Special Issue "Advanced Modeling, Control, and Optimization Methods in Power Hybrid Systems - 2021"

A special issue of Mathematics (ISSN 2227-7390). This special issue belongs to the section "Engineering Mathematics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 29 October 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Nicu Bizon
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Electronics, Communication and Computers, University of Pitesti, 110040 Pitesti, Romania
Interests: electrical engineering; power electronics; power converters; inverters; renewable energy; energy efficiency; energy storage; fuel cell; hybrid power systems; control; optimization; MATLAB simulation
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The generation of distributed electricity using micro- and nano-grids is an obvious opportunity to reduce CO2 emissions if hydrogen energy technology is used in addition to renewable energy potential. It is expected that these hybrid microgrids will play an important role in the implementation of the scenario of limiting global warming to 20 C by replacing fossil fuels with renewables.

Thus, to highlight the latest solutions and paradigms in hybrid microgrids, such as vehicle-to-everything (V2X), power-following control, grid-responsive strategies, and global optimization strategies, this Special Issue, titled “Advanced Modeling and Research in Hybrid Microgrid Control and Optimization”, is proposed for Mathematics from MDPI, which is an international peer-reviewed open access covered by many databased such WOS (SCIE Impact Factor 1.747 (2019), Q1) and SCOPUS (Elsevier). The present Special Issue aims to collect innovative solutions and experimental research supported by appropriate modeling and design, as well as state-of-the-art studies, in the following topics:

  • Hybrid nano- and micro-grids;
  • Hybrid power systems (HPSs);
  • Renewable energy sources (RESs);
  • Fuel Cell (FC) systems;
  • Hybrid energy storage systems (HESSs);
  • Smart contracts based on IoT blockchain technology;
  • Cyber-security, reliability, maintenance, resilience, and safety in the operation of FC/RES hybrid microgrids;
  • Energy management and optimization strategies for FC/RES HPS;
  • Control, optimization, and energy management strategies for hybrid/FC/electrical vehicles;
  • Vehicle-to-everything (V2X) architectures;
  • Communication architectures for microgrids.

Prof. Dr. Nicu Bizon
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Mathematics is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


  • Hybrid nano- and micro-grids
  • Hybrid power systems (HPSs)
  • Renewable energy sources (RESs)
  • Fuel cell (FC) systems
  • FC RES hybrid microgrids
  • Energy management strategies (EMSs)
  • Blockchain technology
  • Smart contracts
  • Hybrid energy storage systems (HESSs)
  • Fuel cell vehicles (FCVs)
  • Vehicle-to-everything (V2X)
  • Vehicle-to-building (V2B)
  • Vehicle-to-grid (V2G)
  • Optimization strategies
  • Energy management strategies
  • System modeling and design
  • Cyber-security
  • Communication
  • Reliability, maintenance, resilience, and safety in operation.

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Open AccessArticle
Dynamic Stability Performance of Autonomous Microgrid Involving High Penetration Level of Constant Power Loads
Mathematics 2021, 9(9), 922; https://doi.org/10.3390/math9090922 - 21 Apr 2021
Viewed by 212
Nowadays, behaving as constant power loads (CPLs), rectifiers and voltage regulators are extensively used in microgrids (MGs). The MG dynamic behavior challenges both stability and control effectiveness in the presence of CPLs. CPLs characteristics such as negative incremental resistance, synchronization, and control loop [...] Read more.
Nowadays, behaving as constant power loads (CPLs), rectifiers and voltage regulators are extensively used in microgrids (MGs). The MG dynamic behavior challenges both stability and control effectiveness in the presence of CPLs. CPLs characteristics such as negative incremental resistance, synchronization, and control loop dynamic with similar frequency range of the inverter disturb severely the MG stability. Additionally, the MG stability problem will be more sophisticated with a high penetration level of CPLs in MGs. The stability analysis becomes more essential especially with high-penetrated CPLs. In this paper, the dynamic stability performance of an MG involving a high penetration level of CPLs is analyzed and investigated. An autonomous MG engaging a number of CPLs and inverter distributed generations (DGs) is modeled and designed using MATLAB. Voltage, current, and power controllers are optimally designed, controlling the inverter DGs output. A power droop controller is implemented to share the output DGs powers. Meanwhile, the current and voltage controllers are employed to control the output voltage and current of all DGs. A phase-locked loop (PLL) is essentially utilized to synchronize the CPLs with the MG. The controller gains of the inverters, CPLs, power sharing control, and PLL are optimally devised using particle swarm optimization (PSO). As a weighted objective function, the error in the DC voltage of the CPL and active power of the DG is minimized in the optimal problem based on the time-domain simulation. Under the presence of high penetrated CPLs, all controllers are coordinately tuned to ensure an enhanced dynamic stability of the MG. The impact of the highly penetrated CPLs on the MG dynamic stability is investigated. To confirm the effectiveness of the proposed technique, different disturbances are applied. The analysis shows that the MG system experiences the instability challenges due to the high penetrated CPLs. The simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method to improve the MG dynamic stability performance. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Optimising energy management in hybrid microgrids
Authors: Javier Bilbao, Eugenio Bravo, Olatz García, Carolina Rebollar, Concepción Varela
Affiliation: Applied Mathematics Department, Engineering School of Bilbao, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Pl. Ing. Torres Quevedo, 1, 48013, Bilbao (Spain)
Abstract: This article deals with the optimisation of the operation of microgrids, understood as sets of generators, loads and energy storage systems, which can be isolated or connected to the rest of the electricity grid, and which can be managed in a coordinated manner to supply electricity reliably. Both the problem of controlling the management of load sharing between the different generators and energy storage and possible solutions for the integration of the microgrid into the electricity market will be discussed. Various renewable sources will be considered, such as solar and wind energy, as well as hybrid storage with hydrogen, which allows managing the energy balance on different time scales. Some Machine Learning methods will also be introduced to study the optimisation of microgrids. The conclusions obtained indicate that the development of suitable controllers can facilitate a competitive participation of renewable energies and the integration of microgrids in the electricity system.

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