Next Issue
Volume 9, July
Previous Issue
Volume 9, May

Foods, Volume 9, Issue 6 (June 2020) – 156 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Turmeric, also known as the ‘the Golden Goddess’ in India, has been used for thousands of years in Ayurvedic medicine as well as a spice in traditional dishes. The picture shows a yellow golden turmeric shower as a good wish in Indian wedding celebrations. Over the last decade, there has been increasing interest in turmeric and its medicinal properties with a dramatic growth of industrial production. This work investigates fast, efficient, and cost-effective metabolite recovery under ultrasound-assisted extraction in ethyl acetate. A novel multistep cross-flow procedure gave after three steps the higher yield in curcuminoid (92.10%). View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Article
Comparative Analysis of the Nutritional Components and Antioxidant Activities of Different Brassica juncea Cultivars
Foods 2020, 9(6), 840; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060840 - 26 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1078
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to compare the nutritional components and antioxidant activities of two different cultivars of Brassica juncea (Dolsan, Yeosu, Korea (BJD) and (Jeongseon, Gangwon, Korea (BJJ)). We investigated the proximate composition (moisture, crude ash, crude protein and crude lipid), [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to compare the nutritional components and antioxidant activities of two different cultivars of Brassica juncea (Dolsan, Yeosu, Korea (BJD) and (Jeongseon, Gangwon, Korea (BJJ)). We investigated the proximate composition (moisture, crude ash, crude protein and crude lipid), antioxidant activities (2,2-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)), total phenol content, total flavonoid content and sinigrin content by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Our results show that the proximate compositions of BJD and BJJ were not significantly different. However, both the DPPH radical scavenging and FRAP activities of the BJJ extracts were higher than those of the BJD extracts. The total phenol contents of the BJD and BJJ extracts were 6.56 and 9.80 mg gallic acid equivalent/g, respectively. The total flavonoids content of the BJD and BJJ extracts were 20.92 and 34.81 mg rutin equivalent/g, respectively, whereas the sinigrin contents, one of the major compounds in BJD and BJJ extracts, were 16.16 mg/g and 11.73 mg/g, respectively. In this study, we confirmed that, by comparing BJJ and BJD, the sinigrin content of BJD was higher than that of BJJ, but the antioxidant activity and phenol content of BJD were superior to that of BJJ. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Characterization, Analysis and Application of Antioxidant in Food)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
High-Intensity Ultrasound Treatment on Soy Protein after Selectively Proteolyzing Glycinin Component: Physical, Structural, and Aggregation Properties
Foods 2020, 9(6), 839; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060839 - 26 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1208
Abstract
In this study, a novel method called selective proteolysis was applied to the glycinin component of soy protein isolate (SPI), and a degraded glycinin hydrolysate (DGH) was obtained. The effects of high-intensity ultrasound (HIU) treatment (20 kHz at 400 W, 0, 5, 20, [...] Read more.
In this study, a novel method called selective proteolysis was applied to the glycinin component of soy protein isolate (SPI), and a degraded glycinin hydrolysate (DGH) was obtained. The effects of high-intensity ultrasound (HIU) treatment (20 kHz at 400 W, 0, 5, 20, and 40 min) on the physical, structural, and aggregation properties of DGH were investigated with the aim to reveal the influence of the selectively hydrolyzing glycinin component on the HIU treatment of soy protein. The effects of HIU on DGH and a control SPI (CSPI) were both time-dependent. HIU induced the formation of soluble aggregates in both samples at an early stage, while it dissociated these newly formed aggregates after a longer duration. Selectively hydrolyzing glycinin contributed to the soluble aggregation by exposing the compact protein structure and producing small protein fractions. The larger extent of hydrophobic interactions and disulfide bonds imparted a higher stability to the soluble protein aggregates formed in DGH. As a result, DGH displayed more ordered secondary structures, a higher solubility, and better gelling properties after the HIU treatment, especially at 20 min. The results of this study will be beneficial to the scientific community as well as industrial application. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Editorial
Dairy Fat and Cardiovascular Health
Foods 2020, 9(6), 838; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060838 - 26 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3466
Abstract
Current scientific evidence points to a neutral or positive effect of dairy fats intake on cardiovascular health. After years of controversy, with many guidelines recommending a reduced intake of dairy products, and preferably low or nonfat dairy foods, current knowledge points to the [...] Read more.
Current scientific evidence points to a neutral or positive effect of dairy fats intake on cardiovascular health. After years of controversy, with many guidelines recommending a reduced intake of dairy products, and preferably low or nonfat dairy foods, current knowledge points to the more appropriate recommendation of moderate consumption of full-fat dairy foods within a healthy lifestyle. Fermented dairy products seem to be the best option as a source of nutrients and cardiovascular health benefits. Previous recommendations were based on cholesterol, saturated fat, and caloric contents, in dairy fat, and their potential impact on serum cholesterol, fasting sugar levels, and blood pressure. However, experimental data point to a more complex scenario in which other actors may play major roles: calcium, bioactive lipids and peptides, and even the food-matrix effect from the dairy food side, and human genetics and environmental factors all impact dairy food-related health issues. Furthermore, cardiovascular health does not rely solely on serum cholesterol levels and blood pressure but also on inflammatory biomarkers. At present, little is known on the true mechanisms underlying the cardioprotective mechanism of dairy fats, and further research in needed to elucidate them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
Article
Identification of Cold Spots Using Non-Destructive Hyperspectral Imaging Technology in Model Food Processed by Coaxially Induced Microwave Pasteurization and Sterilization
Foods 2020, 9(6), 837; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060837 - 26 Jun 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1254
Abstract
The model food in this study known as mashed potato consisted of ribose (1.0%) and lysine (0.5%) to induce browning via Maillard reaction products. Mashed potato was processed by Coaxially Induced Microwave Pasteurization and Sterilization (CiMPAS) regime to generate an F0 of 6–8 [...] Read more.
The model food in this study known as mashed potato consisted of ribose (1.0%) and lysine (0.5%) to induce browning via Maillard reaction products. Mashed potato was processed by Coaxially Induced Microwave Pasteurization and Sterilization (CiMPAS) regime to generate an F0 of 6–8 min and analysis of the post-processed food was done in two ways, which included by measuring the color changes and using hyperspectral data acquisition. For visualizing the spectra of each tray in comparison with the control sample (raw mashed-potato), the mean spectrum (i.e., mean of region of interest) of each tray, as well as the control sample, was extracted and then fed to the fitted principal component analysis model and the results coincided with those post hoc analysis of the average reflectance values. Despite the presence of a visual difference in browning, the Lightness (L) values were not significantly (p < 0.05) different to detect a cold spot among a range of 12 processed samples. At the same time, hyperspectral imaging could identify the colder trays among the 12 samples from one batch of microwave sterilization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Novel Thermal Technology in Foods Processing)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Utilization of Bioelectrical Impedance to Predict Intramuscular Fat and Physicochemical Traits of the Beef Longissimus Thoracis et Lumborum Muscle
Foods 2020, 9(6), 836; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060836 - 25 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 927
Abstract
The bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a non-destructive technique that has been successfully used to assess the body and carcass composition of farm species. This study aimed to predict intramuscular fat (IMF) and physicochemical traits in the longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle (LM) [...] Read more.
The bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a non-destructive technique that has been successfully used to assess the body and carcass composition of farm species. This study aimed to predict intramuscular fat (IMF) and physicochemical traits in the longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle (LM) of beef, using BIA. These traits were evaluated in LM samples of 52 crossbred heifer carcasses. The BIA was performed in LM, using a 50 Hz frequency high precision impedance converter system. A correlation analysis of the studied variables was performed. Then a stepwise with a k-folds cross validation procedure was used to modelling the prediction of IMF and physicochemical traits from BIA parameters (24.5% ≤ CV ≤ 47.3%). Wide variation was found for IMF and BIA parameters. In general, correlations of BIA parameters with IMF and physicochemical traits were moderate to high and were similar for all BIA parameters (−0.50 ≤ r ≤ 0.50 only for total pigments, a* and pH48). It was possible to predict IMF and physicochemical traits from BIA. The best fit explained 79.3% of the variation in IMF, while for physicochemical traits the best fits were for sarcomere length and shear force (64.4% and 60.5%, respectively). The results confirmed the potential of BIA for objective measurement of meat quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processing and Preservation Technologies for Meat and Meat Products)
Article
Quantification of Polyphenols and Metals in Chinese Tea Infusions by Mass Spectrometry
Foods 2020, 9(6), 835; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060835 - 25 Jun 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1422
Abstract
Chemical compounds within tea (Camellia sinensis) are characterized by an extensive heterogeneity; some of them are crucial for their protective and defensive role in plants, and are closely connected to the benefits that the consumption of tea can provide. This paper is mainly [...] Read more.
Chemical compounds within tea (Camellia sinensis) are characterized by an extensive heterogeneity; some of them are crucial for their protective and defensive role in plants, and are closely connected to the benefits that the consumption of tea can provide. This paper is mainly focused on the characterization of polyphenols (secondary metabolites generally involved in defense against ultraviolet radiation and aggression by pathogens) and metals, extracted from nine Chinese tea samples, by integrating different mass spectrometry methodologies, LC-MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Our approach allowed to identify and compare forty polyphenols differently distributed in tea infusions at various fermentation levels. The exploration of polyphenols with nutraceutical potential in tea infusions can widely benefit especially tea-oriented populations. The worldwide consumption of tea requires at the same time a careful monitoring of metals released during the infusion of tea leaves. Metal analysis can provide the identification of many healthy minerals such as potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, differently affected by the fermentation of leaves. Our results allowed us: (i) to draw up a polyphenols profile of tea leaves subjected to different fermentation processes; (ii) to identify and quantify metals released from tea leaves during infusion. In this way, we obtained a molecular fingerprint useful for both nutraceutical applications and food control/typization, as well as for frauds detection and counterfeiting. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
An Artificial Intelligence Approach for Italian EVOO Origin Traceability through an Open Source IoT Spectrometer
Foods 2020, 9(6), 834; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060834 - 25 Jun 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1435
Abstract
Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) represents a crucial ingredient of the Mediterranean diet. Being a first-choice product, consumers should be guaranteed its quality and geographical origin, justifying the high purchasing cost. For this reason, it is important to have new reliable tools able [...] Read more.
Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) represents a crucial ingredient of the Mediterranean diet. Being a first-choice product, consumers should be guaranteed its quality and geographical origin, justifying the high purchasing cost. For this reason, it is important to have new reliable tools able to classify products according to their geographical origin. The aim of this work was to demonstrate the efficiency of an open source visible and near infra-red (VIS-NIR) spectrophotometer, relying on a specific app, in assessing olive oil geographical origin. Thus, 67 Italian and 25 foreign EVOO samples were analyzed and their spectral data were processed through an artificial intelligence algorithm. The multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) results reported significant differences (p < 0.001) between the Italian and foreign EVOO VIS-NIR matrices. The artificial neural network (ANN) model with an external test showed a correct classification percentage equal to 94.6%. Both the MANOVA and ANN tested methods showed the most important spectral wavelengths ranges for origin determination to be 308–373 nm and 594–605 nm. These are related to the absorption of phenolic components, carotenoids, chlorophylls, and anthocyanins. The proposed tool allows the assessment of EVOO samples’ origin and thus could help to preserve the “Made in Italy” from fraud and sophistication related to its commerce. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extra Virgin Olive Oil Quality, Safety, and Authenticity)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Chemical and Cellular Antioxidant Activities of In Vitro Digesta of Tilapia Protein and Its Hydrolysates
Foods 2020, 9(6), 833; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060833 - 25 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1083
Abstract
Production of protein hydrolysate as nutraceuticals is typically based on the activity of the hydrolysate, which might not yield the optimal activity under physiological condition due to structural modification of peptides upon gastrointestinal (GI) digestion. This study systematically compared the chemical and cellular [...] Read more.
Production of protein hydrolysate as nutraceuticals is typically based on the activity of the hydrolysate, which might not yield the optimal activity under physiological condition due to structural modification of peptides upon gastrointestinal (GI) digestion. This study systematically compared the chemical and cellular antioxidant activities of the in vitro digesta of tilapia protein and its hydrolysates prepared with various degree of hydrolysis (DH) by Alcalase. The enzymes used in the in vitro GI digestion analysis significantly contributed to the peptide content, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Proteins and all hydrolysates were slightly digested by pepsin but hydrolyzed extensively by pancreatin. Both hydrolysate and digesta predominantly scavenged free radicals via hydrogen atom transfer (HAT). The antioxidant activities of the hydrolysates increased with the increasing DH up to 16 h of hydrolysis. However, the digesta of 10-h hydrolysate displayed the highest chemical and HepG2 cellular antioxidant activities, while the protein digesta displayed the lowest. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the TEAC of the digesta was positively correlated with the cellular antioxidant activity (CAA). Therefore, the production of protein hydrolysate should be optimized based on the activity of the hydrolysate digesta rather than that of hydrolysates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seafood Products: Bioactive Compounds and Quality Improvement)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Effect of Buckwheat Groats Processing on the Content and Bioaccessibility of Selected Minerals
Foods 2020, 9(6), 832; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060832 - 25 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 985
Abstract
Adequate supply of minerals in the diet is necessary for the proper functioning of the human body. In recent years gluten-free diet, which rigorous forms may lead to deficiencies of mineral components (especially Mg, Mn, Zn and Cu), is becoming more and more [...] Read more.
Adequate supply of minerals in the diet is necessary for the proper functioning of the human body. In recent years gluten-free diet, which rigorous forms may lead to deficiencies of mineral components (especially Mg, Mn, Zn and Cu), is becoming more and more popular. Buckwheat grains do not contain gluten, and their nutritional value is very high. They are often consumed in the form of groats, which are obtained from roasted and dehulled seeds. The purpose of the work was to determine how conducting the buckwheat groats production in industrial conditions affects the content and availability of magnesium, manganese, zinc and copper. The results indicated that husk removal had a particularly adverse effect on the total manganese content and its amount released by enzymatic digestion, whereas it had a positive effect on the post-digestion zinc level by increasing it by nearly half. Hydrothermal processes especially affected the release of analysed elements simulated by the in vitro method, and the extent of changes depended on the processing parameters. It was shown that bioaccessibility of minerals may be increased by treating buckwheat at a lower temperature for a short time, which has a particularly beneficial effect on the manganese and magnesium. Treating grains at a higher temperature reduces the bioaccessibility of all analysed elements, which was particularly noted for zinc and copper. Based on the obtained results, it should be stated that buckwheat groats should be a regular part of human diet, because they are a good source of easily digestible mineral compounds. Their consumption should be especially considered by people on a rigorous gluten-free diet, as they can prevent mineral deficiencies associated with its use. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Effect of Black Tea Infusion on Physicochemical Properties, Antioxidant Capacity and Microstructure of Acidified Dairy Gel during Cold Storage
Foods 2020, 9(6), 831; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060831 - 25 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1211
Abstract
The impacts of black tea infusion on physicochemical properties, antioxidant capacity and microstructure of stirred acidified dairy gel (ADG) system have not been fully explored. These impacts were studied during a 28-day cold storage (4 °C) period to explore the feasibility and technical [...] Read more.
The impacts of black tea infusion on physicochemical properties, antioxidant capacity and microstructure of stirred acidified dairy gel (ADG) system have not been fully explored. These impacts were studied during a 28-day cold storage (4 °C) period to explore the feasibility and technical boundaries of making acidified dairy gels in which black tea infusion (BTI) is incorporated. Reconstituted skim milks containing different proportions of BTI were acidified by GDL (glucono-δ-lactone) at 35 °C for making ADG systems. Both textural properties and structural features were characterized; antioxidant capacity was determined through three assays. They are (1) free radical scavenging ability by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay; (2) ABTS [2,2′-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)] assay and (3) ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The microstructure of the ADGs was observed using SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and CLSM (confocal laser scanning microscopy). Results showed that BTI significantly increased the antioxidant capacity of the gel systems and the gel containing 15% BTI was as stable as the control gel in terms of syneresis rate. However lower phase stability (higher syneresis rate) was observed in the ADG with a higher portion of BTI (30% to 60%). The microstructure of the ADGs observed may explain to the phase stability and textural attributes. The results suggested that tea polyphenols (TPs) improved antioxidant capacity in all samples and the interactions between BTI and dairy components significantly altered the texture of ADGs. Such alterations were more pronounced in the samples with higher proportion of BTI (60%) and/or longer storage time (28 days). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical and Technological Characterization of Dairy Products)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Quality Characteristics of Healthy Dry Fermented Sausages Formulated with a Mixture of Olive and Chia Oil Structured in Oleogel or Emulsion Gel as Animal Fat Replacer
Foods 2020, 9(6), 830; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060830 - 24 Jun 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1741
Abstract
The present work evaluates the suitability of beeswax oleogels and emulsion gel prepared with a healthy lipid mixture (olive and chia oils) as pork fat replacers for the development of a dry fermented meat product (fuet). Because these systems offer various possibilities, this [...] Read more.
The present work evaluates the suitability of beeswax oleogels and emulsion gel prepared with a healthy lipid mixture (olive and chia oils) as pork fat replacers for the development of a dry fermented meat product (fuet). Because these systems offer various possibilities, this study has compared their effect on the nutritional quality and sensory acceptability of fuets and their behaviour with regard to technological properties and microbiological and oxidative stability during 30 days of chilled storage. This strategy allowed products with an improved fatty acid profile and a 12-fold decrease of the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) n-6/n-3 ratio, as compared to the control samples. Irrespective of the structuring method used as animal fat replacer, reformulated samples showed a good oxidative status during chilled storage. In general, no differences that depended on the use of oleogel or emulsion gel were observed in the technological properties and microbiological status, so the choice of one or the other would be conditioned by other factors than the characteristics that the product develops. However, further studies are needed to improve the sensory attributes of the reformulated samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Strategies for Innovative and Enhanced Meat and Meat Products)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
The Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Rice Bran Phenolic Extracts
Foods 2020, 9(6), 829; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060829 - 24 Jun 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1456
Abstract
Oxidative stress and inflammation are known to be linked to the development of chronic inflammatory conditions, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Dietary polyphenols have been demonstrated to contain potent bioactivity against specific inflammatory pathways. Rice bran (RB), a by-product generated [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress and inflammation are known to be linked to the development of chronic inflammatory conditions, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Dietary polyphenols have been demonstrated to contain potent bioactivity against specific inflammatory pathways. Rice bran (RB), a by-product generated during the rice milling process, is normally used in animal feed or discarded due to its rancidity. However, RB is known to be abundant in bioactive polyphenols including phenolic acids. This study investigates the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of RB phenolic extracts (25, 50, 100, and 250 µg/mL) on RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cells stimulated with hydrogen peroxide and lipopolysaccharide. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation such as malondialdehyde (MDA), intracellular reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), interleukin-10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-12, p70 (IL-12p70), and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) were measured in vitro. Treatment with RB extracts significantly decreased the production of MDA, intracellular reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-12p70, and IFN-γ) when compared to the control. It is proposed that RB phenolic extracts, via their metal chelating properties and free radical scavenging activity, target pathways of oxidative stress and inflammation resulting in the alleviation of vascular inflammatory mediators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Benefits of Plant Extracts for Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Impact of Dairy Ingredients on Wheat Flour Dough Rheology and Bread Properties
Foods 2020, 9(6), 828; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060828 - 24 Jun 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1319
Abstract
The incorporation of dairy ingredients, such as milk or acid whey in bread, is advantageous considering their functional properties and the positive effects on consumers’ health. The introduction of an ingredient in bread making process requires the evaluation of dough behavior and final [...] Read more.
The incorporation of dairy ingredients, such as milk or acid whey in bread, is advantageous considering their functional properties and the positive effects on consumers’ health. The introduction of an ingredient in bread making process requires the evaluation of dough behavior and final product quality. Thus, the influence of water replacement by milk or acid whey on the characteristics of wheat flour dough and bread was studied. Dynamic rheological measurements were performed in order to evaluate the viscoelastic properties of dough. Compared to the control, an increase of the elastic character of dough for samples with milk and a decrease for those with acid whey was observed. The resistance to deformation decreased when water was substituted with more than 25% milk and increased for samples with up to 25% acid whey. Higher maximum gelatinization temperatures were obtained when water was substituted by milk or acid whey. Bread crumb presented higher firmness, lower volume and porosity for samples with dairy ingredients compared to the control, therefore, replacement levels lower than 25% were recommended in order to minimize this negative effect. Bread elasticity, chewiness, resilience, pores density and size were improved at replacement levels lower than 25%, while for the sensory characteristics of the specialty bread, high scores were obtained. These results can be helpful for processors, in order to develop and optimize bread with dairy ingredients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Cereals and Cereal-Based Foods)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Communication
FT-NIRS Coupled with PLS Regression as a Complement to HPLC Routine Analysis of Caffeine in Tea Samples
Foods 2020, 9(6), 827; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060827 - 24 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1189
Abstract
Daily consumption of caffeine in coffee, tea, chocolate, cocoa, and soft drinks has gained wide and plentiful public and scientific attention over the past few decades. The concentration of caffeine in vivo is a crucial indicator of some disorders—for example, kidney malfunction, heart [...] Read more.
Daily consumption of caffeine in coffee, tea, chocolate, cocoa, and soft drinks has gained wide and plentiful public and scientific attention over the past few decades. The concentration of caffeine in vivo is a crucial indicator of some disorders—for example, kidney malfunction, heart disease, increase of blood pressure and alertness—and can cause some severe diseases including type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), stroke risk, liver disease, and some cancers. In the present study, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) coupled with partial least-squares regression (PLSR) was proposed as an alternative method for the quantification of caffeine in 25 commercially available tea samples consumed in Oman. This method is a fast, complementary technique to wet chemistry procedures as well as to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods for the quantitative analysis of caffeine in tea samples because it is reagent-less and needs little or no pre-treatment of samples. In the current study, the partial least-squares (PLS) algorithm was built by using the near-infrared NIR spectra of caffeine standards prepared in tea samples scanned by a Frontier NIR spectrophotometer (L1280034) by PerkinElmer. Spectra were collected in the absorption mode in the wavenumber range of 10,000–4000 cm−1, using a 0.2 mm path length and CaF2 sealed cells with a resolution of 2 cm−1. The NIR results for the contents of caffeine in tea samples were also compared with results obtained by HPLC analysis. Both techniques provided good results for predicting the caffeine contents in commercially available tea samples. The results of the proposed study show that the suggested FT-NIRS coupled with PLS regression algorithun has a high potential to be routinely used for the quick and reproducible analysis of caffeine contents in tea samples. For the NIR method, the limit of quantification (LOQ) was estimated as 10 times the error of calibration (root mean square error of calibration (RMSECV)) of the model; thus, RMSEC was calculated as 0.03 ppm and the LOQ as 0.3 ppm. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Editorial
Ongoing Research on Microgreens: Nutritional Properties, Shelf-Life, Sustainable Production, Innovative Growing and Processing Approaches
Foods 2020, 9(6), 826; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060826 - 24 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2498
Abstract
Microgreens garner immense potential for improving the nutritional value of the human diet, considering their high content of healthy compounds. On the other hand, they are gaining more and more interest not only for their nutritional value but also for their interesting organoleptic [...] Read more.
Microgreens garner immense potential for improving the nutritional value of the human diet, considering their high content of healthy compounds. On the other hand, they are gaining more and more interest not only for their nutritional value but also for their interesting organoleptic traits and commercial potential. The purpose of this Special Issue is to publish high-quality research papers with the aim to cover the state-of-the-art, recent progress and perspectives related to production, post-harvest, characterization, and potential of microgreens. A broad range of aspects such as cultivation, post-harvest techniques and packaging, analytical methods, nutritional value, bioaccessibily and prospects are covered. All contributions are of significant relevance and could stimulate further research in this area. Full article
Article
Evaluation of Amyloid β42 Aggregation Inhibitory Activity of Commercial Dressings by A Microliter-Scale High-Throughput Screening System Using Quantum-Dot Nanoprobes
Foods 2020, 9(6), 825; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060825 - 24 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1156
Abstract
The aggregation and accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) in the brain is a trigger of pathogenesis for Alzheimer’s disease. Previously, we developed a microliter-scale high-throughput screening (MSHTS) system for Aβ42 aggregation inhibitors using quantum-dot nanoprobes. The MSHTS system is seldom influenced by [...] Read more.
The aggregation and accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) in the brain is a trigger of pathogenesis for Alzheimer’s disease. Previously, we developed a microliter-scale high-throughput screening (MSHTS) system for Aβ42 aggregation inhibitors using quantum-dot nanoprobes. The MSHTS system is seldom influenced by contaminants in samples and is able to directly evaluate Aβ42 aggregation inhibitory activity of samples containing various compounds. In this study, to elucidate whether the MSHTS system could be applied to the evaluation of processed foods, we examined Aβ42 aggregation inhibitory activity of salad dressings, including soy sauces. We estimated the 50% effective concentration (EC50) from serial diluted dressings. Interestingly, all 19 commercial dressings tested showed Aβ42 aggregation inhibitory activity. It was suggested that EC50 differed by as much as 100 times between the dressings with the most (0.065 ± 0.020 v/v%) and least (6.737 ± 5.054 v/v%) inhibitory activity. The highest activity sample is traditional Japanese dressing, soy sauce. It is known that soy sauce is roughly classified into a heat-treated variety and a non-heat-treated variety. We demonstrated that non-heat-treated raw soy sauce exhibited higher Aβ42 aggregation inhibitory activity than heat-treated soy sauce. Herein, we propose that MSHTS system can be applied to processed foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Analytical Methods in Food Analysis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Differentiating Breast Myopathies through Color and Texture Analyses in Broiler
Foods 2020, 9(6), 824; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060824 - 23 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1112
Abstract
Wooden breast (WB), white striping (WS) and spaghetti meat (SM) are breast myopathies of the Pectoralis major that greatly affect meat quality in broilers. To differentiate color and texture characteristics with instrumental methods, some of them applied for the first time in this [...] Read more.
Wooden breast (WB), white striping (WS) and spaghetti meat (SM) are breast myopathies of the Pectoralis major that greatly affect meat quality in broilers. To differentiate color and texture characteristics with instrumental methods, some of them applied for the first time in this species, 300 carcasses were randomly chosen from an abattoir from five different flocks from the same farm, at a rate of 60 carcasses from each flock. Twenty-four hours after slaughter, both side breasts were dissected, and yields calculated. Color was measured on the surface of the breast with a spectrocolorimeter and reflectance values obtained. Texture was measured on raw meat with a modified compression test that hinders the fiber from expanding transversally and a texture profile analysis (TPA) and also on cooked meat with a Warner–Bratzler shear and a TPA. Color differs between severity degrees, increasing redness (from −1.77 to −1.32 in WB) and, especially, yellowness (from 5.00 to 6.73 in WS) and chroma (from 5.75 to 7.22 in SM) with the severity of the myopathy. The subtraction R630 minus R580 was found to be a useful index to differentiate breast myopathies degrees. The modified compression test can be considered an effective tool to assess the hardness of different structures in each myopathy. Texture differences in the myopathies are better assessed in raw than in cooked meat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instrument Analysis Applied in Food Science)
Article
Visual Cultural Biases in Food Classification
Foods 2020, 9(6), 823; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060823 - 23 Jun 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1327
Abstract
This article investigates how visual biases influence the choices made by people and machines in the context of online food. To this end the paper investigates three research questions and shows (i) to what extent machines are able to classify images, (ii) how [...] Read more.
This article investigates how visual biases influence the choices made by people and machines in the context of online food. To this end the paper investigates three research questions and shows (i) to what extent machines are able to classify images, (ii) how this compares to human performance on the same task and (iii) which factors are involved in the decision making of both humans and machines. The research reveals that algorithms significantly outperform human labellers on this task with a range of biases being present in the decision-making process. The results are important as they have a range of implications for research, such as recommender technology and crowdsourcing, as is discussed in the article. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue How Visuals Affect Food Choice?)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Effect of Rice Flour Fermentation with Lactobacillus spicheri DSM 15429 on the Nutritional Features of Gluten-Free Muffins
Foods 2020, 9(6), 822; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060822 - 22 Jun 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1314
Abstract
Lactobacillus Spicheri DSM 15429 strain was used to ferment rice flour, aiming at exploiting its influence on the amino-acids, minerals, lactic acid, total phenols, and antioxidant activity of the rice sourdough and gluten-free muffins. Gluten-free muffins were prepared by using 15% rice sourdough [...] Read more.
Lactobacillus Spicheri DSM 15429 strain was used to ferment rice flour, aiming at exploiting its influence on the amino-acids, minerals, lactic acid, total phenols, and antioxidant activity of the rice sourdough and gluten-free muffins. Gluten-free muffins were prepared by using 15% rice sourdough fermented with the above strain of lactic acid bacteria and compared with rice spontaneous fermentation. Methods like LC-MS (Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry), AA (atomic absorption), HPLC (High-performance liquid chromatography), Folin–Ciocalteu, and 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity (DPPH) were used to fulfill the aim of the study. The addition of rice sourdough fermented with LAB was reflected in the chemical composition of the final baked good, improving its amount on bioactive compounds such as amino acids, mineral bioavailability, total phenols, and antioxidant activity. Total phenols and antioxidant activity increased their amount by 70.53% and 73.70%, respectively, meanwhile, lactic acid, minerals, and amino-acids increased their values at least twice. Thus, rice fermented with Lactobacilus spicheri DSM 15429 strain could be a tool to further increase the nutritional value of gluten-free baked products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Cereals and Cereal-Based Foods)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Beer and Consumer Response Using Biometrics: Associations Assessment of Beer Compounds and Elicited Emotions
Foods 2020, 9(6), 821; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060821 - 22 Jun 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1776
Abstract
Some chemical compounds, especially alcohol, sugars, and alkaloids such as hordenine, have been reported as elicitors of different emotional responses. This preliminary study was based on six commercial beers selected according to their fermentation type, with two beers of each type (spontaneous, bottom, [...] Read more.
Some chemical compounds, especially alcohol, sugars, and alkaloids such as hordenine, have been reported as elicitors of different emotional responses. This preliminary study was based on six commercial beers selected according to their fermentation type, with two beers of each type (spontaneous, bottom, and top). Chemometry and sensory analysis were performed for all samples to determine relationships and patterns between chemical composition and emotional responses from consumers. The results showed that sweeter samples were associated with higher perceived liking by consumers and positive emotions, which corresponded to spontaneous fermentation beers. There was high correlation (R = 0.91; R2 = 0.83) between hordenine and alcohol content. Beers presenting higher concentrations of both, and higher bitterness, were related to negative emotions. Further studies should be conducted, giving more time for emotional response analysis between beer samples, and comparing alcoholic and non-alcoholic beers with similar styles, to separate the effects of alcohol and hordenine. This preliminary study was a first attempt to associate beer compounds with the emotional responses of consumers using non-invasive biometrics. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Optimization of Short-Term Hot-Water Treatment of Apples for Fruit Salad Production by Non-Invasive Chlorophyll-Fluorescence Imaging
Foods 2020, 9(6), 820; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060820 - 22 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1459
Abstract
For fresh-cut salad production, hot-water treatment (HWT) needs optimization in terms of temperature and duration to guarantee a gentle and non-stressing processing to fully retain product quality besides an effective sanitation. One major initial target of heat treatment is photosynthesis, making it a [...] Read more.
For fresh-cut salad production, hot-water treatment (HWT) needs optimization in terms of temperature and duration to guarantee a gentle and non-stressing processing to fully retain product quality besides an effective sanitation. One major initial target of heat treatment is photosynthesis, making it a suitable and sensitive marker for HWT effects. Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging (CFI) is a rapid and non-invasive tool to evaluate respective plant responses. Following practical applications in fruit salad production, apples of colored and of green-ripe cultivars (‘Braeburn’, ‘Fuji’, ‘Greenstar’, ‘Granny Smith’), obtained from a local fruit salad producer, were hot-water treated from 44 to 70 °C for 30 to 300 s. One day after HWT and after 7 days of storage at 4 °C, CFI and remission spectroscopy were applied to evaluating temperature effects on photosynthetic activity, on contents of fruit pigments (chlorophylls, anthocyanins), and on various relevant quality parameters of intact apples. In ‘Braeburn’ apples, short-term HWT at 55 °C for 30 to 120 s avoided any heat injuries and quality losses. The samples of the other three cultivars turned out to be less sensitive and may be short-term heat-treated at temperatures of up to 60 °C for the same time. CFI proved to be a rapid, sensitive, and effective tool for process optimization of apples, closely reflecting the cultivar- or batch-specificity of heat effects on produce photosynthesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Development of Highly Nutritional Breads with By-Products of Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) Seeds
Foods 2020, 9(6), 819; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060819 - 22 Jun 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 937
Abstract
The effect of the incorporation of various types of residual chia flour (whole, semi-defatted and defatted, with or without mucilage) on the technological quality of bread was investigated. The various types of chia flour were used to substitute 5 and 10% wt/wt of [...] Read more.
The effect of the incorporation of various types of residual chia flour (whole, semi-defatted and defatted, with or without mucilage) on the technological quality of bread was investigated. The various types of chia flour were used to substitute 5 and 10% wt/wt of wheat flour in the bread formulations. The water absorption, dough development time and stability of blends with the presence of mucilage and the incorporation of 10% wt/wt of chia flour demonstrated the highest values in comparison with the other ones. The specific volume of the flour variants with 5% wt/wt of chia flour with mucilage were similar to the control bread; while those formulated with chia flour without mucilage exhibited a lesser volume. The incorporation of 10% wt/wt of chia flour in the formulations caused a decrease in the technological quality of the bread as expected. The bread crust and crumb colour parameters were mainly influenced by the level of chia flour substitution, which resulted in a decrease in lightness and h values. The substitution of wheat flour with 5% wt/wt of chia flour counterparts with mucilage improved the technological quality of the breads. The different oil content of the chia flours did not show any significant influence on overall quality or texture. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
β-Cyclodextrin-Mediated Beany Flavor Masking and Textural Modification of an Isolated Soy Protein-Based Yuba Film
Foods 2020, 9(6), 818; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060818 - 22 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1128
Abstract
The application of β-cyclodextrin (CD) to remove unattractive volatile compounds has been applied in various food products. This study investigated the effect of CD concentration (1–4%) on the beany flavor masking and textural modification of yuba film prepared by isolated soy protein (ISP) [...] Read more.
The application of β-cyclodextrin (CD) to remove unattractive volatile compounds has been applied in various food products. This study investigated the effect of CD concentration (1–4%) on the beany flavor masking and textural modification of yuba film prepared by isolated soy protein (ISP) in the presence of (+CD), or after removing, the flavor-entrapped CD (−CD). Based on gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), the addition of CD caused a decrease in 1-octen-3-ol, benzaldehyde, hexanal, and 2-heptanone, which are characterized as the major beany flavor compounds. Regardless of presence or removal, the use of CD was effective in reducing beany flavor in yuba film. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation indicated that the CD present in yuba film was distributed on the lower surface and matrices of the films. In yuba film containing 4% CD, the CD crystals were concentrated on both the upper and lower surfaces of the film. The textural properties of the yuba film were affected by the presence or removal of CD, and better puncture strength was obtained when yuba was made after removing the CD. Therefore, this study indicates that the addition of CD was a good approach to mask the beany flavor of soy protein-based products, and textural properties could be improved by removing CD from the product formulation. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Editorial
Agricultural and Food Waste: Analysis, Characterization and Extraction of Bioactive Compounds and Their Possible Utilization
Foods 2020, 9(6), 817; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060817 - 21 Jun 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1411
Abstract
The characterization and reutilization of agricultural and food waste is an important strategy to ensure the sustainable development of the agricultural and food industries. As a result, the environmental impact of these industries can be reduced, thus contributing to the fight against environmental [...] Read more.
The characterization and reutilization of agricultural and food waste is an important strategy to ensure the sustainable development of the agricultural and food industries. As a result, the environmental impact of these industries can be reduced, thus contributing to the fight against environmental problems, mainly to those related to a potential mitigation of climatic change. This Special Issue includes five papers that reported important findings from research activities related to the reutilization of by-products from food processing industries, which help to increase the knowledge in this field. Full article
Editorial
The Role of Biofilms in the Development and Dissemination of Microbial Resistance within the Food Industry
Foods 2020, 9(6), 816; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060816 - 21 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1093
Abstract
Biofilms are multicellular sessile microbial communities embedded in hydrated extracellular polymeric matrices. Their formation is common in microbial life in most environments, while those formed on food-processing surfaces are of considerable interest in the context of food hygiene. Biofilm cells express properties that [...] Read more.
Biofilms are multicellular sessile microbial communities embedded in hydrated extracellular polymeric matrices. Their formation is common in microbial life in most environments, while those formed on food-processing surfaces are of considerable interest in the context of food hygiene. Biofilm cells express properties that are distinct from planktonic ones, in particular, notorious resistance to antimicrobial agents. Thus, a special feature of biofilms is that, once they have been developed, they are hard to eradicate, even when careful sanitization procedures are regularly applied. A great deal of ongoing research has investigated how and why surface-attached microbial communities develop such resistance, and several mechanisms are to be acknowledged (e.g., heterogeneous metabolic activity, cell adaptive responses, diffusion limitations, genetic and functional diversification, and microbial interactions). The articles contained in this Special Issue deal with biofilms of some important food-related bacteria (including common pathogens such as Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus, as well as spoilage-causing spore-forming bacilli), providing novel insights on their resistance mechanisms and implications, together with novel methods (e.g., use of protective biofilms formed by beneficial bacteria, enzymes) that could be used to overcome such resistance and thus improve the safety of our food supply and protect public health. Full article
Review
Biofortified Crops for Combating Hidden Hunger in South Africa: Availability, Acceptability, Micronutrient Retention and Bioavailability
Foods 2020, 9(6), 815; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060815 - 21 Jun 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1607
Abstract
In many poorer parts of the world, biofortification is a strategy that increases the concentration of target nutrients in staple food crops, mainly by genetic manipulation, to alleviate prevalent nutrient deficiencies. We reviewed the (i) prevalence of vitamin A, iron (Fe) and zinc [...] Read more.
In many poorer parts of the world, biofortification is a strategy that increases the concentration of target nutrients in staple food crops, mainly by genetic manipulation, to alleviate prevalent nutrient deficiencies. We reviewed the (i) prevalence of vitamin A, iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) deficiencies; (ii) availability of vitamin A, iron and Zn biofortified crops, and their acceptability in South Africa. The incidence of vitamin A and iron deficiency among children below five years old is 43.6% and 11%, respectively, while the risk of Zn deficiency is 45.3% among children aged 1 to 9 years. Despite several strategies being implemented to address the problem, including supplementation and commercial fortification, the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies is still high. Biofortification has resulted in the large-scale availability of βcarotene-rich orange-fleshed sweet potatoes (OFSP), while provitamin A biofortified maize and Zn and/or iron biofortified common beans are at development stages. Agronomic biofortification is being investigated to enhance yields and concentrations of target nutrients in crops grown in agriculturally marginal environments. The consumer acceptability of OFSP and provitamin A biofortified maize were higher among children compared to adults. Accelerating the development of other biofortified staple crops to increase their availability, especially to the target population groups, is essential. Nutrition education should be integrated with community health programmes to improve the consumption of the biofortified crops, coupled with further research to develop suitable recipes/formulations for biofortified foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional and Fortified Foods)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Physical Properties and Consumer Evaluation of Cocoa Bean Shell-Functionalized Biscuits Adapted for Diabetic Consumers by the Replacement of Sucrose with Tagatose
Foods 2020, 9(6), 814; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060814 - 21 Jun 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1211
Abstract
The cocoa bean shell (CBS), a by-product of the cocoa industry, has been reported to be rich in fiber and polyphenols, which could contribute to reducing the metabolism of sugars and glucose adsorption. The production of CBS-based biscuits in which sucrose is replaced [...] Read more.
The cocoa bean shell (CBS), a by-product of the cocoa industry, has been reported to be rich in fiber and polyphenols, which could contribute to reducing the metabolism of sugars and glucose adsorption. The production of CBS-based biscuits in which sucrose is replaced with tagatose (a low-glycemic sugar with prebiotic properties), benefiting diabetic consumers, is proposed. Six prototype biscuits were produced using sucrose, tagatose, and CBS powder at 0%, 10%, and 20% as a wheat flour replacement. Biscuits were studied in terms of fiber content, and those with 10% and 20% CBS showed to contain 5.66% and 8.70–8.71% of total dietary fiber, respectively. Moreover, the physicochemical and structural properties of the biscuits were studied to evaluate their differences due to the use of sucrose and tagatose combined with CBS. Significant effects mainly caused by the reducing nature and lower solubility of tagatose with respect to sugar, and the water retention capacities of CBS were observed. Finally, the biscuits were evaluated by performing a consumer acceptance evaluation, and their perceptible sensorial differences were studied by performing a Napping® sensory characterization. CBS-based biscuits represent an interesting possibility for cocoa by-product revalorization, although an optimized recipe is recommended, especially when employing tagatose. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Quality of Cocoa and Its Products)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Modified Rotating Reel for Malaxer Machines: Assessment of Rheological Characteristics, Energy Consumption, Temperature Profile, and Virgin Olive Oil Quality
Foods 2020, 9(6), 813; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060813 - 20 Jun 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 920
Abstract
The properties of food products are the result of changes produced in raw materials as a result of process treatments. In the olive oil extraction process, these changes can be observed as differences in quality, nutritional characteristics, taste, and flavor, and are especially [...] Read more.
The properties of food products are the result of changes produced in raw materials as a result of process treatments. In the olive oil extraction process, these changes can be observed as differences in quality, nutritional characteristics, taste, and flavor, and are especially due to the time and temperature of the malaxation phase. These parameters are closely related to the mechanical design of malaxer machines. In this study, a new reel model for malaxer machines was designed. The new model was incorporated into an industrial malaxer machine and experimental tests were carried out to study the effects of two different reel designs (modified and unmodified profile) on the rheological characteristics of olive paste, the energy consumption of the plant, and the temperature profile inside the machine. The main commercial parameters of the produced olive oil were studied, as well as the extraction yield and the extraction efficiency of the plant. The malaxer machine equipped with the modified reel showed better homogenization of the paste, which led to improved heat exchange and rheological properties. The results of this study showed that a specific modification of the rotating reel can improve the performance of the malaxer in terms of improving the viscosity of the paste, 127,157.67 (mPa sn) for the malaxer with the modified reel at the beginning of malaxation, reaching a final value of 64,626.00 (mPa sn) at the end. The unmodified malaxer showed an initial viscosity coefficient of 133,754.00 (mPa sn) and a final value of 111,990.67 (mPa sn). This led to a reduction in malaxing times, an increase in the work capacity of the plant, and a reduction in total energy consumption and slowed down the oxidative phenomena responsible for the decrease in the quality of olive oil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Antioxidant, Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Properties and Blood-Pressure-Lowering Effect of Rice Bran Protein Hydrolysates
Foods 2020, 9(6), 812; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060812 - 20 Jun 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1327
Abstract
This research aimed to investigate the biological properties of different hydrolysates derived from industrial and laboratory defatted rice bran proteins. Industrial and laboratory defatted rice bran protein concentrates were hydrolyzed with alcalase or flavorzyme. The degree of hydrolysis (DH), oxygen radical absorbance capacity [...] Read more.
This research aimed to investigate the biological properties of different hydrolysates derived from industrial and laboratory defatted rice bran proteins. Industrial and laboratory defatted rice bran protein concentrates were hydrolyzed with alcalase or flavorzyme. The degree of hydrolysis (DH), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), reducing power, total phenolic compounds (TPC), and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity, were determined in the hydrolysates and the molecular fractions lower than 3 kDa. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured using the tail-cuff method before and after oral administration of 80 mg/kg of different rice bran protein hydrolysate (RBPH) fractions lower than 3 kDa in male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar–Kyoto (WKY) rats. The highest values of in vitro antioxidant activity and TPC were observed in RBPH with alcalase defatted by industry (RBPH2A), and, in all cases, these bioactivities were higher in the molecular fractions lower than 3 kDa. Once again, fractions lower than 3 kDa obtained with alcalase showed a potent ACE inhibitory activity (RBPH1A<3 and RBPH2A<3). The administration of RBPH1A<3 caused a significant decrease in the SBP in SHR, where the maximum decrease was reached at 8 h after administration. SBP in WKY rats was not modified after the administration of RBPH1A<3. These results suggest that the rice bran protein hydrolysates obtained from industry after treatment with alcalase could be an interesting source of bioactive peptides, with potential action on hypertension and other related pathologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Changes and Global Warming—the Future of Foods)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
High Biological Value Compounds Extraction from Citrus Waste with Non-Conventional Methods
Foods 2020, 9(6), 811; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060811 - 20 Jun 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 1733
Abstract
Citrus fruits are extensively grown and much consumed around the world. Eighteen percent of total citrus cultivars are destined for industrial processes, and as a consequence, large amounts of waste are generated. Citrus waste is a potential source of high biological value compounds, [...] Read more.
Citrus fruits are extensively grown and much consumed around the world. Eighteen percent of total citrus cultivars are destined for industrial processes, and as a consequence, large amounts of waste are generated. Citrus waste is a potential source of high biological value compounds, which can be used in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries but whose final disposal may pose a problem due to economic and environmental factors. At the same time, the emerging need to reduce the environmental impact of citrus waste and its responsible management has increased. For these reasons, the study of the use of non-conventional methods to extract high biological value compounds such as carotenoids, polyphenols, essential oils, and pectins from this type of waste has become more urgent in recent years. In this review, the effectiveness of technologies such as ultrasound assisted extraction, microwave assisted extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized water extraction, pulsed electric field, high-voltage electric discharges, and high hydrostatic pressures is described and assessed. A wide range of information concerning the principal non-conventional methods employed to obtain high-biological-value compounds from citrus waste as well as the most influencing factors about each technology are considered. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop