sustainability-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Efficiency and Sustainability of the Distributed Renewable Hybrid Power Systems Based on the Energy Internet, Blockchain Technology and Smart Contracts

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy Sustainability".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2021) | Viewed by 60001

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Electronics, Communication and Computers, University of Pitesti, 110040 Pitesti, Romania
Interests: electrical engineering; power electronics; power converters; inverters; renewable energy; energy efficiency; energy storage; fuel cell; hybrid power systems; control; optimization; MATLAB simulation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The rapid increase in world energy demand over the last decade and the requests for sustainable development can be approached through micro- and nanogrids using hybrid power systems based on the energy internet, blockchain technology, and smart contracts. In this way, renewable energy sources and fuel cell systems and other energy generating sources will be optimally combined and connected to the grid system using advanced energy transaction methods.

Thus, to highlight the latest solutions, this Special Issue entitled “Efficiency and Sustainability of Distributed Renewable Hybrid Power Systems Based on Energy Internet, Blockchain Technology and Smart Contracts”, was proposed for the international journal Sustainability, which is an SCIE journal (2018 IF = 2.592). The present Special Issue of Sustainability aims to present innovative solutions and experimental research as well as state-of-the-art studies in the following topics:

  1. Microgrids, nanogrids, smart grids, smart cities, and smart associations of farms, buildings, parking, and homes;
  2. Smart grid cyber security using the energy internet, blockchain, and smart contract-based applications;
  3. Operations of smart associations integrated with distributed generation;
  4. Smart grid architecture and energy management models;
  5. Fuel cell (FC) systems: modeling, control, optimization, and innovative technologies to improve the fuel economy, lifetime, reliability, and safety in operation;
  6. Hybrid power systems (HPSs) based on renewable energy sources (RESs) (RES HPS): optimized RES HPSs architectures; global maximum power point tracking (GMPPT) control algorithms to improve the energy harvesting from RESs; advanced energy management strategies (EMSs) to optimally ensure the power flow balance on DC (and/or AC bus) for standalone RES HPSs or grid-connected RES HPSs (micro-, nanogrids, etc.);
  7. RES HPS with FC system as a backup energy source (FC RES HPS): innovative solutions to mitigate the RES power variability and load dynamics of energy storage systems (ESSs) by control of the generated FC power; DC voltage regulation and/or load pulse mitigation by active control of the power converters from hybrid ESS;
  8. FC vehicles (FCVs): FCV powertrain, ESSs topologies, and hybridization technologies and EMSs to improve the fuel economy; 
  9. Optimal sizing of FC RES HPSs and FCVs;
  10. Business opportunities, open issues, and future trends.

Papers received are subject to a rigorous but rapid peer review procedure, ensuring wide dissemination of the research results accepted for this Special Issue.

I am writing to invite you to submit your original work to this Special Issue. I am looking forward to reading about your outstanding research.

Prof. Dr. Nicu Bizon
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • hybrid power systems (HPSs)
  • renewable energy sources (RESs)
  • fuel cell (FC) systems
  • energy management strategies (EMSs)
  • energy internet
  • blockchain technology
  • solar coin
  • smart contracts
  • hybrid energy storage systems (HESSs)
  • fuel cell vehicles (FCVs)
  • global maximum power point tracking (GMPPT)
  • FC RES micro- and nanogrids
  • smart grid cyber security
  • system and process design of FC RES HPS
  • fuel economy, lifetime, reliability, and safety in operation of FC RES HPS

Published Papers (11 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

19 pages, 9461 KiB  
Article
Real-Time Control Strategy of Fuel Cell and Battery System for Electric Hybrid Boat Application
by Ahmed Al Amerl, Ismail Oukkacha, Mamadou Baïlo Camara and Brayima Dakyo
Sustainability 2021, 13(16), 8693; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13168693 - 4 Aug 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2266
Abstract
In this paper, an effective control strategy is proposed to manage energy distribution from fuel cells and batteries for hybrid electric boat applications. The main objectives of this real-time control are to obtain fast current tracking for the batteries’ system, the DC bus [...] Read more.
In this paper, an effective control strategy is proposed to manage energy distribution from fuel cells and batteries for hybrid electric boat applications. The main objectives of this real-time control are to obtain fast current tracking for the batteries’ system, the DC bus voltage stability by using a fuel cell, and energy load distribution for a hybrid electric boat under varying demand conditions. The proposed control strategy is based on a combination of frequency approach and current/voltage control of interleaved boost converters to reduce the hydrogen consumption by the fuel cell and improve the quality of energy transfer. The frequency approach was dedicated to managing the DC power-sharing between the load, the fuel cell, and the batteries’ storage system by extracting the power references. The closed loop control system utilized to control the energy is based on the DC/DC converters. The performance evaluation of the proposed control strategy has been tested through a real-time experimental test bench based on a dSPACE board (DS1104). Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 929 KiB  
Article
Unification of Edge Energy Grids for Empowering Small Energy Producers
by Evangelos K. Markakis, Yannis Nikoloudakis, Kalliopi Lapidaki, Konstantinos Fiorentzis and Emmanuel Karapidakis
Sustainability 2021, 13(15), 8487; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13158487 - 29 Jul 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1556
Abstract
The current energy landscape is largely comprised of big stakeholders, who are often the monopolistic drivers of their local market. This fact does not leave any room for smaller players to participate in this procedure by contributing their part in the energy pool. [...] Read more.
The current energy landscape is largely comprised of big stakeholders, who are often the monopolistic drivers of their local market. This fact does not leave any room for smaller players to participate in this procedure by contributing their part in the energy pool. Moreover, the dynamic demand for power along with the current power production rate are not corelated, rendering the power distribution grid, a best effort network, prone to power failures, due to the inevitable irregularities in demand. This paper introduces a novel concept that allows small energy producers, such as solar panel grids, to offer their production excess through an intelligent energy brokerage blockchain-based framework. The proposed framework ingests the vast amounts of bigdata stemming from the distributed smart energy grids smart metering and allows for automatic commercial transactions of power between the participants of a dedicated marketplace. Values dynamically fluctuate depending on the real-time offer and demand and the grid’s state. Thus, all partaking stakeholders are able to take the most out of their product by leveraging the intelligence provided by the energy marketplace, and contribute to the overall stabilization of the energy grid. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

25 pages, 11338 KiB  
Article
New Decentralized Control of Mesh AC Microgrids: Study, Stability, and Robustness Analysis
by Youssef Hennane, Abdelmajid Berdai, Jean-Philippe Martin, Serge Pierfederici and Farid Meibody-Tabar
Sustainability 2021, 13(4), 2243; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13042243 - 19 Feb 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2702
Abstract
In this paper, we investigated the power sharing issues in mesh islanded microgrids that contain several distributed generators (DGs) and loads connected to different points of common coupling (PCC). Firstly, an improved decentralized droop control algorithm is proposed to achieve the active and [...] Read more.
In this paper, we investigated the power sharing issues in mesh islanded microgrids that contain several distributed generators (DGs) and loads connected to different points of common coupling (PCC). Firstly, an improved decentralized droop control algorithm is proposed to achieve the active and reactive power sharing of different DGs in reconfigurable mesh islanded microgrids. Accurate power sharing was obtained even though line parameters or the mesh microgrid configuration were unknown. Secondly a state-space model of the whole mesh microgrid was developed, considering several generators with their decentralized controllers, line feeders, and dynamic loads. This model was used to design parameters of droop controllers, to study the asymptotic stability and the robustness properties of the system. All strategies and analyses were validated by simulation based on the generic microgrid detailed in the standard IEEE 9bus test feeder. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

26 pages, 10639 KiB  
Article
Efficient Operation of the Hybrid Power System Using an Optimal Fueling Strategy and Control of the Fuel Cell Power Based on the Required Power Tracking Algorithm
by Nicu Bizon, Phatiphat Thounthong and Damien Guilbert
Sustainability 2020, 12(22), 9690; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12229690 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1669
Abstract
In this paper, four fuel economy strategies using power tracking control of the fuel cell boost converter and fuel cell optimization through the control of the fueling regulators were analyzed. The performance and safe operation in conditions of load disturbances and variations of [...] Read more.
In this paper, four fuel economy strategies using power tracking control of the fuel cell boost converter and fuel cell optimization through the control of the fueling regulators were analyzed. The performance and safe operation in conditions of load disturbances and variations of renewable energy were considered. A benchmark strategy was used as a well-known strategy, which was based on the static feed-forward control of the fueling regulators. One of the four strategies is new and was based on switching the optimization reference to air and fuel regulators based on a threshold of the required power from the fuel cell system. The advantages of using the power tracking control and the optimization based on two variables instead of one are highlighted in sizing the battery capacity and its lifetime, and obtaining fuel economy respectively. The percentages of fuel economy for the analyzed strategies compared to the reference strategy are between 2.83% and 4.36%, and between 7.69% and 12.94%, in the case of a dynamic load cycle with an average of 5 kW and 2.5 kW, respectively. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

43 pages, 7227 KiB  
Article
New Market Model with Social and Commercial Tiers for Improved Prosumer Trading in Microgrids
by Bogdan-Constantin Neagu, Ovidiu Ivanov, Gheorghe Grigoras, Mihai Gavrilas and Dumitru-Marcel Istrate
Sustainability 2020, 12(18), 7265; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12187265 - 4 Sep 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2576
Abstract
In the deregulated electricity markets, trading prices are determined by the offer-demand mechanism, and retail consumers can negotiate tariffs with their supplier of choice. For classic wholesale suppliers, the tariffs are determined by the prices of transactions performed on the wholesale market. In [...] Read more.
In the deregulated electricity markets, trading prices are determined by the offer-demand mechanism, and retail consumers can negotiate tariffs with their supplier of choice. For classic wholesale suppliers, the tariffs are determined by the prices of transactions performed on the wholesale market. In parallel with becoming eligible for participating in the market, the consumers use increasingly local generation sources based mostly on renewable electricity generation equipment such as Photovoltaic (PV) panels, and become prosumers. They want to be able to sell back to the market the generation surplus, in order to obtain the maximum benefits from their initial investment. This paper proposes a two-tier local market model oriented for prosumers and consumers connected in microgrids, based on the blockchain technologies and other technologies and concepts such as smart grids, crowdsourcing and energy poverty. Its goals are to improve the possibilities of local prosumers to sell electricity to local consumers and to increase their profitability, compared to the trading model often used in developing markets, of selling the surplus back to the grid via aggregators. The research aims to contribute to the sustainable development of the electricity sector using new and renewable sources of energy, state-of the art technologies and smart contracts, leading to prosumer proliferation and electricity cost reduction for consumers. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

37 pages, 3542 KiB  
Article
Scheduling Charging of Electric Vehicles in a Secured Manner by Emphasizing Cost Minimization Using Blockchain Technology and IPFS
by Muhammad Umar Javed, Nadeem Javaid, Abdulaziz Aldegheishem, Nabil Alrajeh, Muhammad Tahir and Muhammad Ramzan
Sustainability 2020, 12(12), 5151; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12125151 - 24 Jun 2020
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 5385
Abstract
In this work, Electric Vehicles (EVs) are charged using a new and improved charging mechanism called the Mobile-Vehicle-to-Vehicle (M2V) charging strategy. It is further compared with conventional Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) and Grid-to-Vehicle (G2V) charging strategies. In the proposed work, the charging of vehicles is [...] Read more.
In this work, Electric Vehicles (EVs) are charged using a new and improved charging mechanism called the Mobile-Vehicle-to-Vehicle (M2V) charging strategy. It is further compared with conventional Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) and Grid-to-Vehicle (G2V) charging strategies. In the proposed work, the charging of vehicles is done in a Peer-to-Peer (P2P) manner; the vehicles are charged using Charging Stations (CSs) or Mobile Vehicles (MVs) in the absence of a central entity. CSs are fixed entities situated at certain locations and act as charge suppliers, whereas MVs act as prosumers, which have the capability of charging themselves and also other vehicles. In the proposed system, blockchain technology is used to tackle the issues related with existing systems, such as privacy, security, lack of trust, etc., and also to promote transparency, data immutability, and a tamper-proof nature. Moreover, to store the data related to traffic, roads, and weather conditions, a centralized entity, i.e., Transport System Information Unit (TSIU), is used. It helps in reducing the road congestion and avoids roadside accidents. In the TSIU, an Inter-Planetary File System (IPFS) is used to store the data in a secured manner after removing the data’s redundancy through data filtration. Furthermore, four different types of costs are calculated mathematically, which ultimately contribute towards calculating the total charging cost. The shortest distance between a vehicle and the charging entities is calculated using the Great-Circle Distance formula. Moving on, both the time taken to traverse this shortest distance and the time to charge the vehicles are calculated using real-time data of four EVs. Location privacy is also proposed in this work to provide privacy to vehicle users. The power flow and the related energy losses for the above-mentioned charging strategies are also discussed in this work. An incentive provisioning mechanism is also proposed on the basis of timely delivery of credible messages, which further promotes users’ participation. In the end, simulations are performed and results are obtained that prove the efficiency of the proposed work, as compared to conventional techniques, in minimizing the EVs’ charging cost, time, and distance. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

32 pages, 6827 KiB  
Article
Blockchain of Carbon Trading for UN Sustainable Development Goals
by Seong-Kyu Kim and Jun-Ho Huh
Sustainability 2020, 12(10), 4021; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12104021 - 14 May 2020
Cited by 53 | Viewed by 16981
Abstract
Carbon credits should reduce the environmental pollution and carbon emission of the Earth in the future. The market for carbon credits will become a critical issue from 2021, and carbon credits will be applied to systems where individuals can trade. In order for [...] Read more.
Carbon credits should reduce the environmental pollution and carbon emission of the Earth in the future. The market for carbon credits will become a critical issue from 2021, and carbon credits will be applied to systems where individuals can trade. In order for these carbon credits to be traded between individuals, however, a corresponding exchange of carbon credits is needed. Policies, strategies, and technologies are also necessary to measure the trading of carbon credits. This paper aims at making transactions more reliable by applying blockchain technology to measure carbon emission rights. It uses blockchain to verify carbon emissions rights among the UN-SDGs’ (United Nations Sustainable Development Goals’) 17 tasks. In addition, it introduces the necessary dApp. In fact, we can protect against carbon emissions anomalies by using big data and artificial intelligence in mobile cloud environments. Thus, this paper proposes a blockchain-based carbon emission rights verification system to learn proven data further by using the governance system analysis and blockchain mainnet engine to solve these problems. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

25 pages, 13845 KiB  
Article
Blockchain IoT for Smart Electric Vehicles Battery Management
by Bogdan Cristian Florea and Dragos Daniel Taralunga
Sustainability 2020, 12(10), 3984; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12103984 - 13 May 2020
Cited by 38 | Viewed by 7582
Abstract
Electric Vehicles (EVs) have generated a lot of interest in recent years, due to the advances in battery life and low pollution. Similarly, the expansion of the Internet of Things (IoT) allowed more and more devices to be interconnected. One major problem EVs [...] Read more.
Electric Vehicles (EVs) have generated a lot of interest in recent years, due to the advances in battery life and low pollution. Similarly, the expansion of the Internet of Things (IoT) allowed more and more devices to be interconnected. One major problem EVs face today is the limited range of the battery and the limited number of charging or battery swapping stations. A solution is to not only build the necessary infrastructure, but also to be able to correctly estimate the remaining power using an efficient battery management system (BMS). For some EVs, battery swapping can also be an option, either at registered stations, or even directly from other EV drivers. Thus, a network of EV information is required, so that a successful battery charge or swap can be made available for drivers. In this paper two blockchain implementations for an EV BMS are presented, using blockchain as the network and data layer of the application. The first implementation uses Ethereum as the blockchain framework for developing smart contracts, while the second uses a directed acyclic graph (DAG), on top of the IOTA tangle. The two approaches are implemented and compared, demonstrating that both platforms can provide a viable solution for an efficient, semi-decentralized, data-driven BMS. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 3845 KiB  
Article
Improving the Efficiency and Sustainability of Power Systems Using Distributed Power Factor Correction Methods
by Ciprian Mihai Coman, Adriana Florescu and Constantin Daniel Oancea
Sustainability 2020, 12(8), 3134; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12083134 - 13 Apr 2020
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 6214
Abstract
For the equipment connected to the three-phase or single-phase grid, the power factor represents an efficiency measure for the usage of electrical energy. The power factor improvement through correction methods reduces the load on the transformers and power conductors, leading to a reduction [...] Read more.
For the equipment connected to the three-phase or single-phase grid, the power factor represents an efficiency measure for the usage of electrical energy. The power factor improvement through correction methods reduces the load on the transformers and power conductors, leading to a reduction of losses in the mains power supply and a sustainable grid system. The implications at the financial level are also important. An example of load that generates a small power factor is represented by a motor without mechanical load or having a small mechanical load. Given the power factor correction (PFC), the costs are reduced through the elimination of penalties, applying only in the common coupling point (CCP). The advantages of using equipment for the power factor correction are related also to their long operation duration and the easiness of their installation. The device presented in this article takes advantage of the advances in information and communication technology (ICT) to create a new approach for telemetry and remote configuration of a PFC. This approach has flexibility and versatility, such that it can be adapted to many loads, easily changing the capacitance steps and settings of the power factor correction device. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

30 pages, 9389 KiB  
Article
Implementing Blockchain Technology in Irrigation Systems That Integrate Photovoltaic Energy Generation Systems
by Florentina Magda Enescu, Nicu Bizon, Adrian Onu, Maria Simona Răboacă, Phatiphat Thounthong, Alin Gheorghita Mazare and Gheorghe Șerban
Sustainability 2020, 12(4), 1540; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12041540 - 18 Feb 2020
Cited by 38 | Viewed by 6187
Abstract
Traditionally, the energy industry has been slow in adopting new disruptive technologies and the transition to a new energy market will require a new digital transformation plan, involving all parties from the energy market. Although it now seems to be an impossible and [...] Read more.
Traditionally, the energy industry has been slow in adopting new disruptive technologies and the transition to a new energy market will require a new digital transformation plan, involving all parties from the energy market. Although it now seems to be an impossible and hard-to-accept scenario, especially by the big players in the industry, the pilot projects so far demonstrate that blockchain can play a major role in the future energy market, even if the technology is still in the first stages of the adoption life cycle. This article attempts to describe a solution to provide alternative irrigation systems for small farmers. The solution involves creating associations of small farmers that will use green energy from photovoltaic panels for the irrigation of agricultural lands. The efficiency of the proposed system can be monitored not only through digital hardware connected to photovoltaic panels and water pumps, but also by using the new blockchain technology that stimulates innovation and growth in the energy and a high level of automation though smart contracts. To accelerate the transition to the green energy economy, a SolarCoin version similar to the Bitcoin cryptocurrency has also been proposed, which is a utility token that creates new possibilities for energy and water trading. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

39 pages, 9127 KiB  
Review
A Comprehensive Review of the Evolution of Networked Control System Technology and Its Future Potentials
by Mayank Kumar Gautam, Avadh Pati, Sunil Kumar Mishra, Bhargav Appasani, Ersan Kabalci, Nicu Bizon and Phatiphat Thounthong
Sustainability 2021, 13(5), 2962; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13052962 - 9 Mar 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 5161
Abstract
Networked control systems (NCSs) are attracting the attention of control system engineers. The NCS has created a paradigm shift in control system technology. An NCS consists of control loops joined through communication networks in which both the control signal and the feedback signal [...] Read more.
Networked control systems (NCSs) are attracting the attention of control system engineers. The NCS has created a paradigm shift in control system technology. An NCS consists of control loops joined through communication networks in which both the control signal and the feedback signal are exchanged between the system and the controller. However, its materialization faces several challenges as it requires the integration of advanced control and communication techniques. This paper presents an extensive review of NCSs from the perspective of control system design. The evolution of NCSs is broadly divided in three phases, namely NCSs prior to 2000, NCSs during 2001–2010, and NCSs from 2011 onwards. This division corresponds to the initial status, intermediate status, and the recent status of the developments in the design of NCSs. The advancement of different control techniques during these phases has been discussed comprehensively. This paper also describes the transition of control systems form continuous domain to networked domain, which makes it better than the traditional control systems. Some important practical applications, which have been implemented using NCSs, have also been discussed. The thrust areas for future research on NCS have also been identified. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop