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Foods, Volume 9, Issue 7 (July 2020) – 125 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In recent years, the great quantities of residues from the processing of fruit and vegetables are burden for governments worldwide. Therefore, the interest in the reuse of food by-products such as peels, seeds, pomace, etc. has increased significantly. They are sources of bioactive compounds (fibers, phenolic compounds, vitamins, minerals, etc.) and could be good candidates for the production of sustainable packaging. Various researchers have focused their attention on the enhancement and reuse of these by-products. Therefore, this review collects the most recent research dealing with the potential application of fruit and vegetable by-products, with an emphasis on the role that by-product extracts can play in food packaging materials. View this paper
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Open AccessArticle
Characteristics of Biopeptides Released In Silico from Collagens Using Quantitative Parameters
Foods 2020, 9(7), 965; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070965 - 21 Jul 2020
Viewed by 896
Abstract
The potential of collagens to release biopeptides was evaluated using the BIOPEP-UWM-implemented quantitative criteria including the frequency of the release of fragments with a given activity by selected enzyme(s) (AE), relative frequency of release of fragments with a given activity by [...] Read more.
The potential of collagens to release biopeptides was evaluated using the BIOPEP-UWM-implemented quantitative criteria including the frequency of the release of fragments with a given activity by selected enzyme(s) (AE), relative frequency of release of fragments with a given activity by selected enzyme(s) (W), and the theoretical degree of hydrolysis (DHt). Cow, pig, sheep, chicken, duck, horse, salmon, rainbow trout, goat, rabbit, and turkey collagens were theoretically hydrolyzed using: stem bromelain, ficin, papain, pepsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin, pepsin+trypsin, and pepsin+trypsin+chymotrypsin. Peptides released from the collagens having comparable AE and W were estimated for their likelihood to be bioactive using PeptideRanker Score. The collagens tested were the best sources of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors. AE and W values revealed that pepsin and/or trypsin were effective producers of such peptides from the majority of the collagens examined. Then, the SwissTargetPrediction program was used to estimate the possible interactions of such peptides with enzymes and proteins, whereas ADMETlab was applied to evaluate their safety and drug-likeness properties. Target prediction revealed that the collagen-derived peptides might interact with several human proteins, especially proteinases, but with relatively low probability. In turn, their bioactivity may be limited by their short half-life in the body. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Proteins and Bioactive Peptides in High Protein Content Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
Bioshell Calcium Oxide-Containing Liquids as a Sanitizer for the Reduction of Histamine Production in Raw Japanese Pilchard, Japanese Horse Mackerel, and Chub Mackerel
Foods 2020, 9(7), 964; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070964 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 628
Abstract
Recently, there has been an increase in the number of food poisoning cases associated with histamine in food, mainly in relation to histamine in fish. Here, we investigated methods to decrease histamine levels in Japanese pilchard, Japanese horse mackerel, and chub Mackerel, stored [...] Read more.
Recently, there has been an increase in the number of food poisoning cases associated with histamine in food, mainly in relation to histamine in fish. Here, we investigated methods to decrease histamine levels in Japanese pilchard, Japanese horse mackerel, and chub Mackerel, stored at 10 °C using various concentrations of heated scallop bioshell calcium oxide (BiSCaO) suspension, dispersion (BiSCaO + Na2HPO4), colloidal dispersion (BiSCaO + NapolyPO4), scallop shell powder (SSP) Ca(OH)2 in pure water (PW) or saline, and BiSCaO water. BiSCaO in a high alkaline pH solution chemically decomposes histamine poorly, but the partial flocculation/precipitation of histamine was observed with 1 and 0.2 wt.% BiSCaO dispersion and BiSCaO colloidal dispersion, respectively. Cleaning fish samples with BiSCaO suspension, dispersion, colloidal dispersion, or BiSCaO water remarkably reduced histamine levels and normal bacterial flora (coliform bacteria (CF) and total viable bacterial cells (TC)) after storage for four days at 10 °C, while much higher histamine levels were observed after cleaning with saline. These results suggest that cleaning fish with BiSCaO dispersion, colloidal dispersion, or BiSCaO water can significantly reduce histamine levels through their bactericidal activity against histamine-producing bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preservation and Processing Technology of Seafood)
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Open AccessArticle
Microbial Dynamics between Yeasts and Acetic Acid Bacteria in Kombucha: Impacts on the Chemical Composition of the Beverage
Foods 2020, 9(7), 963; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070963 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1475
Abstract
Kombucha is a traditional low-alcoholic beverage made from sugared tea and transformed by a complex microbial consortium including yeasts and acetic acid bacteria (AAB). To study the microbial interactions and their impact on the chemical composition of the beverage, an experimental design with [...] Read more.
Kombucha is a traditional low-alcoholic beverage made from sugared tea and transformed by a complex microbial consortium including yeasts and acetic acid bacteria (AAB). To study the microbial interactions and their impact on the chemical composition of the beverage, an experimental design with nine couples associating one yeast strain and one AAB strain isolated from original black tea kombucha was set up. Three yeast strains belonging to the genera Brettanomyces, Hanseniaspora, and Saccharomyces and three strains of Acetobacter and Komagataeibacter species were chosen. Monocultures in sugared tea were analyzed to determine their individual microbial behaviors. Then, cultivation of the original kombucha consortium and cocultures in sugared tea were compared to determine the interactive microbial effects during successive phases in open and closed incubation conditions. The results highlight the main impact of yeast metabolism on the product’s chemical composition and the secondary impact of bacterial species on the composition in organic acids. The uncovered microbial interactions can be explained by different strategies for the utilization of sucrose. Yeasts and AAB unable to perform efficient sucrose hydrolysis rely on yeasts with high invertase activity to access released monosaccharides. Moreover, the presence of AAB rerouted the metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae towards higher invertase and fermentative activities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
New Liquid Source of Antioxidant Phenolic Compounds in the Olive Oil Industry: Alperujo Water
Foods 2020, 9(7), 962; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070962 - 21 Jul 2020
Viewed by 662
Abstract
The current management of alperujo as the main solid by-product from the two-phase olive oil extraction system has led to the appearance of a new liquid effluent that until now was treated together with the alperujo itself. The composition and antioxidant properties of [...] Read more.
The current management of alperujo as the main solid by-product from the two-phase olive oil extraction system has led to the appearance of a new liquid effluent that until now was treated together with the alperujo itself. The composition and antioxidant properties of its bioactive components at different depths of the pond were studied using colorimetric and HPLC with UV and MS detectors, DPPH, reducing power and rancimat. The concentration of suspended solids varied between 1.71 and 8.49 g/L, total fat was between 0.74 and 1.47 g/L, and total phenols were found between 3.74 and 4.11 g/L, which included hydroxytyrosol, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol and tyrosol as the main phenols. Two types of extracts were obtained through two industrial systems with ethyl acetate and by chromotography, with an average content in total sugars of 2.1% and 3.16%, total phenols of 17.9% and 28.6% and hydroxytyrosol of 51.5 and 79.0 mg/g of extract, respectively. The activity presented by the chromatographic extract was higher in terms of free radical sequestering capacity, reducing power and the inhibition of lipid oxidation. Obtaining bioactive extracts would improve the formulation of food with natural components and at the same time would be the first step in a biorefinery to improve the management of the new effluent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Ingredients from Foods: Biochemical and Processing Aspects)
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Open AccessArticle
Consumer Food Waste Behavior among Emerging Adults: Evidence from China
Foods 2020, 9(7), 961; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070961 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1161
Abstract
With the aggravation of global climate change, the issue of environmental protection has become the focus of global attention, and countries all over the world have devoted themselves to the sustainable development of resources to reduce the negative impact of the environment on [...] Read more.
With the aggravation of global climate change, the issue of environmental protection has become the focus of global attention, and countries all over the world have devoted themselves to the sustainable development of resources to reduce the negative impact of the environment on human society. Reducing the resource waste is an important aspect of the sustainable development, among which food waste is a critical part. According to a report of the United Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), 35% of food is wasted during consumption. Although households are the main contributors to food waste during consumption, the situation in university canteens cannot be ignored. As universities have a high degree of social influence, some policies and activities are piloted in universities, and then, promoted to society after achieving significant results. In future social development, the food waste behavior of consumers at the early stage of adulthood will have a significant impact on society. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the factors that lead to food waste by early adulthood consumers. This study focuses on food waste by end consumers and explores factors in the food waste behavior of the emerging adulthood consumer, which can be used as a reference for improving food waste in schools, governments, and other related industries in the future. The results show that the model of factors influencing the food waste behavior of emerging adulthood consumers established in this study is acceptable. According to the analysis results of the structural equation modeling (SEM), it can be seen that the influences of environmental concerns on the attitude toward behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control are ranked first, second, and third, respectively. While emerging adulthood consumers have a high degree of independence and self-awareness, schools, governments, media networks, and other related industries also need to establish a more complete system and form of cherishing food, in order to encourage emerging adulthood consumers to change their behavior and attitude spontaneously. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Choice and Consumer Psychology)
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Open AccessReview
Sheep and Goat Meat Processed Products Quality: A Review
Foods 2020, 9(7), 960; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070960 - 20 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1350
Abstract
Even though sheep and goat processed meat products are not as popular as pork, beef or poultry and are generally considered not as important, they have a very important role in meat consumption around the world. A concise review of the origin and [...] Read more.
Even though sheep and goat processed meat products are not as popular as pork, beef or poultry and are generally considered not as important, they have a very important role in meat consumption around the world. A concise review of the origin and type of the most important sheep and goat processed meat products produced in different countries and world regions is made. The manuscript also summarizes the most recent studies on sheep and goat processed meats on the physicochemical characterizations, sensory quality, microbiological quality and safety. Some conclusions and future trends in production, processing and commercial potentiality for sheep and goat processed meat products are discussed. Several possibilities exist to make them more diversified and appealing to the market. Processing meat from culled animals is an interesting way to value animals with low market acceptability. Some as fermented sausages, cured legs and pâtés have great commercial potential as highly acceptable consumer commodities. An interesting field of food research is the rediscovery of a new generation of goat and sheep meat products as functional foods that will respond to the constant innovation required by the meat industry. Everything related to food safety must be considered in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sheep and Goat Meat Processing and Quality)
Open AccessArticle
Influence of the Microalga Chlorella vulgaris on the Growth and Metabolic Activity of Lactobacillus spp. Bacteria
Foods 2020, 9(7), 959; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070959 - 20 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 937
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the algae Chlorella vulgaris on the growth, acidifying activity, proportion of lactic acid isomers, and enzymatic profile of Lactobacillus brevis (ŁOCK 0944, ŁOCK 0980, ŁOCK 0992, and MG451814) isolated from vegetable silages. [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the algae Chlorella vulgaris on the growth, acidifying activity, proportion of lactic acid isomers, and enzymatic profile of Lactobacillus brevis (ŁOCK 0944, ŁOCK 0980, ŁOCK 0992, and MG451814) isolated from vegetable silages. The results indicated that adding algae at concentrations of 0.1% (w/v) and 1.5% (w/v) to the Lactobacillus spp. growth medium accelerated the growth of bacteria and thus shortened their phase of logarithmic growth. The acidifying activity of the tested Lactobacillus brevis increased with an increased concentration of algae. Lactobacillus spp. cultured in the presence of Chlorella vulgaris showed higher production of l-lactic acid and lower d-lactic acid production. Moreover, the addition of algae changed the enzymatic activity of lactic acid bacteria; for instance, Lactobacillus brevis ŁOCK 0980 demonstrated more enzymatic activity of valine arylamidase, α-galactosidase, and α-glucosidase. Combining Lactobacillus brevis with the algae Chlorella vulgaris allows for the creation of innovative, functional products which confer favorable properties to the final product and open new horizons for the food industry. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Use of Legumes in Extrusion Cooking: A Review
Foods 2020, 9(7), 958; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070958 - 20 Jul 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1743
Abstract
The traditional perception that legumes would not be suitable for extrusion cooking is now completely outdated. In recent years, an increasing number of studies have been conducted to assess the behavior of various types of legume flours in extrusion cooking, proving that legumes [...] Read more.
The traditional perception that legumes would not be suitable for extrusion cooking is now completely outdated. In recent years, an increasing number of studies have been conducted to assess the behavior of various types of legume flours in extrusion cooking, proving that legumes have excellent potential for the production of extruded ready-to-eat foods by partially or totally replacing cereals. This review identifies the optimal processing conditions for legume-based and legume-added extruded foods, which allow the improvement of the expansion ratio and give the extrudates the spongy and crisp structure expected by consumers. In particular, the effect of the individual processing parameters on the physical-chemical and nutritional properties of the final product is highlighted. The extrusion cooking process, indeed, has a positive effect on nutritional characteristics, because it induces important modifications on starch and proteins, enhancing their digestibility, and reduces the content of trypsin inhibitors, lectins, phytic acid, and tannins, typically present in legumes. Therefore, the extrusion of legume flours is a viable strategy to improve their nutritional features while reducing home preparation time, so as to increase the consumption of these sustainable crops. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Technological Properties of Acetylated Pigeon Pea Starch and Its Stabilized Set-Type Yoghurt
Foods 2020, 9(7), 957; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070957 - 18 Jul 2020
Viewed by 703
Abstract
The behaviour of graded acetylated pigeon pea starch during heat processing was evaluated in addition to the corresponding effect of their incorporation at 1.5% (w/v) as a stabilizer in set-type yoghurt. Acetylated starch possessed higher solubility and swelling power [...] Read more.
The behaviour of graded acetylated pigeon pea starch during heat processing was evaluated in addition to the corresponding effect of their incorporation at 1.5% (w/v) as a stabilizer in set-type yoghurt. Acetylated starch possessed higher solubility and swelling power than native starch under the temperature regimes considered. Addition of acetylated pigeon pea starch as a stabilizer in yoghurt had positive influence on the water holding capacity (7.7% to 10.4% compared to 13.3% in yoghurt stabilized with native pigeon pea starch) and whey syneresis (approximately 15%, 12%, and 8% increase observed in yoghurt with acetylated pea starch compared to 47% in yoghurt with native pea starch stabilizer) at the end of a 28-day cold storage period. In addition, pea starch-stabilized yoghurt possessed an enhanced sensory attribute (firmness), and compared favourably with gelatin-stabilized yoghurt in terms of overall acceptability. Thus, acetylated pigeon pea starch exhibited improved physicochemical properties and showed usefulness as a stabilizer in yoghurt because it enhanced the physicochemical, storability, and sensorial quality, while improving the body and texture of the product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dairy)
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Open AccessArticle
Chemical Characterization and Volatile Profile of Trebbiano di Lugana Wine: A Case Study
Foods 2020, 9(7), 956; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070956 - 18 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 785
Abstract
In this study, the volatile profile of Trebbiano di Lugana wine was determined and its chemical composition was considered to understand its potential longevity. Seven wine samples produced in different years (2005–2017) were collected by the same winery and analyzed up to 13 [...] Read more.
In this study, the volatile profile of Trebbiano di Lugana wine was determined and its chemical composition was considered to understand its potential longevity. Seven wine samples produced in different years (2005–2017) were collected by the same winery and analyzed up to 13 years after bottling. Color, total and polymeric phenols, glutathione, free volatiles and sensory characteristics were assessed. The color turned from yellow to an increased brownish hue as the aging time increased; nonetheless, it was stable up to five years from the production. Thirty-six aroma compounds were detected including higher alcohols, esters, and norisoprenoids (β-damascenone and β-oxo-ionone). While higher alcohols did not show a dependence on the different years of production, a decrease of esters was found over aging with the exception of wine produced in 2009, the latter showing higher levels of glutathione that could limit esters’ hydrolysis. The perception of floral and fruity notes was dependent on the storage time with little differences up to five years after bottling. Trebbiano di Lugana wine could be suitable for aging and this aptitude might be further improved also through the proper choice of closure and packaging systems to encourage logistic and marketing strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Wine, Brewing, Analysis and Grape-Derived Products)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Food Preparations on In Vitro Bioactivities and Chemical Components of Fucus vesiculosus
Foods 2020, 9(7), 955; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070955 - 18 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1325
Abstract
Fucus vesiculosus is a brown macroalgae used in food and generally considered safe to be consumed, according to EU Directive (EC 258/97). The aim of this study is to analyze the effect of food preparation on F.vesiculosus of different origins on what concerns [...] Read more.
Fucus vesiculosus is a brown macroalgae used in food and generally considered safe to be consumed, according to EU Directive (EC 258/97). The aim of this study is to analyze the effect of food preparation on F.vesiculosus of different origins on what concerns its chemical constituents and final bioactivities. The aqueous extract of the seaweeds were obtained at different temperatures, similar to food preparation and then purified by SPE. The compound identification was carried out by Liquid Chromatography High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (LC-HRMS/MS) and algae extracts microstructure were observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The activities were determined by using antioxidant activity, inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and 3-hidroxi-3-methyl-glutaril-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase (HMGR) together with Caco-2 cells line simulating the intestinal barrier. The activity of AChE and the HMGR were inhibited by the extracts giving IC50 values of 15.0 ± 0.1 µg/mL and 4.2 ± 0.1 µg/mL, respectively and 45% of the cholesterol permeation inhibition. The main compounds identified were phlorotannins and peptides derivatives. The mode of preparation significantly influenced the final bioactivities. Moreover, the in vitro results suggest that the preparation of F. vesiculosus as a soup could have hypercholesterolemia lowering effect. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Inhibitory Effect of Steamed Soybean Wastewater Against DSS-Induced Intestinal Inflammation in Mice
Foods 2020, 9(7), 954; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070954 - 18 Jul 2020
Viewed by 833
Abstract
This study was performed to examine the beneficial potential of steamed soybean wastewater (SSW), which is generated during the manufacture of fermented soybean products and usually discarded as a by-product. The SSW was found to contain considerable amounts of isoflavones and had concentration-dependent [...] Read more.
This study was performed to examine the beneficial potential of steamed soybean wastewater (SSW), which is generated during the manufacture of fermented soybean products and usually discarded as a by-product. The SSW was found to contain considerable amounts of isoflavones and had concentration-dependent radical scavenging capabilities. Moreover, oral administration of SSW effectively prevented colonic damage induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS), based on improvement of morphological and histological features, reduction of oxidative stress indicators, suppression of proinflammatory cytokine production, downregulation of inflammatory marker expression in the colonic tissue, and inhibition of the inflammatory activation of macrophages. It suggests that SSW could prevent intestinal inflammation in humans, although its efficacy should be verified through careful study design in humans. These findings have implications for enhancement of the value-added of SSW and for reduction of wastewater treatment costs incurred by the food industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soybean Processing and Utilization)
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Open AccessArticle
The Bioactive Potential of Functional Products and Bioavailability of Phenolic Compounds
Foods 2020, 9(7), 953; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070953 - 18 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 974
Abstract
The expression of bioactivity depends on the assimilation of different classes of natural substances (e.g., phenolic compounds) in vivo. Six functional extracts (Aspalathus linearis, leaves; Paullinia cupana, seeds; Aristotelia chilensis, berries; Ilex paraguariensis, leaves; Syzygium aromaticum, cloves, [...] Read more.
The expression of bioactivity depends on the assimilation of different classes of natural substances (e.g., phenolic compounds) in vivo. Six functional extracts (Aspalathus linearis, leaves; Paullinia cupana, seeds; Aristotelia chilensis, berries; Ilex paraguariensis, leaves; Syzygium aromaticum, cloves, and wild berries) were analyzed in vitro and in vivo as an alternative to alleviating pathologies associated with oxidative stress (proliferation of cancer cells). The purpose of this research was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of hydroalcoholic solutions, in addition to the assimilation capacity of bioactive components in Saccharomyces boulardii cells. In vivo antioxidant capacity (critical point value) was correlated with the assimilation ratio of functional compounds. The results of in vitro antioxidant activities were correlated with the presence of quercetin (4.67 ± 0.27 mg/100 mL) and chlorogenic acid (14.38 ± 0.29 mg/100 mL) in I. paraguariensis. Bioassimilation of the main nutraceutical components depended on the individual sample. Phenolic acid levels revealed the poor assimilation of the main components, which could be associated with cell viability to oxidative stress. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Comprehensive Study on the Influence of Sodium Chloride on the Technological Quality Parameters of Soft Wheat Dough
Foods 2020, 9(7), 952; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070952 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 797
Abstract
This study aimed at understanding how the presence or absence of NaCl influences dough rheological performance of soft wheat cvs. currently used in the Italian bread manufacturing industry as a scientific support to national health strategies to reduce the use of NaCl in [...] Read more.
This study aimed at understanding how the presence or absence of NaCl influences dough rheological performance of soft wheat cvs. currently used in the Italian bread manufacturing industry as a scientific support to national health strategies to reduce the use of NaCl in bread. For this reason 176 flour samples belonging to 41 soft wheat cvs. currently cultivated in Italy, were analyzed for their protein content, Zeleny sedimentation value, and by means of the Chopin Alveograph and Brabender Farinograph, with no salt and with 1.5% salt addition (average salt content in Italian bread). Three selected cvs. (Aubusson, Bolero, and Blasco) were additionally studied by means of the Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA) at three levels of salt addition (0%, 1.5% and 3.0%). The fermentation behaviour of the cvs. Aubusson and Blasco was also studied by means of a Rheofermentometer under the same conditions. The results of our study confirmed the role of salt in strengthening the wheat gluten network (up to 86%), and thus the gas retention of dough and in affecting yeast activity. However, it also definitely proved that careful cultivar selection can help in overcoming technical challenges in reduced-salt bread manufacturing and eventually, it opens the path to wheat breeding for reduced-salt bread baking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Grain)
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Open AccessArticle
Antioxidant Compounds for the Inhibition of Enzymatic Browning by Polyphenol Oxidases in the Fruiting Body Extract of the Edible Mushroom Hericium erinaceus
Foods 2020, 9(7), 951; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070951 - 17 Jul 2020
Viewed by 982
Abstract
Mushrooms are attractive resources for novel enzymes and bioactive compounds. Nevertheless, mushrooms spontaneously form brown pigments during food processing as well as extraction procedures for functional compounds. In this study, the dark browning pigment in the extract derived from the edible mushroom Hericium [...] Read more.
Mushrooms are attractive resources for novel enzymes and bioactive compounds. Nevertheless, mushrooms spontaneously form brown pigments during food processing as well as extraction procedures for functional compounds. In this study, the dark browning pigment in the extract derived from the edible mushroom Hericium erinaceus was determined to be caused by the oxidation of endogenous polyphenol compounds by the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme family. These oxidized pigment compounds were measured quantitatively using a fluorospectrophotometer and, through chelation deactivation and heat inactivation, were confirmed to be enzymatic browning products of reactions by a metalloprotein tyrosinase in the PPO family. Furthermore, a transcript analysis of the identified putative PPO-coding genes in the different growth phases showed that tyrosinase and laccase isoenzymes were highly expressed in the mushroom fruiting body, and these could be potential PPOs involved in the enzymatic browning reaction. A metabolite profiling analysis of two different growth phases also revealed a number of potential enzymatic browning substances that were grouped into amino acids and their derivatives, phenolic compounds, and purine and pyrimidine nucleobases. In addition, these analyses also demonstrated that the mushroom contained a relatively high amount of natural antioxidant compounds that can effectively decrease the browning reaction via PPO-inhibitory mechanisms that inhibit tyrosinase and scavenge free radicals in the fruiting body. Altogether, these results contribute to an understanding of the metabolites and PPO enzymes responsible for the enzymatic browning reaction of H. erinaceus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants: Innovative Extraction and Application in Foods)
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Open AccessReview
Internet of Beer: A Review on Smart Technologies from Mash to Pint
Foods 2020, 9(7), 950; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070950 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1105
Abstract
The beer production chain includes some crucial steps regarding processing, delivery, service, and consumption that can benefit from the implementation of IoT (Internet of Things) based technologies. Large breweries implemented the use of sensors and digitization before smaller ones among which are craft [...] Read more.
The beer production chain includes some crucial steps regarding processing, delivery, service, and consumption that can benefit from the implementation of IoT (Internet of Things) based technologies. Large breweries implemented the use of sensors and digitization before smaller ones among which are craft breweries. Internet of Beer (IoB) technologies are becoming accessible to mid and small sized brewing companies. Therefore, the objective of this work is to review mainly low-cost IoB smart technologies that can be implemented from the mash to the final product and its service, to improve the brewing production, control, delivery, and final quality increasing profitability. The reviewed applications were retrieved both from the scientific databases and from the web. The work is structured in three macro areas such as beer processing, product logistics and traceability, and service. The results show a future trend characterized by a very fast increase in the use of IoB (also open source) systems to drive efficiency, productivity, quality, and safety. This will be done by real-time monitoring and a data-driven decision support system (DSS). Crucial aspects needing further investigation are data ownership and data standardization. The access price of IoB devices and software is destined for a significant decrease while their diversification on the market will grow leading to a massive future implementation within all the production levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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Open AccessReview
Understanding the Frying Process of Plant-Based Foods Pretreated with Pulsed Electric Fields Using Frying Models
Foods 2020, 9(7), 949; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070949 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1343
Abstract
Deep-fried foods (e.g., French fries, potato/veggie crisps) are popular among consumers. Recently, there has been an increased interest in the application of Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) technology as a pretreatment of plant-based foods prior to deep-frying to improve quality (e.g., lower browning tendency [...] Read more.
Deep-fried foods (e.g., French fries, potato/veggie crisps) are popular among consumers. Recently, there has been an increased interest in the application of Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) technology as a pretreatment of plant-based foods prior to deep-frying to improve quality (e.g., lower browning tendency and oil uptake) and reduce production costs (e.g., better water and energy efficiencies). However, the influence of a PEF pretreatment on the frying process and related chemical reactions for food materials is still not fully understood. PEF treatment of plant tissue causes structural modifications, which are likely to influence heat, mass and momentum transfers, as well as altering the rate of chemical reactions, during the frying process. Detailed insights into the frying process in terms of heat, mass (water and oil) and momentum transfers are outlined, in conjunction with the development of Maillard reaction and starch gelatinisation during frying. These changes occur during frying and consequently will impact on oil uptake, moisture content, colour, texture and the amount of contaminants in the fried foods, as well as the fried oil, and hence, the effects of PEF pretreatment on these quality properties of a variety of fried plant-based foods are summarised. Different mathematical models to potentially describe the influence of PEF on the frying process of plant-based foods and to predict the quality parameters of fried foods produced from PEF-treated plant materials are addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Novel Thermal Technology in Foods Processing)
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Open AccessReview
A Review on Adventitious Lactic Acid Bacteria from Table Olives
Foods 2020, 9(7), 948; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070948 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1021
Abstract
Spontaneous fermentation constitutes the basis of the chief natural method of processing of table olives, where autochthonous strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) play a dominant role. A thorough literature search has unfolded 197 reports worldwide, published in the last two decades, that [...] Read more.
Spontaneous fermentation constitutes the basis of the chief natural method of processing of table olives, where autochthonous strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) play a dominant role. A thorough literature search has unfolded 197 reports worldwide, published in the last two decades, that indicate an increasing interest in table olive-borne LAB, especially in Mediterranean countries. This review attempted to extract extra information from such a large body of work, namely, in terms of correlations between LAB strains isolated, manufacture processes, olive types, and geographical regions. Spain produces mostly green olives by Spanish-style treatment, whereas Italy and Greece produce mainly green and black olives, respectively, by both natural and Spanish-style. More than 40 species belonging to nine genera of LAB have been described; the genus most often cited is Lactobacillus, with L. plantarum and L. pentosus as most frequent species—irrespective of country, processing method, or olive type. Certain LAB species are typically associated with cultivar, e.g., Lactobacillus parafarraginis with Spanish Manzanilla, or L. paraplantarum with Greek Kalamata and Conservolea, Portuguese Galega, and Italian Tonda di Cagliari. Despite the potential of native LAB to serve as starter cultures, extensive research and development efforts are still needed before this becomes a commercial reality in table olive fermentation. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Safety of Probiotics: Functional Fruit Beverages and Nutraceuticals
Foods 2020, 9(7), 947; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070947 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1490
Abstract
Over the last decade, fruit juice consumption has increased. Their rise in popularity can be attributed to the belief that they are a quick way to consuming a dietary portion of fruit. Probiotics added to fruit juices produce various bioactive compounds, thus probiotic [...] Read more.
Over the last decade, fruit juice consumption has increased. Their rise in popularity can be attributed to the belief that they are a quick way to consuming a dietary portion of fruit. Probiotics added to fruit juices produce various bioactive compounds, thus probiotic fruit juices can be considered as a new type of functional foods. Such combinations could improve nutritional properties and provide health benefits of fruit juices, due to delivering positive health attributes from both sources (fruit juices and probiotics). However, this review discusses the other side of the same coin, i.e., the one that challenges general beliefs that probiotics are undoubtedly safe. This topic deserves more acknowledgments from the medical and nutritional literature, as it is highly important for health care professionals and nutritionists who must be aware of potential probiotic issues. Still, clinical trials have not adequately questioned the safety of probiotics, as they are generally considered safe. Therefore, this reviews aims to give an evidence-based perspective of probiotic safety, focusing on probiotic fruit beverages and nutraceuticals, by providing documented clinical case reports and studies. Finally, the paper deals with some additional insights from the pharmacological and toxicological point of views, such as pharmacological repercussions of probiotics on health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Functional Food Processing)
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Open AccessArticle
Modelling of the Behaviour of Salmonella enterica serovar Reading on Commercial Fresh-Cut Iceberg Lettuce Stored at Different Temperatures
Foods 2020, 9(7), 946; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070946 - 17 Jul 2020
Viewed by 756
Abstract
The aim of this study was to model the growth and survival behaviour of Salmonella Reading and endogenous lactic acid bacteria on fresh pre-cut iceberg lettuce stored under modified atmosphere packaging for 10 days at different temperatures (4, 8 and 15 °C). The [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to model the growth and survival behaviour of Salmonella Reading and endogenous lactic acid bacteria on fresh pre-cut iceberg lettuce stored under modified atmosphere packaging for 10 days at different temperatures (4, 8 and 15 °C). The Baranyi and Weibull models were satisfactorily fitted to describe microbial growth and survival behaviour, respectively. Results indicated that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) could grow at all storage temperatures, while S. Reading grew only at 15 °C. Specific growth rate values (μmax) for LAB ranged between 0.080 and 0.168 h−1 corresponding to the temperatures 4 and 15 °C while for S. Reading at 15 °C, μmax = 0.056 h−1. This result was compared with published predictive microbiology models for other Salmonella serovars in leafy greens, revealing that predictions from specific models could be valid for such a temperature, provided they were developed specifically in lettuce regardless of the type of serovars inoculated. The parameter delta obtained from the Weibull model for the pathogen was found to be 16.03 and 18.81 for 4 and 8 °C, respectively, indicating that the pathogen underwent larger reduction levels at lower temperatures (2.8 log10 decrease at 4 °C). These data suggest that this Salmonella serovar is especially sensitive to low temperatures, under the assayed conditions, while showcasing that a correct refrigeration could be an effective measure to control microbial risk in commercial packaged lettuce. Finally, the microbiological data and models from this study will be useful to consider more specifically the behaviour of S. Reading during transport and storage of fresh-cut lettuce, elucidating the contribution of this serovar to the risk by Salmonella in leafy green products. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
NMR-Based Metabolomic Comparison of Brassica oleracea (Var. italica): Organic and Conventional Farming
Foods 2020, 9(7), 945; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070945 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 781
Abstract
Brassicaceae family provides several crops which are worldwide known for their interesting phytochemical profiles, especially in terms of content of glucosinolates. These secondary metabolites show several beneficial effects toward consumers’ health, and several studies have been conducted to identify cultivation factors affecting their [...] Read more.
Brassicaceae family provides several crops which are worldwide known for their interesting phytochemical profiles, especially in terms of content of glucosinolates. These secondary metabolites show several beneficial effects toward consumers’ health, and several studies have been conducted to identify cultivation factors affecting their content in crops. One of the agronomic practices which is attracting growing interest is the organic one, which consists in avoiding the use of mineral fertilizers as well as pesticides. The aim of this study is to define the metabolic profile of Brassica oleracea (var. italica) and to compare the samples grown using organic and conventional fertilization methods. The hydroalcoholic and organic extracts of the samples have been analyzed by NMR spectroscopy. Forty-seven metabolites belonging to the categories of organic acids, amino acids, carbohydrates, fatty acids, sterols, and other molecules have been identified. Thirty-seven metabolites have been quantified. Univariate and multivariate PCA analyses allowed to observe that the organic practice influenced the nitrogen transport, the carbohydrate metabolism, the glucosinolate content and the phenylpropanoid pathway in B. oleracea (var. italica). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Detection of Substitution Adulteration of Paprika with Spent Paprika by the Application of Molecular Spectroscopy Tools
Foods 2020, 9(7), 944; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070944 - 16 Jul 2020
Viewed by 1036
Abstract
The spice paprika (Capsicum annuum and frutescens) is used in a wide variety of cooking methods as well as seasonings and sauces. The oil, paprika oleoresin, is a valuable product; however, once removed from paprika, the remaining spent product can be [...] Read more.
The spice paprika (Capsicum annuum and frutescens) is used in a wide variety of cooking methods as well as seasonings and sauces. The oil, paprika oleoresin, is a valuable product; however, once removed from paprika, the remaining spent product can be used to adulterate paprika. Near-infrared (NIR) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) were the platforms selected for the development of methods to detect paprika adulteration in conjunction with chemometrics. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), a supervised technique, was used to develop the chemometric models, and the measurement of fit (R2) and measurement of prediction (Q2) values were 0.853 and 0.819, respectively, for the NIR method and 0.943 and 0.898 respectively for the FTIR method. An external validation set was tested against the model, and a receiver operating curve (ROC) was created. The area under the curve (AUC) for both methods was highly accurate at 0.951 (NIR) and 0.907 (FTIR). The levels of adulteration with 100% correct classification were 50–90% (NIR) and 40–90% (FTIR). Sudan I dye is a commonly used adulterant in paprika; however, in this study it was found that this dye had no effect on the outcome of the result for spent material adulteration. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sourdough Fermentation Degrades Wheat Alpha-Amylase/Trypsin Inhibitor (ATI) and Reduces Pro-Inflammatory Activity
Foods 2020, 9(7), 943; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070943 - 16 Jul 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1889
Abstract
The ingestion of gluten-containing foods can cause wheat-related disorders in up to 15% of wheat consuming populations. Besides the role of gluten, α-amylase/trypsin inhibitors (ATI) have recently been identified as inducers of an innate immune response via toll-like receptor 4 in celiac disease [...] Read more.
The ingestion of gluten-containing foods can cause wheat-related disorders in up to 15% of wheat consuming populations. Besides the role of gluten, α-amylase/trypsin inhibitors (ATI) have recently been identified as inducers of an innate immune response via toll-like receptor 4 in celiac disease and non-celiac wheat sensitivity. ATI are involved in plant self-defense against insects and possibly in grain development. Notably, they are largely resistant to gastrointestinal proteases and heat, and their inflammatory activity affects not only the intestine, but also peripheral organs. The aim of this study was to understand the changes of ATI throughout the sourdough and yeast-fermented bread-making processes. ATI tetramers were isolated, fluorescein-labelled, and added to a mini-dough bread-making system. When the pH decreased below 4.0 in sourdough fermentation, the ATI tetramers were degraded due to the activation of aspartic proteases, whilst in yeast fermentation, ATI tetramers remained intact. The amylase inhibitory activity after sourdough fermentation decreased significantly, while the concentration of free thiol groups increased. The glutathione reductase activity of Fructilactobacillus sanfranciscensis did not contribute to the reduction of ATI tetramers. Compared to the unfermented wheat, sourdough fermentation was able to decrease the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in quantitative ATI extracts added to the human monocytic cell line THP-1. The current data suggest that sourdough fermentation can degrade ATI structure and bioactivity, and point to strategies to improve product development for wheat sensitivity patients. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Properties of Peanut (KAC431) Protein Hydrolysates and Their Impact on the Quality of Gluten-Free Rice Bread
Foods 2020, 9(7), 942; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070942 - 16 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 794
Abstract
Protein hydrolysates (PH) with a degree of hydrolysis (DH) of 5%, 10%, and 13% from two varieties of peanut were prepared using two commercial enzymes, Alcalase and Flavourzyme. The content of essential amino acids (30,290 mg/100 g) and hydrophobic amino acids (34,067 mg/100 [...] Read more.
Protein hydrolysates (PH) with a degree of hydrolysis (DH) of 5%, 10%, and 13% from two varieties of peanut were prepared using two commercial enzymes, Alcalase and Flavourzyme. The content of essential amino acids (30,290 mg/100 g) and hydrophobic amino acids (34,067 mg/100 g) of the peanut variety Kalasin 2 (KAC431) protein was higher than that of a common variety, Kalasin 1 (KAC1) (p < 0.05). The protein molecular weight distributions of the two varieties of peanut detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) were similar, ranging from 15 to 75 kDa, with a major protein band at 50–75 kDa. The antioxidant and functional properties of derived PHs were influenced by DH. Although the foaming ability of protein was improved by DH5%, it was obviously decreased upon increasing DH further. The best emulsifying properties were observed in PH with DH5% (p < 0.05). The incorporation of PH with a small DH, especially when produced using Flavourzyme, had a highly positive impact on the specific volume and relative elasticity of gluten-free bread. The effect of PHs on bread quality was highly correlated with their functional properties. This study suggests that partially enzymatically modified proteins are suitable for incorporation in food products such as bread and other gluten-free products. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Use of Air-Protected Headspace to Prevent Yeast Film Formation on the Brine of Leccino and Taggiasca Black Table Olives Processed in Industrial-Scale Plastic Barrels
Foods 2020, 9(7), 941; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070941 - 16 Jul 2020
Viewed by 560
Abstract
The formation of yeast film on the brine of black table olives during fermentation in plastic barrels on an industrial-scale could be critical for the quality of the product. In order to prevent the formation of yeast film on the brine surface, a [...] Read more.
The formation of yeast film on the brine of black table olives during fermentation in plastic barrels on an industrial-scale could be critical for the quality of the product. In order to prevent the formation of yeast film on the brine surface, a structural modified industrial barrel, which excludes oxygen from the headspace, was tested. Tests carried out during two years indicated that the yeast film contamination reached the maximum values at eight months of fermentation, equal to 19% and 24% respectively, for the Taggiasca and Leccino olives, processed in unmodified industrial plastic barrels. No yeast films formed on brines from the same varieties of olives processed in the modified plastic barrels. The brines of both varieties of olives processed in the industrial barrels displayed three dominant yeast species, while five species were detected in the brines from the modified barrels. Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Pichia manshurica were the main producers of yeast films. However, P. manshurica unlike the other yeasts, has shown also a biotype unable to produce films on the brine of the olives. The brines of Leccino and Taggiasca processed in the modified barrels, compared to the control, showed a higher titratable acidity and a higher concentration of CO2 useful to prevent the yeast film formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
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Open AccessEditorial
Healthy Diets and Modifiable Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Diseases—The European Perspective
Foods 2020, 9(7), 940; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070940 - 16 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 878
Abstract
Non-communicable diseases pose a serious threat to Western countries, in particular to European populations. In this context, healthy diets, such as the Mediterranean diet and the New Nordic diet developed in 2004, in addition to other healthy lifestyle choices (i.e., regular and low [...] Read more.
Non-communicable diseases pose a serious threat to Western countries, in particular to European populations. In this context, healthy diets, such as the Mediterranean diet and the New Nordic diet developed in 2004, in addition to other healthy lifestyle choices (i.e., regular and low to moderate intensity levels of physical activity) can contribute to reduce the risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes (majorly preventable, diet-related, non-communicable diseases), including being overweight, obesity, hypertension, hyperglycemia and hypercholesterolemia. The Mediterranean diet and the Nordic diet share common traits: they are rich in nutrient-dense foods (mostly plant-derived foods) and low in energy-dense foods (mainly of animal origin). However, more studies are needed to ascertain the long-term effects of adherence to both dietary styles with regards to disease prevalence and incidence, especially for the New Nordic Diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health-Promoting Effects of Traditional Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Three Different Aloe vera Gel-Based Edible Coatings on the Quality of Fresh-Cut “Hayward” Kiwifruits
Foods 2020, 9(7), 939; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070939 - 16 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 939
Abstract
In recent years, the market for minimally processed fruit has increased. Fresh-cut fruits are characterized by a short shelf life due to the processing phases that accelerate the ripening courses. The aim of this work is to analyze the effect on the quality [...] Read more.
In recent years, the market for minimally processed fruit has increased. Fresh-cut fruits are characterized by a short shelf life due to the processing phases that accelerate the ripening courses. The aim of this work is to analyze the effect on the quality of fresh-cut Hayward kiwis of three different edible coatings based on (1) Aloe vera gel, (2) Aloe vera gel + hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and (3) Aloe vera gel + lemon essential oil. Fruit firmness, weight loss, color, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, microbial load and sensory analysis were evaluated as fresh after 2, 4, 7 and 10 days. Aloe vera gel and Aloe vera gel + lemon essential oil maintained the best values, as they acted as a barrier to gas exchange and further reduced the microbial load. These results were confirmed by sensory analysis: Aloe vera gel + hydroxypropyl methylcellulose does not alter the natural taste of kiwi slices, Aloe vera gel + lemon essential oil gives the characteristic taste of lemon essential oil and Aloe vera gel gives an herbaceous taste. The Aloe vera gel, in combination with these additives, maintains the ability to preserve the quality of fresh-cut kiwifruit. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Botanical Origin, Pollen Profile, and Physicochemical Properties of Algerian Honey from Different Bioclimatic Areas
Foods 2020, 9(7), 938; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070938 - 16 Jul 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 889
Abstract
The palynological and physicochemical analysis of 62 honey samples produced in different biogeographical areas of Algeria was conducted. Results showed high variety in the botanical origin of samples and their physicochemical profile. Twenty-six samples were polyfloral honey, 30 were unifloral honey from different [...] Read more.
The palynological and physicochemical analysis of 62 honey samples produced in different biogeographical areas of Algeria was conducted. Results showed high variety in the botanical origin of samples and their physicochemical profile. Twenty-six samples were polyfloral honey, 30 were unifloral honey from different botanical sources such as Eucalyptus, Citrus, Apiaceae, Punica, Erica, Rosmarinus, Eriobotrya, or Hedysarum, and 6 were characterized as honeydew honey. Pollen analysis allowed the identification of 104 pollen types belonging to 51 botanical families, whereas the physicochemical profile showed important variations between samples. Multivariate techniques were used to compare the characteristics of samples from different biogeographical areas, showing significant differences between humid-area samples, located in the northeast of the country, and samples taken in semiarid, subhumid, and arid zones. Principal-component analysis (PCA) extracted nine components explaining 72% of data variance, being 30%, the sum of Component 1 and Component 2. The plot of both components showed samples grouped upon botanical and geographical origin. The results of this paper highlighted the great variability in honey production of Algeria, evidencing the importance of honey characterization to guarantee authenticity and to valorize local production. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Meat Composition, Fatty Acid Profile and Sensory Attributes of Meat from Goats Fed Diet Supplemented with Fermented Saccharina japonica and Dendropanax morbifera
Foods 2020, 9(7), 937; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070937 - 15 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 924
Abstract
A 90-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of diets supplemented with three concentrations (control or 0%, 0.5% and 1.0%) of fermented Saccharina japonica and Dendropanax morbifera (FSJ-DM) on the meat composition, growth performance, oxidative stability and fatty acid profile of [...] Read more.
A 90-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of diets supplemented with three concentrations (control or 0%, 0.5% and 1.0%) of fermented Saccharina japonica and Dendropanax morbifera (FSJ-DM) on the meat composition, growth performance, oxidative stability and fatty acid profile of Korean native black goat (KNBG) meat. The feed conversion ratio and body weight gain (1st to 2nd month) were improved significantly (p < 0.05) in response to feed supplemented with 1.0% FSJ-DM. Moisture content was increased, whereas ether extract and cholesterol contents were decreased in meat obtained from goats supplemented with 1.0% FSJ-DM dietary feeds (p < 0.05). In the same diet group, the total saturated fatty acids (ΣSFA) were lower, whereas the sum of polyunsaturated fatty acids (ΣPUFA) was higher, along with higher PUFA/SFA ratio and lower n-6/n-3 ratio (p < 0.05). On an average, the dietary supplementation of 1.0% FSJ-DM reduced the thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and pH values of goat meat. Overall, the results of this study suggest that diet supplemented with 1.0% FSJ-DM improves the meat composition, growth performance and fatty acid profile and reduces lipid oxidation of goat meat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory Evaluation and Quality Analysis of Meat and Meat Products)
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Open AccessArticle
Antimicrobial Activity of Selected Red and White Wines against Escherichia coli: In Vitro Inhibition Using Fish as Food Matrix
Foods 2020, 9(7), 936; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070936 - 15 Jul 2020
Viewed by 595
Abstract
Five different wines (standard Graševina, macerated Graševina with and without sulfur, rosé, and standard Plavac Mali), all typical Croatian wines, were tested to determine the antimicrobial activity against two Escherichia coli bacterial strains (ATCC® 25922 and ATCC® 8739) in vitro and [...] Read more.
Five different wines (standard Graševina, macerated Graševina with and without sulfur, rosé, and standard Plavac Mali), all typical Croatian wines, were tested to determine the antimicrobial activity against two Escherichia coli bacterial strains (ATCC® 25922 and ATCC® 8739) in vitro and using sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fillets as food matrix. The chemical composition of wines (pH, acidity, alcohol, total phenolics, anthocyanins, tannins, and sulfur content) and antimicrobial activity (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), agar-well diffusion method) were determined. The total phenolic content of the wines ranged from 305–3210 mg gallic acid equivalents per liter (GAE/L), and did not correlate to antimicrobial activity. The two wines with the lowest phenolic content (standard Graševina and rosé) had the lowest MIC values (122 and 429 mg GAE/L). A specific relation between the winemaking process and a particular MIC value was not established. There was also no relation found between the pH value, ethanol content, sulfur, or phenolics in regards to the antimicrobial effect. In fish fillets marinated in wine + water mixture (v/v = 1:1) and inoculated with 7 log colony forming units (CFU)/25 g the growth of bacteria was reduced after three days of storage at 4 °C. Subsequent storage resulted in the growth of bacteria in all samples, with the lowest growth of E. coli ATCC® 25922 in macerated Graševina and E. coli ATCC® 8739 in standard Graševina. All wines showed the capacity to reduce the number and growth of heavily infected sea bass filets, but correlation with specific wine constituents was not found. Taking into account the numerous reactive mechanisms between food and wine, all in vitro studies in controlled laboratory conditions should be further verified in the relevant environment, and additional research is needed to clarify the role of individual wine components in the mechanism of antimicrobial activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
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