that consists of one generator using a dual-input stabilizer of a power system. For this purpose, a new design method based on a chaotic JAYA algorithm is proposed. This algorithm hybridizes the original JAYA algorithm with chaos to improve its exploration and exploitation capabilities. Indeed, the disordered numbers generated by the chaotic map are exploited to control the standard JAYA algorithm’s search equations. The issue of design is stated as an optimization problem. The proposed technique is involved in the selection of optimal values of the dual-input power system stabilizer (PSS) parameters. The efficiency of the proposed controller is assessed under various loading conditions and compared with the original JAYA, cuckoo search and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithms. The target function consists of the integration of absolute error multiplied by the time, including the speed deviation is considered for the controller design method. The controller tuned by a chaotic JAYA algorithm is tested using a single machine infinite bus (SMIB) power system. The findings of the simulation results demonstrate the robustness and effectiveness of the suggested method in damping oscillations over an extended range of loading conditions. Full article
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Article
New Infeed Correction Methods for Distance Protection in Distribution Systems
Energies 2021, 14(15), 4652; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14154652 - 31 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 933
Abstract
The reliability and security of power systems may be jeopardized by the increase in the amounts of renewable generation and the uncertainties produced by these devices. In particular, the protection schemes of traditional power systems have been challenged by the integration of distributed [...] Read more.
The reliability and security of power systems may be jeopardized by the increase in the amounts of renewable generation and the uncertainties produced by these devices. In particular, the protection schemes of traditional power systems have been challenged by the integration of distributed generation (DG) resources. Distance relays (DRs), which have been mainly employed to protect transmission systems, are increasingly proposed as one of the solutions to protect distribution systems with a heavy penetration of DGs. However, conventional distance protection faces several drawbacks that might lead to maloperation. One of those challenges is the “infeed effect”, which causes the impedance seen by the distance relay to be larger than the actual positive-sequence line impedance between the fault and relay location. This paper proposes three new methods to estimate the distance to the fault in the presence of infeeds, whether in a radial distribution feeder or the transmission line. Unlike other solution methodologies in the literature that require communication links to estimate the distance to the fault, the proposed methods only need the local measurement (i.e., the voltage and current measurements at the location of the distance relay) to do the same. The performance of the method is demonstrated with a radial distribution system model in PSCAD™/EMTDC™. Full article
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Article
Characterization of TSO and DSO Grid System Services and TSO-DSO Basic Coordination Mechanisms in the Current Decarbonization Context
Energies 2021, 14(15), 4451; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14154451 - 23 Jul 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1023
Abstract
Power systems rely on ancillary services (ASs) to ensure system security and stability. Until recently, only the conventional power generation resources connected to the transmission grids were allowed to provide these ASs managed by the transmission system operators (TSOs), while distribution system operators [...] Read more.
Power systems rely on ancillary services (ASs) to ensure system security and stability. Until recently, only the conventional power generation resources connected to the transmission grids were allowed to provide these ASs managed by the transmission system operators (TSOs), while distribution system operators (DSOs) had a more passive role, focused on guaranteeing distribution capacity to bring power to final consumers with enough quality. Now, with the decarbonization, digitalization and decentralization processes of the electrical networks, the growing integration of distributed energy resources (DERs) in distribution grids are displacing conventional generation and increasing the complexity of distribution networks’ operation, requiring the implementation of new active and coordinated management strategies between TSOs and DSOs. In this context, DERs are becoming potential new sources of flexibility for both TSOs and DSOs in helping to manage the power system. This paper proposes a systematic characterization of both traditional and potentially new ASs for TSOs, and newly expected DSO local system services to support the new distribution grid operation paradigm, reviewing, in addition, the main TSO-DSO coordination mechanisms. Full article
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Article
A Synergetic Sliding Mode Controller Applied to Direct Field-Oriented Control of Induction Generator-Based Variable Speed Dual-Rotor Wind Turbines
Energies 2021, 14(15), 4437; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14154437 - 22 Jul 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 682
Abstract
A synergetic sliding mode (SSM) approach is designed to address the drawbacks of the direct field-oriented control (DFOC) of the induction generators (IGs) integrated into variable speed dual-rotor wind power (DRWP) systems with the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) technique. Using SSM controllers [...] Read more.
A synergetic sliding mode (SSM) approach is designed to address the drawbacks of the direct field-oriented control (DFOC) of the induction generators (IGs) integrated into variable speed dual-rotor wind power (DRWP) systems with the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) technique. Using SSM controllers in the DFOC strategy, the active power, electromagnetic torque, and reactive power ripples are reduced compared to traditional DFOC using proportional-integral (PI) controllers. This proposed strategy, associated with SSM controllers, produces efficient state estimation. The effectiveness of the designed DFOC strategy has been evaluated on variable speed DRWP systems with the MPPT technique. Full article
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Article
Modeling and Measurements of Properties of Coupled Inductors
Energies 2021, 14(14), 4088; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14144088 - 06 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 682
Abstract
This paper proposes a model of a coupled inductor which takes into account the influence of frequency, temperature, and a constant component, IDC, of currents in the windings on the parameters of the considered element. A description of the model and [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a model of a coupled inductor which takes into account the influence of frequency, temperature, and a constant component, IDC, of currents in the windings on the parameters of the considered element. A description of the model and methods of measuring parameters of the inductor using an impedance analyzer and a chamber for thermal measurements is given. The obtained results of measurements are compared with the results of calculations proving a satisfactory match. Full article
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Review
AC vs. DC Distribution Efficiency: Are We on the Right Path?
Energies 2021, 14(13), 4039; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14134039 - 04 Jul 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1167
Abstract
The concept of DC power distribution has gained interest within the research community in the past years, especially due to the rapid prevalence of solar PVs as a tool for distributed generation in DC microgrids. Various efficiency analyses have been presented for the [...] Read more.
The concept of DC power distribution has gained interest within the research community in the past years, especially due to the rapid prevalence of solar PVs as a tool for distributed generation in DC microgrids. Various efficiency analyses have been presented for the DC distribution paradigm, in comparison to the AC counterpart, considering a variety of scenarios. However, even after a number of such comparative efficiency studies, there seems to be a disparity in the results of research efforts, wherein a definite verdict is still unavailable. Is DC distribution a more efficient choice as compared to the conventional AC system? A final verdict is absent primarily due to conflicting results. In this regard, system modeling and the assumptions made in different studies play a significant role in affecting the results of the study. The current paper is an attempt to critically observe the modeling and assumptions used in the efficiency studies related to the DC distribution system. Several research efforts are analyzed for their approach toward the system upon which they have performed efficiency studies. Subsequently, the paper proposes a model that may alleviate the shortcomings in earlier research efforts and be able to give a definite verdict regarding the comparative efficiency of DC and AC networks for residential power distribution. Full article
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Article
Evaluation of Flicker of Light Generated by Arc Furnaces
Energies 2021, 14(13), 3901; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14133901 - 29 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 565
Abstract
Due to the dynamic nature of load changes, arc devices are receivers that generate disturbances to the network that affect the power quality. The main disturbance generated by these receivers are voltage fluctuations. One of the effects of voltage fluctuations is the flicker [...] Read more.
Due to the dynamic nature of load changes, arc devices are receivers that generate disturbances to the network that affect the power quality. The main disturbance generated by these receivers are voltage fluctuations. One of the effects of voltage fluctuations is the flicker of light caused by lighting receivers. The article presents an analysis of changes indicators flicker of light measured in networks supplying arc furnaces. The propagation of voltage fluctuations to the lines supplying lighting receivers was analyzed. The network parameters influencing the amount of light flicker were estimated. The paper presents a method for calculating the increased flicker of light when several electric arc furnaces are operated in parallel. The conclusions regarding the use of the presented research in practical applications are given in the summary. Full article
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Article
Wind Farm Cable Connection Layout Optimization with Several Substations
Energies 2021, 14(12), 3615; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14123615 - 17 Jun 2021
Viewed by 765
Abstract
Green energy has become a media issue due to climate changes, and consequently, the population has become more aware of pollution. Wind farms are an essential energy production alternative to fossil energy. The incentive to produce wind energy was a government policy some [...] Read more.
Green energy has become a media issue due to climate changes, and consequently, the population has become more aware of pollution. Wind farms are an essential energy production alternative to fossil energy. The incentive to produce wind energy was a government policy some decades ago to decrease carbon emissions. In recent decades, wind farms were formed by a substation and a couple of turbines. Nowadays, wind farms are designed with hundreds of turbines requiring more than one substation. This paper formulates an integer linear programming model to design wind farms’ cable layout with several turbines. The proposed model obtains the optimal solution considering different cable types, infrastructure costs, and energy losses. An additional constraint was considered to limit the number of cables that cross a walkway, i.e., the number of connections between a set of wind turbines and the remaining wind farm. Furthermore, considering a discrete set of possible turbine locations, the model allows identifying those that should be present in the optimal solution, thereby addressing the optimal location of the substation(s) in the wind farm. The paper illustrates solutions and the associated costs of two wind farms, with up to 102 turbines and three substations in the optimal solution, selected among sixteen possible places. The optimal solutions are obtained in a short time. Full article
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Article
Modeling Electricity Price and Quantity Uncertainty: An Application for Hedging with Forward Contracts
Energies 2021, 14(11), 3345; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14113345 - 07 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 904
Abstract
Energy transactions in liberalized markets are subject to price and quantity uncertainty. This paper considers the spot price and energy generation to follow a bivariate semi-nonparametric distribution defined in terms of the Gram–Charlier expansion. This distribution allows us to jointly model not only [...] Read more.
Energy transactions in liberalized markets are subject to price and quantity uncertainty. This paper considers the spot price and energy generation to follow a bivariate semi-nonparametric distribution defined in terms of the Gram–Charlier expansion. This distribution allows us to jointly model not only mean, variance, and correlation but also skewness, kurtosis, and higher-order moments. Based on this model, we propose a static hedging strategy for electricity generators that participate in a competitive market where hedging is carried out through forward contracts that include a risk premium in their valuation. For this purpose, we use Monte Carlo simulation and consider information from the Colombian electricity market as the case study. The results show that the volume of energy to be sold under long-term contracts depends on each electricity generator and the risk assessment made by the market in the forward risk premium. The conditions of skewness, kurtosis, and correlation, as well as the type of the employed risk indicator, affect the hedging strategy that each electricity generator should implement. A positive correlation between the spot price and energy production tends to increase the hedge ratio; meanwhile, negative correlation tends to reduce it. The increase of forward risk premium, on the other hand, reduces the hedge ratio. Full article
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Article
Economic Evaluation of Wind Power Projects in a Mix of Free and Regulated Market Environments in Brazil
Energies 2021, 14(11), 3325; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14113325 - 05 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1523
Abstract
The electricity market in Brazil is basically organized under two parts: the regulated market, where energy is traded through auctions, and the free market, where market participants freely negotiate the price and quantity of electricity. Although revenues obtained in the regulated market tend [...] Read more.
The electricity market in Brazil is basically organized under two parts: the regulated market, where energy is traded through auctions, and the free market, where market participants freely negotiate the price and quantity of electricity. Although revenues obtained in the regulated market tend to be lower than in the free market, the auctions’ results show that investors still value the lesser degree of uncertainty associated with the regulated market. However, a growing interest in the free market by investors is recognized since the price of electricity tends to be higher. Therefore, this study investigates four free market price scenarios to assess the expected return for investors, using the traditional discounted cash flow approach complemented with Monte Carlo simulation to address market uncertainty. The study breaks new ground by capturing the weekly price fluctuations and including the price elasticity of demand of the free market. The results seem to indicate that the disclosure of the ceiling and floor price limits for the spot price can signal important information about the agents’ price expectation in the free market and can be used for investment project evaluation. Full article
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Article
Real Fault Location in a Distribution Network Using Smart Feeder Meter Data
Energies 2021, 14(11), 3242; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14113242 - 01 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1052
Abstract
Distribution networks transmit electrical energy from an upstream network to customers. Undesirable circumstances such as faults in the distribution networks can cause hazardous conditions, equipment failure, and power outages. Therefore, to avoid financial loss, to maintain customer satisfaction, and network reliability, it is [...] Read more.
Distribution networks transmit electrical energy from an upstream network to customers. Undesirable circumstances such as faults in the distribution networks can cause hazardous conditions, equipment failure, and power outages. Therefore, to avoid financial loss, to maintain customer satisfaction, and network reliability, it is vital to restore the network as fast as possible. In this paper, a new fault location (FL) algorithm that uses the recorded data of smart meters (SMs) and smart feeder meters (SFMs) to locate the actual point of fault, is introduced. The method does not require high-resolution measurements, which is among the main advantages of the method. An impedance-based technique is utilized to detect all possible FL candidates in the distribution network. After the fault occurrence, the protection relay sends a signal to all SFMs, to collect the recorded active power of all connected lines after the fault. The higher value of active power represents the real faulty section due to the high-fault current. The effectiveness of the proposed method was investigated on an IEEE 11-node test feeder in MATLAB SIMULINK 2020b, under several situations, such as different fault resistances, distances, inception angles, and types. In some cases, the algorithm found two or three candidates for FL. In these cases, the section estimation helped to identify the real fault among all candidates. Section estimation method performs well for all simulated cases. The results showed that the proposed method was accurate and was able to precisely detect the real faulty section. To experimentally evaluate the proposed method’s powerfulness, a laboratory test and its simulation were carried out. The algorithm was precisely able to distinguish the real faulty section among all candidates in the experiment. The results revealed the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed method. Full article
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Article
Machine Learning Techniques for Energy Efficiency and Anomaly Detection in Hybrid Wireless Sensor Networks
Energies 2021, 14(11), 3125; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14113125 - 27 May 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1191
Abstract
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are among the most popular wireless technologies for sensor communication purposes nowadays. Usually, WSNs are developed for specific applications, either monitoring purposes or tracking purposes, for indoor or outdoor environments, where limited battery power is a main challenge. To [...] Read more.
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are among the most popular wireless technologies for sensor communication purposes nowadays. Usually, WSNs are developed for specific applications, either monitoring purposes or tracking purposes, for indoor or outdoor environments, where limited battery power is a main challenge. To overcome this problem, many routing protocols have been proposed through the last few years. Nevertheless, the extension of the network lifetime in consideration of the sensors capacities remains an open issue. In this paper, to achieve more efficient and reliable protocols according to current application scenarios, two well-known energy efficient protocols, i.e., Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering hierarchy (LEACH) and Energy–Efficient Sensor Routing (EESR), are redesigned considering neural networks. Specifically, to improve results in terms of energy efficiency, a Levenberg–Marquardt neural network (LMNN) is integrated. Furthermore, in order to improve the performance, a sub-cluster LEACH-derived protocol is also proposed. Simulation results show that the Sub-LEACH with LMNN outperformed its competitors in energy efficiency. In addition, the end-to-end delay was evaluated, and Sub-LEACH protocol proved to be the best among existing strategies. Moreover, an intrusion detection system (IDS) has been proposed for anomaly detection based on the support vector machine (SVM) approach for optimal feature selection. Results showed a 96.15% accuracy—again outperforming existing IDS models. Therefore, satisfactory results in terms of energy efficiency, end-to-end delay and anomaly detection analysis were attained. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Dual-mode Brushless Wound Rotor Synchronous Machine with High Starting Torque
Authors: Ali Roshanzamir 1; Muhammad Ayub 1,2; Byung-il Kwon 1
Affiliation: (1) Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan 15588, Korea; (2) Department of Electronic Engineering, FICT, BUITEMS, Quetta 87300, Pakistan.
Abstract: This paper proposes a dual-mode brushless wound rotor synchronous machine (DBL-WRSM) with a high starting torque. In the existing BL-WRSM topologies, the absence of initial flux on the rotor causes zero starting torque. Unlike the existing BL-WRSM, the proposed DBL-WRSM uses a new topology in the rotor to generate the starting torque. The proposed DBL-WRSM is able to generate high starting torque and constant torque in the constant torque region. The proposed machine operates in two modes: the induction and synchronous modes. In the induc-tion mode, the machine operates as a wound rotor induction machine (WRIM) to generate the starting torque, whereas in the synchronous mode, the machine operates as a BL-WRSM. Five switches are used in the three-phase rotor field winding to change the rotor three-phase WRIM winding to the BL-WRSM rotor. A 2D finite element analysis is performed to verify the principle of the proposed DBL-WRSM. The electromagnetic torque is analyzed for the proposed DBL-WRSM to demonstrate the high starting torque and the constant torque in the constant torque region. Moreover, the synchronization capability of the proposed machine is analyzed.

 

Title: Effect of Forecasting of Wind Speed with input selection Using Artificial Neural Networks
Authors: Marta Żurek-Mortka
Affiliation: Department of Control Systems, Lukasiewicz Research Network - Institute for Sustainable Technologies, Radom, Poland
Abstract: At present, deterministic times series simulation values based forecasting is preferred over physical data based wind speed forecasting (WSF). But, it is very difficult to meet out the actual requirements of wind farms because highly uncertain nature of wind speed and its associative parameters data. On the mentioned topic, this presented research develops an improved ensemble time series regression based model for day-ahead local WSF’s. The proposed model input has been optimized using regression specifically Auto Correlation Function (ACF). The wind data of Hisar, India collected from National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been utilized for the local WSF. In this, Neural Network (NN) with Levenberg Marquardt (LM) learning algorithm has been adopted for the forecasting simulation purpose. The results has been indicated using simulation by considering the seasonal months WSF’s.

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