Special Issue "Fuel Cell Renewable Hybrid Power Systems"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy Storage and Application".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 March 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The very fast increase in the world’s energy demand over the last decade, and the request for sustainable development, can be approached using micro-grids based on hybrid power systems combining renewable energy sources and fuel cell systems.

Thus, to highlight the latest solutions in the implementation of Fuel cell renewable hybrid power systems, this Special Issue, entitled Fuel Cell Renewable Hybrid Power Systems, was proposed for the international journal Energies, which is an SCIE journal (2017 IF = 2.262). The present Special Issue of Energies aims to collect innovative solutions and experimental research, as well as state-of-the-art studies, in the following topics:

-Fuel cell (FC) systems: modeling, control, optimization, and innovative technologies to improve the fuel economy, lifetime, reliability, and safety in operation;

-Hybrid power systems (HPSs) based on renewable energy sources (RESs) (RES HPS): optimized RES HPSs architectures; global maximum power point tracking (GMPPT) control algorithms to improve energy harvesting from RESs; advanced energy management strategies (EMSs) to optimally ensure the power flow balance on DC (and/or AC bus) for stand-alone RES HPSs or grid-connected RES HPSs (micro-grids);

-RES HPS with an FC system as a backup energy source (FC RES HPS): innovative solutions to mitigate the RES power variability and load dynamics to energy storage systems (ESSs) by controlling the generated FC power, DC voltage regulation, and/or load pulses mitigation by active control of the power converters from hybrid ESS;

-FC vehicles (FCVs): FCV powertrain, ESSs topologies and hybridization technologies, and EMSs to improve the fuel economy;

-Optimal sizing of FC RES HPSs and FCVs;

The papers received are subject to a rigorous, but fast, peer review procedure, ensuring the wide dissemination of research results accepted for this Special Issue.

I am writing to invite you to submit your original work to this Special Issue. I am looking forward to receiving your outstanding research outcomes.

Prof. Dr. Nicu Bizon
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Hybrid power systems (HPSs)
  • Renewable energy sources (RESs)
  • Fuel cell (FC) systems
  • Energy management strategies (EMSs)
  • Hybrid energy storage systems (HESSs)
  • Fuel cell vehicles (FCVs)
  • Global maximum power point tracking (GMPPT)
  • FC RES micro-grids
  • System and process design of FC RES HPS
  • Fuel economy, lifetime, reliability, and safety in operation of FC RES HPS

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
PLC Automation and Control Strategy in a Stirling Solar Power System
Energies 2020, 13(8), 1917; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13081917 - 14 Apr 2020
Abstract
The Stirling engine together with a solar concentrator represents a solution for increasing energy efficiency. Thus, within the National Research and Development Institute for Cryogenic and Isotopic Technologies, an automation system was designed and implemented in order to control the processes inside the [...] Read more.
The Stirling engine together with a solar concentrator represents a solution for increasing energy efficiency. Thus, within the National Research and Development Institute for Cryogenic and Isotopic Technologies, an automation system was designed and implemented in order to control the processes inside the solar conversion unit using a programmable logic controller from Schneider Electric. The acquired parameters from the installed sensors were monitored using Unity Pro L software. The main objective of this paper is to solve the starting, operating, and shut-down sequences in safe conditions, as well as monitor the working parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fuel Cell Renewable Hybrid Power Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Analysis of On-Board Methane and Methanol Reforming Systems Combined with HT-PEM Fuel Cell and CO2 Capture/Liquefaction System for Hydrogen Fueled Ship Application
Energies 2020, 13(1), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13010224 - 02 Jan 2020
Abstract
This study performs energetic and exergetic comparisons between the steam methane reforming and steam methanol reforming technologies combined with HT-PEMFC and a carbon capture/liquefaction system for use in hydrogen-fueled ships. The required space for the primary fuel and captured/liquefied CO2 and the [...] Read more.
This study performs energetic and exergetic comparisons between the steam methane reforming and steam methanol reforming technologies combined with HT-PEMFC and a carbon capture/liquefaction system for use in hydrogen-fueled ships. The required space for the primary fuel and captured/liquefied CO2 and the fuel cost have also been investigated to find the more advantageous system for ship application. For the comparison, the steam methane reforming-based system fed by LNG and the steam methanol reforming-based system fed by methanol have been modeled in an Aspen HYSYS environment. All the simulations have been conducted at a fixed Wnet, electrical (475 kW) to meet the average shaft power of the reference ship. Results show that at the base condition, the energy and exergy efficiencies of the methanol-based system are 7.99% and 1.89% higher than those of the methane-based system, respectively. The cogeneration efficiency of the methane-based system is 7.13% higher than that of the methanol-based system. The comparison of space for fuel and CO2 storage reveals that the methanol-based system requires a space 1.1 times larger than that of the methane-based system for the total voyage time, although the methanol-based system has higher electrical efficiency. In addition, the methanol-based system has a fuel cost 2.2 times higher than that of the methane-based system to generate 475 kW net of electricity for the total voyage time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fuel Cell Renewable Hybrid Power Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
The ElectricalVehicle Simulator for Charging Station in Mode 3 of IEC 61851-1 Standard
Energies 2020, 13(1), 176; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13010176 - 31 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
As fuel consumption in the transport sector has increased at a faster pace than in other sectors, the use of electromobility represents the main strategy adopted by the automotive industry. In this context, as the number of electrical vehicles (EVs) will increase, it [...] Read more.
As fuel consumption in the transport sector has increased at a faster pace than in other sectors, the use of electromobility represents the main strategy adopted by the automotive industry. In this context, as the number of electrical vehicles (EVs) will increase, it will also be necessary to increase the number of charging stations. The present paper presents a complete solution for charging stations that can be located in the office or mall parking area. This solution includes a mode 3 AC charging stations of International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 61851-1 Standard, an EV simulator for testing the good functionality of the charging stations (i.e., communications, residual-current device (RCD) protection) and a software application used for controlling the charging process by the programmable logic controller (PLC). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fuel Cell Renewable Hybrid Power Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Optimal Capacitor Bank Allocation in Electricity Distribution Networks Using Metaheuristic Algorithms
Energies 2019, 12(22), 4239; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12224239 - 06 Nov 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Energy losses and bus voltage levels are key parameters in the operation of electricity distribution networks (EDN), in traditional operating conditions or in modern microgrids with renewable and distributed generation sources. Smart grids are set to bring hardware and software tools to improve [...] Read more.
Energy losses and bus voltage levels are key parameters in the operation of electricity distribution networks (EDN), in traditional operating conditions or in modern microgrids with renewable and distributed generation sources. Smart grids are set to bring hardware and software tools to improve the operation of electrical networks, using state-of the art demand management at home or system level and advanced network reconfiguration tools. However, for economic reasons, many network operators will still have to resort to low-cost management solutions, such as bus reactive power compensation using optimally placed capacitor banks. This paper approaches the problem of power and energy loss minimization by optimal allocation of capacitor banks (CB) in medium voltage (MV) EDN buses. A comparison is made between five metaheuristic algorithms used for this purpose: the well-established Genetic Algorithm (GA); Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO); and three newer metaheuristics, the Bat Optimization Algorithm (BOA), the Whale Optimization Algorithm (WOA) and the Sperm-Whale Algorithm (SWA). The algorithms are tested on the IEEE 33-bus system and on a real 215-bus EDN from Romania. The newest SWA algorithm gives the best results, for both test systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fuel Cell Renewable Hybrid Power Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Open-Source Dynamic Matlab/Simulink 1D Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Model
Energies 2019, 12(18), 3478; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12183478 - 09 Sep 2019
Abstract
This work presents an open-source, dynamic, 1D, proton exchange membrane fuel cell model suitable for real-time applications. It estimates the cell voltage based on activation, ohmic and concentration overpotentials and considers water transport through the membrane by means of osmosis, diffusion and hydraulic [...] Read more.
This work presents an open-source, dynamic, 1D, proton exchange membrane fuel cell model suitable for real-time applications. It estimates the cell voltage based on activation, ohmic and concentration overpotentials and considers water transport through the membrane by means of osmosis, diffusion and hydraulic permeation. Simplified equations reduce the computational load to make it viable for real-time analysis, quick parameter studies and usage in complex systems like complete vehicle models. Two modes of operation for use with or without reference polarization curves allow for a flexible application even without information about cell parameters. The program code is written in MATLAB and provided under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). It is designed to be used inside of a Simulink model, which allows this fuel cell model to be used in a wide variety of 1D simulation platforms by exporting the code as C/C++. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fuel Cell Renewable Hybrid Power Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Better Fuel Economy by Optimizing Airflow of the Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Systems Using Fuel Flow-Based Load-Following Control
Energies 2019, 12(14), 2792; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12142792 - 19 Jul 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
In this paper, the results of the sensitivity analysis applied to a fuel cell hybrid power system using a fuel economy strategy is analyzed in order to select the best values of the parameters involved in fuel consumption optimization. The fuel economy strategy [...] Read more.
In this paper, the results of the sensitivity analysis applied to a fuel cell hybrid power system using a fuel economy strategy is analyzed in order to select the best values of the parameters involved in fuel consumption optimization. The fuel economy strategy uses the fuel and air flow rates to efficiently operate the proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell (FC) system based on the load-following control and the global extremum seeking (GES) algorithm. The load-following control will ensure the charge-sustained mode for the batteries’ stack, improving its lifetime. The optimization function’s optimum, which is defined to improve the fuel economy, will be tracked in real-time by two GES algorithms that will generate the references for the controller of the boost DC-DC converter and air regulator. The optimization function and performance indicators (such as FC net power, FC electrical efficiency, fuel efficiency, and fuel economy) have a multimodal behavior in dithers’ frequency. Furthermore, the optimum in the considered range of frequencies depends on the load level. So, the best value could be selected as the frequency where the optimum is obtained for the most load levels. Considering a dither frequency of 100 Hz selected as the best value, the sensitivity analysis of the fuel economy is further analyzed for different values of the weighting parameter keff, highlighting the multimodal feature in the parameters for the optimization function and fuel economy as well. A keff value around of 20 lpm/W seems to give the best fuel economy in the full range of load. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fuel Cell Renewable Hybrid Power Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis and Control of Fault Ride-Through Capability Improvement for Wind Turbine Based on a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Using an Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Logic System
Energies 2019, 12(12), 2289; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12122289 - 15 Jun 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Recently, wind energy conversion systems in renewable energy sources have attracted attention due to their effective application. Wind turbine systems have a complex structure; however, traditional control systems are inadequate in answering the demands of complex systems. Therefore, expert control systems are applied [...] Read more.
Recently, wind energy conversion systems in renewable energy sources have attracted attention due to their effective application. Wind turbine systems have a complex structure; however, traditional control systems are inadequate in answering the demands of complex systems. Therefore, expert control systems are applied to wind turbines, such as type-1 and interval type-2 fuzzy logic control (IT-2 FLC) systems. An IT-2 FLC system is used to solve the complexity of the wind turbine system and increases the efficiency of the wind turbine. This paper proposes a new control approach using the IT-2 FLC method applied to a wind turbine based on a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) to improve the transient stability during grid faults. An IT-2 FLC was designed to enhance the fault ride-through performance of a wind turbine and was implemented to control the machine side converter and grid side converter of a wind turbine. The proposed algorithm performance of a wind turbine based on a PMSG was investigated for different types of grid fault. The analysis results verify that the interval type-2 fuzzy logic control system is robustly utilized under different operational conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fuel Cell Renewable Hybrid Power Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Optimization of the Fuel Cell Renewable Hybrid Power System Using the Control Mode of the Required Load Power on the DC Bus
Energies 2019, 12(10), 1889; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12101889 - 17 May 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
In this paper, a systematic analysis of seven control topologies is performed, based on three possible control variables of the power generated by the Fuel Cell (FC) system: the reference input of the controller for the FC boost converter, and the two reference [...] Read more.
In this paper, a systematic analysis of seven control topologies is performed, based on three possible control variables of the power generated by the Fuel Cell (FC) system: the reference input of the controller for the FC boost converter, and the two reference inputs used by the air regulator and the fuel regulator. The FC system will generate power based on the Required-Power-Following (RPF) control mode in order to ensure the load demand, operating as the main energy source in an FC hybrid power system. The FC system will operate as a backup energy source in an FC renewable Hybrid Power System (by ensuring the lack of power on the DC bus, which is given by the load power minus the renewable power). Thus, power requested from the batteries’ stack will be almost zero during operation of the FC hybrid power system based on RPF-control mode. If the FC hybrid power system operates with a variable load demand, then the lack or excess of power on the DC bus will be dynamically ensured by the hybrid battery/ultracapacitor energy storage system for a safe transition of the FC system under the RPF-control mode. The RPF-control mode will ensure a fair comparison of the seven control topologies based on the same optimization function to improve the fuel savings. The main objective of this paper is to compare the fuel economy obtained by using each strategy under different load cycles in order to identify which is the best strategy operating across entire loading or the best switching strategy using two strategies: one strategy for high load and the other on the rest of the load range. Based on the preliminary results, the fuel consumption using these best strategies can be reduced by more than 15%, compared to commercial strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fuel Cell Renewable Hybrid Power Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Optimization of Component Sizing for a Fuel Cell-Powered Truck to Minimize Ownership Cost
Energies 2019, 12(6), 1125; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12061125 - 22 Mar 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
In this study, we consider fuel cell-powered electric trucks (FCETs) as an alternative to conventional medium- and heavy-duty vehicles. FCETs use a battery combined with onboard hydrogen storage for energy storage. The additional battery provides regenerative braking and better fuel economy, but it [...] Read more.
In this study, we consider fuel cell-powered electric trucks (FCETs) as an alternative to conventional medium- and heavy-duty vehicles. FCETs use a battery combined with onboard hydrogen storage for energy storage. The additional battery provides regenerative braking and better fuel economy, but it will also increase the initial cost of the vehicle. Heavier reliance on stored hydrogen might be cheaper initially, but operational costs will be higher because hydrogen is more expensive than electricity. Achieving the right tradeoff between these power and energy choices is necessary to reduce the ownership cost of the vehicle. This paper develops an optimum component sizing algorithm for FCETs. The truck vehicle model was developed in Autonomie, a platform for modelling vehicle energy consumption and performance. The algorithm optimizes component sizes to minimize overall ownership cost, while ensuring that the FCET matches or exceeds the performance and cargo capacity of a conventional vehicle. Class 4 delivery truck and class 8 linehaul trucks are shown as examples. We estimate the ownership cost for various hydrogen costs, powertrain components, ownership periods, and annual vehicle miles travelled. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fuel Cell Renewable Hybrid Power Systems)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Hydrogen Fuel Cell Technology for the Sustainable Future of Stationary Applications
Energies 2019, 12(23), 4593; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12234593 - 03 Dec 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
The climate changes that are becoming visible today are a challenge for the global research community. The stationary applications sector is one of the most important energy consumers. Harnessing the potential of renewable energy worldwide is currently being considered to find alternatives for [...] Read more.
The climate changes that are becoming visible today are a challenge for the global research community. The stationary applications sector is one of the most important energy consumers. Harnessing the potential of renewable energy worldwide is currently being considered to find alternatives for obtaining energy by using technologies that offer maximum efficiency and minimum pollution. In this context, new energy generation technologies are needed to both generate low carbon emissions, as well as identifying, planning and implementing the directions for harnessing the potential of renewable energy sources. Hydrogen fuel cell technology represents one of the alternative solutions for future clean energy systems. This article reviews the specific characteristics of hydrogen energy, which recommends it as a clean energy to power stationary applications. The aim of review was to provide an overview of the sustainability elements and the potential of using hydrogen as an alternative energy source for stationary applications, and for identifying the possibilities of increasing the share of hydrogen energy in stationary applications, respectively. As a study method was applied a SWOT analysis, following which a series of strategies that could be adopted in order to increase the degree of use of hydrogen energy as an alternative to the classical energy for stationary applications were recommended. The SWOT analysis conducted in the present study highlights that the implementation of the hydrogen economy depends decisively on the following main factors: legislative framework, energy decision makers, information and interest from the end beneficiaries, potential investors, and existence of specialists in this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fuel Cell Renewable Hybrid Power Systems)
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