Special Issue "Microgrids Integrating Renewable Energy Sources, Fuel Cells and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles"

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Power Electronics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Nicu Bizon
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Electronics, Communication and Computers, University of Pitesti, 110040 Pitesti, Romania
Interests: electrical engineering; power electronics; power converters; inverters; renewable energy; energy efficiency; energy storage; fuel cell; hybrid power systems; control; optimization; MATLAB simulation
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Generation and management of distributed electricity using Fuel Cell (FC) / Renewable Microgrids integrating FC / Electric Hybrid Vehicles represents a challenging and feasible opportunity for the next decade to reduce CO2 emissions if the potential of hydrogen and renewable energy are used effectively using advanced Control Techniques and Energy Management Strategies. Thus, a limitation of global warming to 2 °C can be achieved by replacing fossil fuels with hydrogen-based energy and renewable sources.

In this Special Issue, entitled “Control Techniques and Energy Management Strategies for Fuel Cell (FC) / Renewable Microgrids integrating FC / Electric Hybrid Vehicles”, the latest proposals and paradigms based on by the keywords below related to hybrid microgrid integrating FC / Electric Hybrid Vehicles will be collected. The present Special Issue aims to include innovative Control Techniques and Energy Management Strategies for power converters and experimental research in FC / Renewable Microgrids supported by appropriate modeling and design, but also state-of-the-art studies, in the following topics:

  • Fuel Cell (FC) systems;
  • Hybrid FC / Renewable Microgrids;
  • Hybrid Power Systems (HPSs);
  • FC / electric hybrid vehicles;
  • Renewable Energy Sources (RESs);
  • Hybrid Energy Storage Systems (HESSs);
  • Energy Management and Optimization Strategies for FC/RES HPS;
  • Control of the power converters;
  • Control, optimization and energy management strategies for FC / Electric Hybrid Vehicles;
  • Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) architectures;
  • Cyber-security in communication between the microgrids based on IoT Blockchain technology and smart contracts;
  • Reliability, maintenance, resilience and safety in operation of the power systems;

Papers received are subject to a rigorous, but fast, peer review procedure, ensuring wide dissemination of research results accepted for this Special Issue. I am writing to invite you to submit your original work to this Special Issue. I am looking forward to receiving your outstanding research outcomes.

Prof. Dr. Nicu Bizon
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Electronics is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


  • Fuel Cell (FC) systems
  • Hybrid Power Systems (HPSs)
  • Renewable Energy Sources (RESs)
  • FC RES hybrid microgrids
  • Energy Management Strategies (EMSs)
  • Hybrid Energy Storage Systems (HESSs)
  • Fuel Cell vehicles (FCVs)
  • Electric vehicles (EV)
  • Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X)
  • Vehicle-to-grid (V2G)
  • Energy management strategies
  • Power converters control
  • Cyber-security
  • Blockchain technology
  • Optimization strategies
  • Smart contracts

Published Papers

This special issue is now open for submission, see below for planned papers.

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Multichemestry active battery balancer with fuzzy logic control
Affiliation: Polytechnic University of Bucharest, Romania
Abstract: Battery balancing is a standard practice to improve battery efficiency, especially for Li-Ion batteries. Due to the manufacturing process, there are no two batteries alike, and these differences are causing energy loss in series-connected battery strings. An active battery balancer extracts energy from the cell with the highest energy and delivers it to a nearby cell or the battery module. In this paper, a cell to module battery balancer is developed. The system's key component is a flyback converter with a wide enough voltage input to cover all the Li-Ion batteries and even lead-acid. The flyback converter is controlled by a microcontroller that uses fuzzy logic to improve the converter efficiency. The input variables are the voltages from each cell, the discharge current and the temperature, and the output variables are the balancing period and the current value.

Title: Microgrid-based Optimization Techniques with Power Quality Enhancement
Authors: Marian Gaiceanu 1, Iulian Ghenea, 2 Razvan Buhosu and Raluca Necula
Affiliation: 1.Dunarea de Jos University of Galati; [email protected] 2.Fundamental Sciences and Engineering Doctoral School; [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] 3.Liberty Steel Group
Abstract: The ecological impact of the electricity producing way and the conservation of ecosystems have become decisive environmental factors worldwide. Centralized energy systems have proven to be ineffective in disrupting natural factors, such as storms, earthquakes, tsunamis, etc. The transition from conventional energy sources energy production, a predominant pollutant for the whole world, to the production of energy based on wind energy, solar energy, geother-mal energy, biomass energy, tidal and wave energy is made exclusively on the basis of static power converters. The types of interconnection of the power grid supplied from renewable en-ergy systems can be insular and respectively connected to the centralized power grid through electricity distribution systems. The factors that negatively influence the power grid are mainly the voltage decrease below the minimum limits or the capacity of injection of reactive power in the network. Island networks can include all types of renewable energy, including energy stor-age systems. The stability and robustness of the power grid may be affected by the intermittency and interaction between renewable energy sources. In order to increase the level of penetration of renewable energy in this paper will be presented strategies to control the green power sources. For three-phase autonomous energy systems, the active power control is activated, along with the use of energy storage systems. The development of energy infrastructure in rural areas of the planet is essential to ensure the development of the planet. Recent advances in tech-nology have made the use of micro-grids as an economical solution. Therefore, it becomes im-perative to capitalize on and optimize energy generation through the use of local sources. Moreover, it is necessary to design a micro-grid that integrates renewable energy sources into the power grid. Applications with individual distributed generators can cause very serious problems. In order to use the green potential of distributed generation systems is to adopt a systemic approach whereby generation and associated tasks are treated as a subsystem or as a microgrid. This power flow capacity in insularized power systems has a greater potential for local increase in reliability than that offered by the energy system as a whole. This paper estab-lishes a control strategy that can manage a power grid composed of different Renewable Energy Sources for a local community. Dynamic modeling of the energy system is based on energy models of the microgrid components. It will be highlighted in the new static conversion systems, the proper operation of the grid power converter system in accordance with the required re-quirements: unity power factor, control of active and reactive power, DC link voltage control. Thus, both operation modes of a microgrid will be highlighted through the obtained numerical results. Optimal control of the microgrid is required. The solution found by the authors allows the optimal selection of the energy source depending on the degree of pollution and the load requested by consumers. Nowadays, the implementation of nature-inspired optimization tech-niques attracts a lot of attention, for which conventional solving algorithms fail. This paper pre-sents the optimal control techniques for energy management, so as to achieve both safe and effi-cient operation of microgrids. The authors developed a control strategy for managing stored energy and optimizing the total power consumption of the microgrid at the point of common coupling (PCC), taking into account the restrictions imposed by storage devices, voltage and power limits.

Title: Adequacy Evaluation of Stand-Alone LV Distribution Network
Authors: Martin Kjaer, Huai Wang and Frede Blaabjerg
Affiliation: Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, Aalborg 9220, Denmark

Title: Contribution to the Flatness-based control of a PWM-rectifier with LCL-filter interfaced between AC & DC Microgrids
Authors: Maxime Lapique 1,3,*, Roghayeh Gavagsaz-Ghoachani 2, Jean-Philippe Martin 1, Serge Pierfederici 1 and Sami Zaim 3
Affiliation: 1 Affiliation 1; LEMTA, Université de Lorraine, CNRS, Nancy, France, [email protected] 2 Affiliation 2; Renewable Energies Engineering,Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran, [email protected] 3 Affiliation 3; Safran Electrical & Power, Safran Group, Paris, FRANCE, [email protected]
Abstract: Decarbonization of civil air transport requires significant leap in airborne hybridization. As consequence, future more electrical aircraft (MEA) will require a massive amount of power elec-tronic converters and high frequency passive filters. Increase of the embedded electrical power, combined with the electrical network complexification is challenging in terms of both weight and safety. Shared converters and high order passive filters are considered solutions to cope with weight saving. However, the self-oscillating behavior of those filters may interact with the control of the power converters and may not be mitigated throw the filter’s design. Thus, the control shall be able to handle filter’s oscillation. Flatness-based control (FBC) is a good candi-date since it embeds all the dynamic, even non-linear, of the model. The whole state of the sys-tem may be controlled with a reduced set of flat variables and ensure global stability. However, FBC exploits the flatness property of the model which may be difficult to prove with high order systems, or may simply not exist. Moreover, practical implementation may be difficult with high order system within noisy environment. This paper gives various theoretical and practical considerations for the design of flatness-based control applied to a three-phases PWM-rectifier associated with un-damped LCL-filter. Experimental results will be given to compare transient performances and maximum output power capabilities of the flatness-based control with two-loops linear control and passivity-based control.

Back to TopTop