New Infeed Correction Methods for Distance Protection in Distribution Systems
Abstract
:1. Introduction
2. Distance Protection
3. Infeed Effect
3.1. Configuration 1
3.2. Configuration 2
3.3. Infeed Effect on Ground Distance Relay
4. Proposed Methodology
4.1. Method 1
 Step 1
 Calculation of the Thevenin impedance at the fault location. For the given system:$${Z}_{TH}^{+}=\frac{({Z}_{S}^{+}+{Z}_{12}^{+}){Z}_{D{G}_{1}}^{+}}{{Z}_{S}^{+}+{Z}_{12}^{+}+{Z}_{D{G}_{1}}^{+}}+{Z}_{23}^{+}\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}\xb7\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}h$$
 Step 2
 Calculation of the fault current$${I}_{3LG}=\frac{{V}_{f}}{{Z}_{TH}^{+}}$$
 Step 3
 The fault current contributions from each source can be calculated using the current divider formula:$$\begin{array}{cc}\hfill {I}_{S}& ={I}_{3LG}\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}\xb7\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}\frac{{Z}_{D{G}_{1}}^{+}}{{Z}_{S}^{+}+{Z}_{12}^{+}+{Z}_{D{G}_{1}}^{+}}\hfill \end{array}$$$$\begin{array}{cc}\hfill {I}_{1}& ={I}_{3LG}\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}\xb7\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}\frac{{Z}_{S}^{+}+{Z}_{12}^{+}}{{Z}_{S}^{+}+{Z}_{12}^{+}+{Z}_{D{G}_{1}}^{+}}\hfill \end{array}$$
4.2. Method 2
 Step 1
 Calculation of the Thevenin impedance at the fault location. For the given system,$${Z}_{TH}^{+}=\frac{({Z}_{S}^{+}+{Z}_{A}^{+}){Z}_{DG}^{+}}{{Z}_{S}^{+}+{Z}_{A}^{+}+{Z}_{DG}^{+}}+{Z}_{B}^{+}\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}\xb7\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}d$$
 Step 2
 Calculation of the fault current as$${I}_{3LG}=\frac{{V}_{f}}{{Z}_{TH}^{+}}$$
 Step 3
 The fault current contributions from each power source can be calculated using the current divider formula as follows$$\begin{array}{cc}\hfill {I}_{S}& ={I}_{3LG}\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}\xb7\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}\frac{{Z}_{DG}^{+}}{{Z}_{S}^{+}+{Z}_{A}^{+}+{Z}_{DG}^{+}}\hfill \end{array}$$$$\begin{array}{cc}\hfill {I}_{1}& ={I}_{3LG}\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}\xb7\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}\frac{{Z}_{S}^{+}+{Z}_{A}^{+}}{{Z}_{S}^{+}+{Z}_{A}^{+}+{Z}_{DG}^{+}}\hfill \end{array}$$
 Step 4
 Calculation of the infeed constant, $K=\frac{{I}_{1}}{{I}_{S}}$.
 Step 5
 Calculation of the impedance value corresponding to the value of d using the following equation$$\begin{array}{cc}\hfill {Z}_{DR}& ={Z}_{A}^{+}+(1+K){Z}_{B}^{+}\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}\xb7\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}d\hfill \end{array}$$
 Step 6
 Changing the value of d in descending order (in small steps) from 1 to 0 and repeating Steps 1–5 for each d value.
 Step 7
 Plotting the impedance vs. distance curve.
4.3. Method 3
4.3.1. 3LG Fault
4.3.2. SLG Fault
5. Simulation Results
5.1. Test System Description
5.2. Distance Relay Settings
5.3. Study Cases
5.3.1. Case I: Fault at a Distance of 40% of the Feeder’s Length
5.3.2. Case II: Fault at a Distance of 70% of the Feeder’s Length
5.3.3. Case III: Fault at a Distance of 100% of the Feeder’s Length
5.3.4. Case IV: Fault at a Distance of 140% of the Feeder’s Length
5.4. Comparison of Methods
 Required data and calculations: All three methods require local measurements and the system’s data in order to determine the fault location in the presence of an infeed current. In addition to the system data and local measurements, the first and second methods require the results of offline calculations in order to determine the fault location. The first method requires calculating the offline fault current values as part of the data to be stored in the DR. Similarly, the second method requires calculating offline fault currents to create ID curves. The third method has an advantage over the first two methods in that it does not require any offline calculations, and its functionality entirely depends on local measurements.
 Cost: The functionality of three methods proposed in this paper do not require the addition of any measuring or communication devices. In other words, the proposed methods do not incur any additional hardware cost to the current system.
 Accuracy of the results: One of the most important indicators of the success for any method is its accuracy. To this end, all of the proposed methods were tested using PSCAD™/EMTDC™ software. The results prove the capability of the proposed methods in locating the faults with high accuracy in the presence of an infeed effect. Method 3 is the least accurate due to its dependence purely on online measurements with no offline calculations, but the drop in accuracy may be counterbalanced by its other advantages.
6. Conclusions
Author Contributions
Funding
Conflicts of Interest
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Fault  Fault  Zone  ${\mathit{Z}}_{\mathbf{act}}$  Measured Impedance, pu  

Type  Location  Protection  (pu)  ${\mathit{Z}}_{\mathit{c}}$  ${\mathit{Z}}_{\mathit{m}1}$  ${\mathit{Z}}_{\mathit{m}2}$  ${\mathit{Z}}_{\mathit{m}3}$ 
3LG  F1  1  0.4  0.4  0.4  0.4  0.4 
F2  1  0.7  2.39  0.7  0.7  0.7  
F3  2  1.0  5.26  1.0  1.0  1.0  
F4  Out of zones  1.4  9.09  1.4  1.4  1.4  
SLG  F1  1  0.4  0.4  0.4  0.4  0.4 
F2  1  0.7  3.69  0.7  0.7  0.68  
F3  2  1.0  8.49  1.0  1.0  1.01  
F4  Out of zones  1.4  14.84  1.4  1.4  1.48 
Proposed  Required Data  Cost  Accuracy of 

Methods  and Calculations  the Results  
Method 1 
 Very low  Very high 
 
 
Method 2 
 Very low  Very high 
 
 
Method 3 
 Very low  High 

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Hariri, F.; Crow, M. New Infeed Correction Methods for Distance Protection in Distribution Systems. Energies 2021, 14, 4652. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14154652
Hariri F, Crow M. New Infeed Correction Methods for Distance Protection in Distribution Systems. Energies. 2021; 14(15):4652. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14154652
Chicago/Turabian StyleHariri, Fahd, and Mariesa Crow. 2021. "New Infeed Correction Methods for Distance Protection in Distribution Systems" Energies 14, no. 15: 4652. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14154652