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Special Issue "Efficiency and Sustainability of the Distributed Renewable Hybrid Power Systems based on the Energy Internet, Blockchain Technology and Smart Contracts-2021"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2022) | Viewed by 9602

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Nicu Bizon
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Electronics, Communication and Computers, University of Pitesti, 110040 Pitesti, Romania
Interests: electrical engineering; power electronics; power converters; inverters; renewable energy; energy efficiency; energy storage; fuel cell; hybrid power systems; control; optimization; MATLAB simulation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Mamadou Baïlo Camara
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Electrotechnic and Automatic Research Laboratory of Le Havre (GREAH), University of Le Havre Normandie, 75 rue Bellot, 76600 Le Havre, France
Interests: energy management systems; supercapacitors; DC–DC power convertors; diesel–electric generators; distributed power generation; dynamic power response; electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; hybrid power systems; lithium batteries; photovoltaic power systems; power control; power generation control; power grids; renewable energy sources; resonant power convertors; wind turbines; supercapacitors ageing characterization; battery management systems; battery-powered vehicles
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Bhargav Appasani
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Electronics Engineering, Kalinga Institute of Industrial Technology, Bhubaneswar 751024, India
Interests: smart grid communication networks; ocean wave energy control; second generation current conveyors; terahertz metamaterial absorbers; optimization techniques; artificial intelligence

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The extremely rapid increase in world energy demand over the last decade along with the requests for sustainable development can be approached through micro- and nanogrids that use hybrid power systems based on the Energy Internet, blockchain technology, and smart contracts. In this way, renewable energy sources, fuel cell systems, and other energy generating sources will be optimally combined and connected to the grid system using advanced energy transaction methods.

Thus, to highlight the latest solutions, this Special Issue, entitled “Efficiency and Sustainability of Distributed Renewable Hybrid Power Systems Based on Energy Internet, Blockchain Technology, and Smart Contracts”, was proposed for the international journal Sustainability, an SCIE journal (2019 IF = 2.576). The present Special Issue of Sustainability aims to collect innovative solutions and experimental research, but also state-of-the-art studies, on the following topics:

  1. Microgrids, nanogrids, smart grids, smart cities, and smart associations of farms, buildings, parking, and homes;
  2. Smart grid cybersecurity using the Energy Internet, blockchain, and smart contract-based applications;
  3. Operations of smart associations integrated with distributed generation;
  4. Smart grid architecture and energy management models;
  5. Smart grid wide area monitoring systems: optimized planning, reliable and resilient operation;
  6. Fuel cell (FC) systems: modeling, control, optimization, and innovative technologies to improve the fuel economy, lifetime, reliability, and safety in operation;
  7. Hybrid power systems (HPSs) based on renewable energy sources (RESs) (RES HPS): optimized RES HPSs architectures; global maximum power point tracking (GMPPT) control algorithms to improve energy harvesting from RESs; advanced energy management strategies (EMSs) to optimally ensure the power flow balance in DC (and/or AC bus) for standalone RES HPSs or grid-connected RES HPSs (micro- and nanogrids, etc.);
  8. RES HPS with FC system as backup energy source (FC RES HPS): innovative solutions to mitigate the RES power variability and load dynamics to energy storage systems (ESSs) by control of the generated FC power; DC voltage regulation and/or load pulses mitigation by active control of the power converters from hybrid ESS;
  9. FC vehicles (FCVs): FCV powertrain, ESS topologies and hybridization technologies, and EMSs to improve the fuel economy; 
  10. Optimal sizing of FC RES HPSs and FCVs;
  11. Networked control system and its related applications;
  12. Business opportunities, open issues, and future trends.

Received submissions are subject to a rigorous but fast peer review procedure, and publication in open access ensures wide dissemination of the research presented in this Special Issue.

We are writing to invite you to submit your original papers to this Special Issue and look forward to reading about the remarkable results of your research. If you are able to send a title and abstract of the potential paper soon (if possible), then we can include it in the list of planned papers when we make an announcement shortly.

Prof. Dr. Nicu Bizon
Prof. Dr. Mamadou Baïlo Camara
Dr. Bhargav Appasani
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • hybrid power systems (HPSs)
  • renewable energy sources (RESs)
  • fuel cell (FC) systems
  • energy management strategies (EMSs)
  • Energy Internet
  • blockchain technology
  • solar coin
  • smart contracts
  • hybrid energy storage systems (HESSs)
  • fuel cell vehicles (FCVs)
  • global maximum power point tracking (GMPPT)
  • FC RES micro- and nanogrids
  • smart grid cybersecurity
  • system and process design of FC RES HPS
  • networked control systems
  • fuel economy, lifetime, reliability, and safety in operation of FC RES HPS

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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Article
Developing a Generalized Multi-Level Inverter with Reduced Number of Power Electronics Components
Sustainability 2022, 14(9), 5545; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14095545 - 05 May 2022
Viewed by 382
Abstract
Reducing the number of components of power electronic converters has been an important research topic over the past few decades. This paper introduces a new structure for a multi-level inverter based on reduced switch basic modules. The proposed basic module requires fewer switches [...] Read more.
Reducing the number of components of power electronic converters has been an important research topic over the past few decades. This paper introduces a new structure for a multi-level inverter based on reduced switch basic modules. The proposed basic module requires fewer switches and auxiliary devices. In addition, a lesser number of on-state switches for the synthesis of each voltage level results in less conduction losses, which enhances the converter efficiency. The proposed structure is capable of being implemented in both symmetrical and asymmetrical topologies. This is a merit feature for the proposed topology, which produces high voltage levels with a limited number of elements. The proposed structure is controlled using the fundamental frequency control scheme. The proposed basic module consists of six unidirectional switches and five DC voltage sources, generating five positive voltage levels. The performance of the recommended topology is analyzed from the various circuitry parameters, and a comprehensive comparison carried out with similar recent structures. The presented comparison reveals the advantage of the recommended inverter from different aspects of the circuitry parameters. The suggested structure is simulated using Matlab/Simulink software, and its performance is validated using a laboratory prototype. The results are reported for various steady-state and dynamic conditions. Full article
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Article
Design, Modeling, and Model-Free Control of Permanent Magnet-Assisted Synchronous Reluctance Motor for e-Vehicle Applications
Sustainability 2022, 14(9), 5423; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14095423 - 30 Apr 2022
Viewed by 640
Abstract
This paper describes the model-free control approaches for permanent magnet-assisted (PMa) synchronous reluctance motors (SynRMs) drive. The important improvement of the proposed control technique is the ability to determine the behavior of the state-variable system during both fixed-point and transient operations. The mathematical [...] Read more.
This paper describes the model-free control approaches for permanent magnet-assisted (PMa) synchronous reluctance motors (SynRMs) drive. The important improvement of the proposed control technique is the ability to determine the behavior of the state-variable system during both fixed-point and transient operations. The mathematical models of PMa-SynRM were firstly written in a straightforward linear model form to show the known and unknown parts. Before, the proposed controller, named here the intelligent proportional-integral (iPI), was applied as a control law to fix some unavoidable modeling errors and uncertainties of the motor. Lastly, a dSPACE control platform was used to realize the proposed control algorithm. A prototype 1-kW test bench based on a PMa-SynRM machine was designed and realized in the laboratory to test the studied control approach. The simulation using MATLAB/Simulink and experimental results revealed that the proposed control achieved excellent results under transient operating conditions for the motor drive’s cascaded control compared to traditional PI and model-based controls. Full article
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Article
Simplified Super Twisting Sliding Mode Approaches of the Double-Powered Induction Generator-Based Multi-Rotor Wind Turbine System
Sustainability 2022, 14(9), 5014; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14095014 - 22 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 436
Abstract
This work proposes a new indirect filed-oriented control (IFOC) scheme for double-powered induction generators (DPIGs) in multi-rotor wind turbine systems (MRWTS). The IFOC strategy is characterized by its simplicity, ease of use, and fast dynamic speed. However, there are drawbacks to [...] Read more.
This work proposes a new indirect filed-oriented control (IFOC) scheme for double-powered induction generators (DPIGs) in multi-rotor wind turbine systems (MRWTS). The IFOC strategy is characterized by its simplicity, ease of use, and fast dynamic speed. However, there are drawbacks to this method. Among its disadvantages is the presence of ripples in the level of torque, active power, and current. In addition, the total harmonic distortion (THD) value of the electric current is higher compared to the direct torque control method. In order to overcome these shortcomings and in terms of improving the effectiveness and performance of this method, a new algorithm is proposed for the super twisting algorithm (STA). In this work, a new STA method called simplified STA (SSTA) algorithm is proposed and applied to the traditional IFOC strategy in order to reduce the ripples of torque, current, and active power. On the other hand, the inverter of the DPIG is controlled by using a five-level fuzzy simplified space vector modulation (FSSVM) technique to obtain a signal at the inverter output of a fixed frequency. The results obtained from this proposed IFOC-SSTA method with FSSVM strategy are compared with the classical IFOC method which uses the classical controller based on a proportional-integral (PI) controller. The proposed method is achieved using the Matlab/Simulink software, where a generator with a large capacity of 1.5 megawatts is used. The generator is placed in a multi-rotor electric power generation system. On the other hand, the two methods are compared in terms of ripple ratio, dynamic response, durability, and total harmonic distortion (THD) value of the electric current. Through the results obtained from this work, the proposed method based on SSTA provided better results in terms of ripple ratio, response dynamic, and even THD value compared to the classical method, and this shows the robustness of the proposed method in improving the performance and efficiency of the generator in the multi-rotor wind system. Full article
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Article
Technical Performance Prediction and Employment Potential of Solar PV Systems in Cold Countries
Sustainability 2022, 14(6), 3546; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14063546 - 17 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 660
Abstract
Power distribution to decentralized and remote communities secluded from centralized grid connections has always been a problem for utilities and governments worldwide. This situation is even more critical for the isolated communities in Russia due to the vast nature of the country. Therefore, [...] Read more.
Power distribution to decentralized and remote communities secluded from centralized grid connections has always been a problem for utilities and governments worldwide. This situation is even more critical for the isolated communities in Russia due to the vast nature of the country. Therefore, the Russian government is formulating and implementing several strategies to develop its renewable energy sector. However, very little information is available on the possible performance of solar photovoltaic (PV) modules under Russian weather conditions for all year round. Thus, this study has been designed to fill that research gap by assessing the performance ratio (PR), degradation, energy loss prediction, and employment potential of PV modules in the Sverdlovsk region of Russia using the PVsyst simulation model. A side-by-side comparison of the fixed tilted plane and tracking horizontal axis East–West were analyzed. According to the results, the annual production probability (P) for the fixed PV module for a P50, P75, and P90 is 39.68 MWh, 37.72 MWh, and 35.94 MWh, respectively, with a variability of 2.91 MWh. In the case of the tracking PV module, the annual production probability for the P50, P75, and P90 is 43.18 MWh, 41.05 MWh, and 39.12 MWh, respectively, with a variability of 3.17 MWh. A PR of 82.3% and 82.6% is obtained for the fixed and tracking systems, respectively, while the PV array losses for the fixed and tracking orientations are 15.1% and 14.9%, respectively. The months of May to August recorded the highest array losses due to the high temperatures that are usually recorded within that period. Full article
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Article
Bidirectional Interface Resonant Converter for Wide Voltage Range Storage Applications
Sustainability 2022, 14(1), 377; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14010377 - 30 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 465
Abstract
In this paper, a bidirectional zero voltage switching (ZVS) resonant converter with narrow control frequency deviation is proposed. Wide input–output voltage range applications, such as flywheel or supercapacitors storage units are targeted. Due to symmetrical topology of resonant circuit interfaces, the proposed converter [...] Read more.
In this paper, a bidirectional zero voltage switching (ZVS) resonant converter with narrow control frequency deviation is proposed. Wide input–output voltage range applications, such as flywheel or supercapacitors storage units are targeted. Due to symmetrical topology of resonant circuit interfaces, the proposed converter has similar behavior in bidirectional operating mode. We call it Dual Active Bridge Converter (DABC). The proposal topology of the converter is subjected to multi resonant circuits which make it necessary to study with multiscale approaches. Thus, first harmonic approximation and use of selective per unit parameters are established in (2) Methods. Then, the forward direction and backward direction of power flux exchange are detailed according to switching sequences. Switching frequency control must be completed within a narrow range. So, the frequency range deterministic parameters are emphasized in the design procedure in (3) Methods. A narrow range of switching frequency and a wide range voltage control must be ensured to suit for energy storage units, power electronic devices capabilities and electromagnetic compatibility. A 3 kW test bench is used to validate operation principles and to proof success of the developed design procedure. The interest of proposed converter is compared to other solutions from the literature in (4) Results. Full article
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Article
Frequency Stability of AC/DC Interconnected Power Systems with Wind Energy Using Arithmetic Optimization Algorithm-Based Fuzzy-PID Controller
Sustainability 2021, 13(21), 12095; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132112095 - 02 Nov 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 770
Abstract
This article proposes an intelligent control strategy to enhance the frequency dynamic performance of interconnected multi-source power systems composing of thermal, hydro, and gas power plants and the high penetration level of wind energy. The proposed control strategy is based on a combination [...] Read more.
This article proposes an intelligent control strategy to enhance the frequency dynamic performance of interconnected multi-source power systems composing of thermal, hydro, and gas power plants and the high penetration level of wind energy. The proposed control strategy is based on a combination of fuzzy logic control with a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller to overcome the PID limitations during abnormal conditions. Moreover, a newly adopted optimization technique namely Arithmetic optimization algorithm (AOA) is proposed to fine-tune the proposed fuzzy-PID controller to overcome the disadvantages of conventional and heuristic optimization techniques (i.e., long time in estimating controller parameters-slow convergence curves). Furthermore, the effect of the high voltage direct current link is taken into account in the studied interconnected power system to eliminate the AC transmission disadvantages (i.e., frequent tripping during oscillations in large power systems–high level of fault current). The dynamic performance analysis confirms the superiority of the proposed fuzzy-PID controller based on the AOA compared to the fuzzy-PID controller based on a hybrid local unimodal sampling and teaching learning-based optimization (TLBO) in terms of minimum objective function value and overshoots and undershoots oscillation measurement. Also, the AOA’s proficiency has been verified over several other powerful optimization techniques; differential evolution, TLBO using the PID controller. Moreover, the simulation results ensure the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed fuzzy-PID controller using the AOA in achieving better performance under several contingencies; different load variations, the high penetration level of the wind power, and system uncertainties compared to other literature controllers adjusting by various optimization techniques. Full article
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Article
An Improved Heap-Based Optimizer for Optimal Design of a Hybrid Microgrid Considering Reliability and Availability Constraints
Sustainability 2021, 13(18), 10419; https://doi.org/10.3390/su131810419 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 710
Abstract
The hybrid microgrid system is considered one of the best solution methods for many problems, such as the electricity problem in regions without electricity, to minimize pollution and the depletion of fossil sources. This study aims to propose and implement a new algorithm [...] Read more.
The hybrid microgrid system is considered one of the best solution methods for many problems, such as the electricity problem in regions without electricity, to minimize pollution and the depletion of fossil sources. This study aims to propose and implement a new algorithm called improved heap-based optimizer (IHBO). The objective of minimizing the microgrid system cost is to reduce the net present cost while respecting the reliability, power availability, and renewable fraction factors of the microgrid system. The results show that the PV/diesel/battery hybrid renewable energy system (HRES) gives the best solution, with a net present cost of MAD 120463, equivalent to the energy cost of MAD 0.1384/kWh. The reliability is about 3.89%, the renewable fraction is about 95%, and the power availability is near to 99%. The optimal size considered is represented as 167.3864 m2 of PV area, which is equivalent to 44.2582 kW and 3.8860 kW of diesel capacity. The study results show that the proposed optimization algorithm of IHBO is better than the artificial electric field algorithm, the grey wolf optimizer, Harris hawks optimization, and the original HBO algorithm. A comparison of the net present cost with a different fuel price is carried out, in which it is observed that the net present cost is reduced even though its quantity used is mediocre. Full article
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Article
Design, Modeling, and Differential Flatness Based Control of Permanent Magnet-Assisted Synchronous Reluctance Motor for e-Vehicle Applications
Sustainability 2021, 13(17), 9502; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13179502 - 24 Aug 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1063
Abstract
This paper presents the utilization of differential flatness techniques from nonlinear control theory to permanent magnet assisted (PMa) synchronous reluctance motor (SynRM). The significant advantage of the proposed control approach is the potentiality to establish the behavior of the state variable system during [...] Read more.
This paper presents the utilization of differential flatness techniques from nonlinear control theory to permanent magnet assisted (PMa) synchronous reluctance motor (SynRM). The significant advantage of the proposed control approach is the potentiality to establish the behavior of the state variable system during the steady-state and transients operations as well. The mathematical models of PMa-SynRM are initially proved by the nonlinear case to show the flatness property. Then, the intelligent proportional-integral (iPI) is utilized as a control law to deal with some inevitable modeling errors and uncertainties for the torque and speed of the motor. Finally, a MicroLab Box dSPACE has been employed to implement the proposed control scheme. A small-scale test bench 1-KW relying on the PMa-SynRM has been designed and developed in the laboratory to approve the proposed control algorithm. The experimental results reflect that the proposed control effectively performs high performance during dynamic operating conditions for the inner torque loop control and outer speed loop control of the motor drive compared to the traditional PI control. Full article
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Article
Performance Investigation of a Solar Photovoltaic/Diesel Generator Based Hybrid System with Cycle Charging Strategy Using BBO Algorithm
Sustainability 2021, 13(14), 8048; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13148048 - 19 Jul 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 886
Abstract
In the current scenario, sustainable power generation received greater attention due to the concerns of global warming and climate change. In the present paper, a Solar Photovoltaic/Diesel Generator/ Battery-based hybrid system has been considered to meet the electrical energy demand of a remote [...] Read more.
In the current scenario, sustainable power generation received greater attention due to the concerns of global warming and climate change. In the present paper, a Solar Photovoltaic/Diesel Generator/ Battery-based hybrid system has been considered to meet the electrical energy demand of a remote location of India. The cost of the energy of hybrid system is minimized using a Biogeography-based Optimization (BBO) algorithm under the constraints of power reliability, carbon emission and renewable energy fraction. Load following and cycle charging strategies have been considered in order to investigate the performance analysis of the proposed hybrid system. Further, different component combinations of specifications available on the market are presented for detail analysis. The minimum cost of energy of the proposed hybrid system is obtained as 0.225 $/kWh. Full article
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Review

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Review
Blockchain-Enabled Smart Grid Applications: Architecture, Challenges, and Solutions
Sustainability 2022, 14(14), 8801; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14148801 - 18 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 523
Abstract
The conventional electrical grid is undergoing substantial growth for reliable grid operation and for more efficient and sustainable energy use. The traditional grid is now metamorphosing into a smart grid (SG) that incorporates a diverse, heterogeneous blend of operating measures such as smart [...] Read more.
The conventional electrical grid is undergoing substantial growth for reliable grid operation and for more efficient and sustainable energy use. The traditional grid is now metamorphosing into a smart grid (SG) that incorporates a diverse, heterogeneous blend of operating measures such as smart appliances, meters, and renewable energy resources. With better efficient results and dependability, the SG can be described as a modern electric power grid architecture. The SG is one of the greatest potential advances as a promising solution for the energy crisis. However, it is complex and its decentralization could be of tremendous benefit. Moreover, digitalization and integration of a large number of growing connections make it a target of cyber-attacks. In this sense, blockchain is a promising SG paradigm solution that offers several excellent features. There has been considerable effort put into using blockchains in the smart grid for its decentralization and enhanced cybersecurity; however, it has not been thoroughly studied in both application and architectural perspectives. An in-depth study was conducted on blockchain-enabled SG applications. Blockchain architectures for various applications, such as the synchrophasor applications, electric vehicles, energy management systems, etc., were proposed. The purpose of this article is to provide directions for future research efforts aimed at secure and decentralized SG applications using blockchain. Full article
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Review
State-of-the-Art Review on IoT Threats and Attacks: Taxonomy, Challenges and Solutions
Sustainability 2021, 13(16), 9463; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13169463 - 23 Aug 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1893
Abstract
The Internet of Things (IoT) plays a vital role in interconnecting physical and virtual objects that are embedded with sensors, software, and other technologies intending to connect and exchange data with devices and systems around the globe over the Internet. With a multitude [...] Read more.
The Internet of Things (IoT) plays a vital role in interconnecting physical and virtual objects that are embedded with sensors, software, and other technologies intending to connect and exchange data with devices and systems around the globe over the Internet. With a multitude of features to offer, IoT is a boon to mankind, but just as two sides of a coin, the technology, with its lack of securing information, may result in a big bane. It is estimated that by the year 2030, there will be nearly 25.44 billion IoT devices connected worldwide. Due to the unprecedented growth, IoT is endangered by numerous attacks, impairments, and misuses due to challenges such as resource limitations, heterogeneity, lack of standardization, architecture, etc. It is known that almost 98% of IoT traffic is not encrypted, exposing confidential and personal information on the network. To implement such a technology in the near future, a comprehensive implementation of security, privacy, authentication, and recovery is required. Therefore, in this paper, the comprehensive taxonomy of security and threats within the IoT paradigm is discussed. We also provide insightful findings, presumptions, and outcomes of the challenges to assist IoT developers to address risks and security flaws for better protection. A five-layer and a seven-layer IoT architecture are presented in addition to the existing three-layer architecture. The communication standards and the protocols, along with the threats and attacks corresponding to these three architectures, are discussed. In addition, the impact of different threats and attacks along with their detection, mitigation, and prevention are comprehensively presented. The state-of-the-art solutions to enhance security features in IoT devices are proposed based on Blockchain (BC) technology, Fog Computing (FC), Edge Computing (EC), and Machine Learning (ML), along with some open research problems. Full article
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