Sustainable Functional Food Processing

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Engineering and Technology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2021) | Viewed by 146241

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Guest Editor
Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, University of Zagreb, Pierottijeva 6, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Interests: 3D food printing; non-thermal processing; green extraction; functional food; food chemistry
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

grade E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Food Technology, University North, Trg dr. Žarka Dolinara 1, 48000 Koprivnica, Croatia
Interests: general statistics; research methodology; experimental design; mathematical modeling; multivariate analysis; novel food processing and extraction technologies
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Functional nutrition has become one of the main directions for a healthy lifestyle and sustainable food production due to its promising positive influence on health and its association with the use of raw materials of natural origins. Hence, it has attracted great interest from both consumers and manufacturers concerned with human wellbeing and sustainable economic growth. Not surprisingly, the functional sector has become an increasingly lucrative segment of the food industry with a fast-growing market due to the new sociodemographic trends (e.g., longer life expectancy, promotion of healthy lifestyles, better health care, etc.). For instance, functional juices that are made from indigenous fruits (which, economically, are insufficiently explored) represent an interesting niche, providing all the above-mentioned characteristics to satisfy the interests of various food markets. Here, the focus is placed on biologically active compounds (BACs) and probiotics that are responsible for numerous positive effects of functional foods on health. Unfortunately, the majority of BACs are thermolabile, which is especially important for food production that still employs classical heat treatments (e.g., pasteurization). As previously documented, this will lead to food degradation and negatively affect the quality of the final product. To prevent such negative effects of the production process, scientist and engineers have concentrated their efforts on designing economical and environmentally acceptable technologies that are able to preserve food nutritional and sensory quality and microbiological stability during functional food processing. Such approaches are based on low energy consumption and on the use of low-impact processing and “hurdle technology” that combines advanced and conventional food technologies (e.g., high-power ultrasound (HPU), pulse electric field (PEF), etc.). Food design is important for consumer sensory appeal and economic success; hence, technologies such as 3D food printing can be particularly useful in food production.

This Special Issue of Foods will address the topics relevant to sustainable functional food production, functional fruit juices, biologically active compounds (BACs), hurdle technology, advanced food processing, 3D food printing, and authentic fruits.

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Danijela Bursać Kovačević
Dr. Predrag Putnik
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • sustainable functional food production
  • functional fruit juices
  • biologically active compounds (BACs)
  • hurdle technology
  • advanced food processing
  • 3D food printing
  • authentic fruits

Published Papers (24 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 204 KiB  
Editorial
Sustainable Functional Food Processing
by Predrag Putnik and Danijela Bursać Kovačević
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1438; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071438 - 22 Jun 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3679
Abstract
Functional nutrition has become one of the main directions for a healthy lifestyle and sustainable food production due to its promising positive influence on health and its association with the use of raw materials of natural origin [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Functional Food Processing)
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Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

18 pages, 3000 KiB  
Article
Vacuum and Infrared-Assisted Hot Air Impingement Drying for Improving the Processing Performance and Quality of Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf Cubes
by Weipeng Zhang, Chang Chen, Zhongli Pan and Zhian Zheng
Foods 2021, 10(5), 992; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10050992 - 1 May 2021
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 2706
Abstract
The objective of this study was to develop an efficient drying technology for poria cubes in order to improve product quality. Poria cubes were dried using different methods, including air impingement drying, infrared-assisted air impingement drying, vacuum drying, two-stage vacuum drying, and infrared-assisted [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to develop an efficient drying technology for poria cubes in order to improve product quality. Poria cubes were dried using different methods, including air impingement drying, infrared-assisted air impingement drying, vacuum drying, two-stage vacuum drying, and infrared-assisted air impingement drying. The results were compared with those from hot air drying. For the two-stage drying, the tested conditions were the first stage of vacuum drying with temperatures between 65–85 °C and a switching moisture ratio of 70–90%. The second stage infrared-assisted air impingement drying also had temperatures 65–85 °C. The drying kinetics (effective moisture diffusivity (Deff), Biot number (Bi), and mass transfer coefficient (k) were studied via the product qualities (broken ratio, firmness, microstructure, and water-soluble polysaccharide content) and specific energy consumption (SEC) of the drying processes. The results showed that two-stage drying led to the lowest drying time and energy consumption, and also obtained the best qualities. Box–Behnken experimental design with response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the two-stage operating conditions as 82 °C under vacuum drying until a moisture content of 81% and a temperature of 69 °C with infrared-assisted air impingement drying was achieved. These findings suggested that two-stage vacuum and infrared-assisted air impingement drying is a promising method for producing high quality and energy efficient dried poria cubes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Functional Food Processing)
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13 pages, 1447 KiB  
Article
Comparative Evaluation of Chemical Composition, Phenolic Compounds, and Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Tropical Black Bolete Mushroom Using Different Preservation Methods
by Jaturong Kumla, Nakarin Suwannarach, Keerati Tanruean and Saisamorn Lumyong
Foods 2021, 10(4), 781; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040781 - 5 Apr 2021
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 3544
Abstract
Tropical black bolete, Phlebopus portentosus, provides various nutritional benefits and natural antioxidants to humans. In this study, the chemical composition, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of fresh mushroom samples and samples stored for a period of one year using different [...] Read more.
Tropical black bolete, Phlebopus portentosus, provides various nutritional benefits and natural antioxidants to humans. In this study, the chemical composition, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of fresh mushroom samples and samples stored for a period of one year using different preservation methods (drying, brining, and frozen) were investigated. The results indicated that the brining method significantly reduced the protein and fat contents of the mushrooms. The polyphenol and flavonoid contents of the frozen sample were not significantly different from that of the fresh sample. The results revealed that an inhibition value of 50% (IC50) for the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay of the extract of the dried and frozen samples was not statistically different from that of the fresh sample. The IC50 value of 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) value in the extract of the frozen sample were not found to be significantly different from those of the fresh sample. Furthermore, the lowest degree of antioxidant activity was found in the extract of the brined sample. Additionally, the antimicrobial activities of the extracts of the fresh and frozen samples were not significantly different and both extracts could have inhibited the growth of all tested Gram-positive bacteria and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Functional Food Processing)
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12 pages, 1471 KiB  
Article
Natural Drying of Astringent and Non-Astringent Persimmon “Rojo Brillante”. Drying Kinetics and Physico-Chemical Properties
by Cristina M. González, Rebeca Gil, Gemma Moraga and Alejandra Salvador
Foods 2021, 10(3), 647; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030647 - 18 Mar 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3068
Abstract
Persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.f.) crop has markedly increased in Spain, and “Rojo Brillante” persimmon is the main cultivated variety. This astringent cultivar requires de-astringency treatment before commercialization, which may involve an extra cost. Its short commercial season implies handling large volumes of [...] Read more.
Persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.f.) crop has markedly increased in Spain, and “Rojo Brillante” persimmon is the main cultivated variety. This astringent cultivar requires de-astringency treatment before commercialization, which may involve an extra cost. Its short commercial season implies handling large volumes of fruits with consequent postharvest losses. Therefore, the development of derived added-value products is of much interest. In this study, astringent and non-astringent “Rojo Brillante” persimmons were dehydrated by following a natural drying method used in Asia. The drying kinetics and physico-chemical properties were analyzed for 81 days. The results indicated subsequent reductions in weight, water content, and water activity throughout the drying process, and the equatorial diameter decreased. All the employed thin-layer mathematical models were suitable for representing the drying characteristics of both products with similar behavior. The effective water diffusivity values were 5.07 × 10−11 m2 s−1 and 6.07 × 10−11 m2 s−1 for astringent and non-astringent persimmon samples, respectively. The drying treatment significantly decreased the soluble tannins content, and the astringent samples obtained similar values to those obtained for the non-astringent samples in 20 days. The external and internal flesh of the astringent fruit remained orange through the drying period, while brown coloration in the non-astringent fruit was observed after 57 drying days. Therefore, prior de-astringency treatment would not be necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Functional Food Processing)
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15 pages, 1390 KiB  
Article
Functional and Quality Characteristics of Ginger, Pineapple, and Turmeric Juice Mix as Influenced by Blend Variations
by Akama Friday Ogori, Julius Amove, Precious Aduloju, Giacomo Sardo, Charles Odilichukwu R. Okpala, Gioacchino Bono and Małgorzata Korzeniowska
Foods 2021, 10(3), 525; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030525 - 3 Mar 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3575
Abstract
In this current work, the functional and quality characteristics of ginger, pineapple, and turmeric juice mix as influenced by blend variations were investigated. Specifically, the blends had constant ginger amounts, decreased pineapple, and increased turmeric proportionally. Additionally, the functional properties involved physicochemical (pH, [...] Read more.
In this current work, the functional and quality characteristics of ginger, pineapple, and turmeric juice mix as influenced by blend variations were investigated. Specifically, the blends had constant ginger amounts, decreased pineapple, and increased turmeric proportionally. Additionally, the functional properties involved physicochemical (pH, soluble solids (SS), total titratable acidity (TA) and viscosity), proximate (moisture, protein, fat and ash), minerals (Ca, and Mg) and vitamin C and β-carotene analyses, whereas quality properties involved microbiological and sensory analyses. The results showed that as quantities of pineapple and turmeric respectively decreased and increased, there was significant increases in Ca, Mg, vitamin C, and β-carotene contents (p < 0.05). Across the blends, the degree of significant differences (p < 0.05) in the protein, fat, and ash seemed more compared to those of moisture contents. Despite the increases in pH and viscosity, and decreases in SS and TA, the increases in turmeric potentially reinforced by ginger most likely decreased the bacterial/fungi counts, as well as inhibition zones. Increasing and decreasing the respective amounts of turmeric and pineapple might not necessarily make the blends more acceptable, given the decreases in appearance, taste, aroma, and mouthfeel scores. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Functional Food Processing)
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16 pages, 1623 KiB  
Article
Tailoring the Functional Potential of Red Beet Purées by Inoculation with Lactic Acid Bacteria and Drying
by Gabriel-Dănuț Mocanu, Ana Cosmina Chirilă, Aida Mihaela Vasile, Doina Georgeta Andronoiu, Oana-Viorela Nistor, Vasilica Barbu and Nicoleta Stănciuc
Foods 2020, 9(11), 1611; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111611 - 6 Nov 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2503
Abstract
This study was focused on a comparative analysis of two drying methods, such as convective and infrared drying, on the red beetroot purées with lactic acid bacteria, as a strategy for tailoring the health benefits of the selected plant. For both varieties, the [...] Read more.
This study was focused on a comparative analysis of two drying methods, such as convective and infrared drying, on the red beetroot purées with lactic acid bacteria, as a strategy for tailoring the health benefits of the selected plant. For both varieties, the total betalain contents varied from 13.95 ± 0.14 mg/g dry weight in Beta vulgaris var. cylindra when compared with 11.09 ± 0.03 mg/g dry weight in Beta vulgaris var. vulgaris, whereas significant differences were found in total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Significant drying induced changes were found in selected bioactives, in terms of total betalains, flavonoids, and polyphenols, which influenced the antioxidant activities of the purées, structure, and color parameters. In general, infrared technology was more protective, leading to an increase of 20% in flavonoids content. One logarithmic decrease in cell viability was observed in all powders samples. After the in vitro digestion, the betalains decreased, in both gastric and intestinal simulated juices, with a more pronounced profile in infrared processed purées. Textural and rheological analysis of the dried purées highlighted that the infrared drying is milder compared to the conventional one, allowing us to obtain powders with enhanced functional properties, in terms of bioactives content, cell viability, color, and structural and rheological behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Functional Food Processing)
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13 pages, 1193 KiB  
Article
Accumulation of Phenolic Acids during Storage over Differently Handled Fresh Carrots
by Jarkko Hellström, Daniel Granato and Pirjo H. Mattila
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1515; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101515 - 21 Oct 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 5527
Abstract
Carrots contain a significant content of phenolic compounds, mainly phenolic acids. Technological processing of carrots inflicts wounding stress and induces accumulation of these compounds, especially caffeic acid derivatives, in the periderm tissue. In this study, the effect of minimal processing (polishing, washing, peeling, [...] Read more.
Carrots contain a significant content of phenolic compounds, mainly phenolic acids. Technological processing of carrots inflicts wounding stress and induces accumulation of these compounds, especially caffeic acid derivatives, in the periderm tissue. In this study, the effect of minimal processing (polishing, washing, peeling, and grating) on the retention of soluble phenolic acids in carrots was monitored during cold storage. Storage for up to 4 weeks and 24 h was used for whole and grated carrot samples, respectively. Total phenolic acid levels found in differently processed carrots varied greatly at the beginning of the storage period and on dry weight basis they ranged from 228 ± 67.9 mg/kg (grated carrot) to 996 ± 177 mg/kg (machine washed). In each case, processing followed by storage induced phenolic acid accumulation in the carrots. At the end of the experiment (4 weeks at +8 °C), untreated and machine-washed carrots contained ca. 4-fold more phenolic acids than at day 0. Similarly, polished carrots contained 9-fold and peeled carrots 31-fold more phenolic acids than at day 0. The phenolic acid content in grated carrot doubled after 24 h storage at +4 °C. Individual phenolic acids were characterized by high resolution mass spectrometry. MS data strongly suggest the presence of daucic acid conjugates of phenolic acids in carrot. Storage time did not have statistically similar effect on all compounds and generally in a way that dicaffeoyldaucic acid had the highest increase. This research provides important information for primary production, packaging, catering, the fresh-cut industry and consumers regarding the selection of healthier minimally processed carrots. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Functional Food Processing)
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24 pages, 6729 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Protein Source on the Physicochemical, Nutritional Properties and Microstructure of High-Protein Bars Intended for Physically Active People
by Jan Małecki, Igor Tomasevic, Ilija Djekic and Bartosz G. Sołowiej
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1467; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101467 - 15 Oct 2020
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 7444
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of protein sources (algae, pumpkin, wheat, sunflower, rice, soy, hemp, pea, and whey) on selected physicochemical, nutritional, and structural parameters of high-protein bars. Texture properties, such as hardness, fracturability, cohesiveness, and adhesiveness, have [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of protein sources (algae, pumpkin, wheat, sunflower, rice, soy, hemp, pea, and whey) on selected physicochemical, nutritional, and structural parameters of high-protein bars. Texture properties, such as hardness, fracturability, cohesiveness, and adhesiveness, have changed depending on the type of protein used. A significant increase, in particular the hardness parameter relating to the control sample (whey protein concentrate—WPC80), was noted for bars containing algae, sunflower, and wheat proteins, with high values of the adhesiveness parameter concurrently. The use of proteins from algae, pea, and wheat resulted in a significant reduction in the water activity of the finished product compared to WPC80. Bars made with the use of wheat, hemp and pumpkin proteins had noticeably higher viscosities than other samples. Color of the tested bars measured by means of Computer Vision System (CVS) was from light cream (soy, pea) to dark green (hemp, pumpkin). Bars prepared of wheat and algae proteins had the highest nutritional value, while the lowest one was recorded in products containing sunflower and hemp proteins. There was a clear differentiation of amino acids (g/100 g) and microstructure in bars depending on the type of protein used. However, a slight similarity can be found between whey and soy proteins (amino acids) and between whey and sunflower proteins (microstructure). Obtained results suggest that selection of the right type of protein for a given application may have a significant impact on the physicochemical features and microstructure of high-protein bars and their nutritional values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Functional Food Processing)
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16 pages, 2797 KiB  
Article
Legume Beverages from Chickpea and Lupin, as New Milk Alternatives
by Mariana Lopes, Chloé Pierrepont, Carla Margarida Duarte, Alexandra Filipe, Bruno Medronho and Isabel Sousa
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1458; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101458 - 14 Oct 2020
Cited by 44 | Viewed by 7694
Abstract
Recently, milk consumption has been declining and there is a high demand for non-dairy beverages. However, market offers are mainly cereal and nut-based beverages, which are essentially poor in protein (typically, less than 1.5% against the 3.5% in milk) and are not true [...] Read more.
Recently, milk consumption has been declining and there is a high demand for non-dairy beverages. However, market offers are mainly cereal and nut-based beverages, which are essentially poor in protein (typically, less than 1.5% against the 3.5% in milk) and are not true milk replacers in that sense. In this work, new beverages from different pulses (i.e., pea, chickpea and lupin) were developed using technologies that enable the incorporation of a high level of seed components, with low or no discharge of by-products. Different processing steps were sequentially tested and discussed for the optimization of the sensorial features and stability of the beverage, considering the current commercial non-dairy beverages trends. The lupin beverage protein contents ranged from 1.8% to 2.4% (w/v) and the chickpea beverage varied between 1.0% and 1.5% (w/v). The “milk” yield obtained for the optimized procedure B was 1221 g/100 g of dry seed and 1247 g/100 g of dry seed, for chickpea beverage and lupin beverage, respectively. Sensory results show that chickpea beverage with cooking water has the best taste. All pulses-based beverages are typical non-Newtonian fluids, similarly to current non-dairy alternative beverages. In this respect, the sprouted chickpea beverage, without the cooking water, presents the most pronounced shear-thinning behavior of all formulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Functional Food Processing)
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20 pages, 2349 KiB  
Article
Effect of Carrier Agents on the Physicochemical and Technofunctional Properties and Antioxidant Capacity of Freeze-Dried Pomegranate Juice (Punica granatum) Powder
by Adegoke Olusesan Adetoro, Umezuruike Linus Opara and Olaniyi Amos Fawole
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1388; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101388 - 1 Oct 2020
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 4533
Abstract
The physicochemical and technofunctional properties and antioxidant capacity of freeze-dried “Wonderful” pomegranate juice powder (PJP), produced with different carrier agents, were investigated. Powders were produced using maltodextrin, gum Arabic, and waxy starch as carrier agents and characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and [...] Read more.
The physicochemical and technofunctional properties and antioxidant capacity of freeze-dried “Wonderful” pomegranate juice powder (PJP), produced with different carrier agents, were investigated. Powders were produced using maltodextrin, gum Arabic, and waxy starch as carrier agents and characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and particle size distribution. Results showed that PJP produced with maltodextrin had the highest yield (46.6%), followed by gum arabic (40.6%), while waxy starch had the least yield (35.4%). Powders produced with maltodextrin (96.5%) and gum arabic (96.1%) were highly soluble, which indicates better reconstitution properties. Waxy starch-added PJP had the lowest hygroscopicity (4.7%), which offers good stability during storage and a lower degree of caking compared to maltodextrin (10.2%) and gum arabic (12.6%) powders. Powders obtained from maltodextrin and gum arabic exhibited larger particle diameters ranging between 12 to 120 µm while the lowest particle diameter range was with powders formed from waxy starch (8–40 µm). Freeze-dried pomegranate powder produced with maltodextrin retained more redness (a*) by approximately 44%, compared to gum arabic. Similarly, PJP with maltodextrin and gum arabic had higher total soluble solids (10.3 and 10.4 °Brix), respectively. Total anthocyanin content was 54% more in PJP with maltodextrin than waxy starch PJP. Similarly, the powder produced with maltodextrin had higher radical scavenging activity (33.19 mM TE/g dry matter; DM) compared to gum arabic (28.45 mM TE/g DM) and waxy starch (26.96 mM TE/g DM). Overall, maltodextrin reflected the most suitable carrier agent to produce PJP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Functional Food Processing)
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17 pages, 595 KiB  
Article
The Strength of the Nutrient Solution Modulates the Functional Profile of Hydroponically Grown Lettuce in a Genotype-Dependent Manner
by Biancamaria Senizza, Leilei Zhang, Begoña Miras-Moreno, Laura Righetti, Gokhan Zengin, Gunes Ak, Renato Bruni, Luigi Lucini, Maria Isabella Sifola, Christophe El-Nakhel, Giandomenico Corrado and Youssef Rouphael
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1156; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091156 - 21 Aug 2020
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 3708
Abstract
Considering that functional components of plant foods are mainly secondary-metabolism products, we investigated the shaping of health-promoting compounds in hydroponically grown butterhead lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata) as a function of the strength of the nutrient solution utilized. To this [...] Read more.
Considering that functional components of plant foods are mainly secondary-metabolism products, we investigated the shaping of health-promoting compounds in hydroponically grown butterhead lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata) as a function of the strength of the nutrient solution utilized. To this aim, untargeted metabolomics profiling, in vitro antioxidant capacity (total phenolics, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays), and the inhibition of selected enzyme activities were investigated in two butterhead lettuce cultivars with different pigmentation, i.e., green and red Salanova. Full-strength nutrition, together with half- and quarter-strength solutions of macronutrients, was tested. Our results indicate that by reducing the nutrients strength, we could elicit a distinctive shaping of the phenolic profile of lettuce. It is noteworthy that only specific classes of phenolics (namely, lignans and phenolic acids, followed by flavones and anthocyanins) were modulated by the induction of nutritional eustress (fold-change values in the range between −5 and +11). This indicates that specific responses, rather than a generalized induction of phenolic compounds, could be observed. Nonetheless, a genotype-dependent response could be observed, with the red cultivar being much more responsive to nutritional deprivation than the green Salanova lettuce. Indeed, analysis of variance (ANOVA) confirmed a genotype x nutrition interaction in red Salanova (p < 0.001). As a consequence of the changes in phenolic composition, also the antioxidant capacity (p < 0.001) and amylase inhibition (p < 0.001) properties were affected by the growing conditions. However, the effect on cholinesterase and tyrosinase inhibition was poorly affected by the nutritional strength. Provided that yields are not compromised, the application of a controlled nutritional eustress in hydroponically cultivated lettuce may represent a valuable strategy to produce food with tailored functional features in a sustainable manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Functional Food Processing)
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10 pages, 410 KiB  
Article
The Effect of UV Irradiation on Vitamin D2 Content and Antioxidant and Antiglycation Activities of Mushrooms
by Francesca Gallotti and Vera Lavelli
Foods 2020, 9(8), 1087; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081087 - 10 Aug 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3882
Abstract
Mushroom irradiation has been considered a sustainable process to generate high amounts of vitamin D2 due to the role of this vitamin for human health and of the global concerns regarding its deficient or inadequate intake. Mushrooms are also receiving increasing interest [...] Read more.
Mushroom irradiation has been considered a sustainable process to generate high amounts of vitamin D2 due to the role of this vitamin for human health and of the global concerns regarding its deficient or inadequate intake. Mushrooms are also receiving increasing interest due to their nutritional and medicinal properties. However, there is still a knowledge gap regarding the effect of UV irradiation on mushroom bioactive compounds. In this study, two of the most cultivated mushroom species worldwide, Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus, were irradiated with UV-B, and the effect of processing was investigated on the contents of vitamin D2 as well as on antioxidant and antiglycation activities. UV irradiation increased vitamin D2 up to 57 µg/g d.w, which is an adequate level for the fortification of a number of target foods. UV irradiation decreased the antioxidant activity when measured by the Folin–Ciocalteu reagent, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6 trinitrophenyl) hydrazyl radical assay and the ferric ion-reducing antioxidant power assay, but did not decrease the mushroom’s ability to inhibit glycation of a target protein. These results open up a new area of investigation aimed at selecting mushroom species with high nutraceutical benefits for irradiation in order to maintain their potential properties to inhibit oxidative and glycation processes responsible for human diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Functional Food Processing)
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18 pages, 1112 KiB  
Article
Composition of Phenolic Acids and Antioxidant Properties of Selected Pulses Cooked with Different Heating Conditions
by Yihan Liu, Sanaa Ragaee, Massimo F. Marcone and El-Sayed M. Abdel-Aal
Foods 2020, 9(7), 908; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070908 - 10 Jul 2020
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 4087
Abstract
Pulses are recommended for healthy eating due to their high content of nutrients and bioactive compounds that can undergo changes during cooking. This study investigated the effects of four cooking methods (boiling, pressure, microwave, slow) and three heating solutions (water, salt, sugar) on [...] Read more.
Pulses are recommended for healthy eating due to their high content of nutrients and bioactive compounds that can undergo changes during cooking. This study investigated the effects of four cooking methods (boiling, pressure, microwave, slow) and three heating solutions (water, salt, sugar) on the phenolic acids and antioxidant properties of three pulses (faba beans, lentils, peas). The composition of phenolic acids differed among the three pulses with p-coumaric and ferulic being the dominant acids. Cooking increased free phenolic acids and lessened bound phenolic acids in faba beans and peas, while decreased both free and bound phenolic acids in lentils. Cooking resulted in reductions in total phenol content (TPC) in faba bean methanol and bound extracts. Pressure and microwave cooking increased TPC in lentil methanol extracts, while pot boiling and slow cooking reduced TPC. Microwave cooking resulted in increases in TPC in bound phenolic extracts from lentils. For peas, cooking increased TPC in both methanol and bound phenolic extracts. Significant changes were also observed in the antioxidant capacity of cooked pulses based on the scavenging ability of DPPH, ABTS and peroxyl radicals subject to the type of pulse, polyphenol and antioxidant assay. Despite the significant reduction in antioxidants, high amounts of phenolics with potent antioxidant activities are still found in cooked pulses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Functional Food Processing)
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16 pages, 1703 KiB  
Article
Does High Voltage Electrical Discharge Treatment Induce Changes in Tannin and Fiber Properties of Cocoa Shell?
by Veronika Barišić, Ivana Flanjak, Mirela Kopjar, Mirta Benšić, Antun Jozinović, Jurislav Babić, Drago Šubarić, Borislav Miličević, Kristina Doko, Midhat Jašić and Đurđica Ačkar
Foods 2020, 9(6), 810; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060810 - 19 Jun 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4332
Abstract
Cocoa shell is a by-product of the chocolate industry that is rich in dietary fiber and bioactive components. In this research, the influence of high voltage electric discharge (HVED) treatment on chemical and physical characteristics of the cocoa shell, i.e., the effects of [...] Read more.
Cocoa shell is a by-product of the chocolate industry that is rich in dietary fiber and bioactive components. In this research, the influence of high voltage electric discharge (HVED) treatment on chemical and physical characteristics of the cocoa shell, i.e., the effects of applied time and frequencies on grinding ability, water binding capacity (WBC), dietary fibers and tannin content was investigated. HVED had a significant influence on the chemical and physical properties of cocoa shell, all of which could be linked to changes in fiber properties. Along with the fiber content, grinding ability and water binding capacity were increased. These properties have already been linked to fiber content and soluble/insoluble fiber ratio. However, this research implies that change in fiber properties could be linked to tannin formation via complexation of other polyphenolic components. Additional research is needed to verify this effect and to establish mechanisms of tannin formation induced by HVED and its influence on fiber quantification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Functional Food Processing)
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16 pages, 1682 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Powdered Lulo (Solanum quitoense) Bagasse as a Functional Food Ingredient
by Leidy Indira Hinestroza-Córdoba, Stevens Duarte Serna, Lucía Seguí, Cristina Barrera and Noelia Betoret
Foods 2020, 9(6), 723; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060723 - 2 Jun 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4095
Abstract
The stabilization of fruit bagasse by drying and milling technology is a valuable processing technology to improve its durability and preserve its valuable biologically active components. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of lyophilization and air temperature (60 °C [...] Read more.
The stabilization of fruit bagasse by drying and milling technology is a valuable processing technology to improve its durability and preserve its valuable biologically active components. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of lyophilization and air temperature (60 °C and 70 °C) in hot air-drying as well as grinding conditions (coarse or fine granulometry) on physico-chemical properties; water interaction capacity; antioxidant properties; and carotenoid content of powdered lulo bagasse. Air-drying kinetics at 60 °C and 70 °C and sorption isotherms at 20 °C were also determined. Results showed that drying conditions influence antioxidant properties and carotenoid content while granulometry slightly influenced fiber and water interaction properties. Fiber content was near 50% and carotenoid content was higher than 60 µg/g dry matter in lyophilized powder. This β-carotene content is comparable to that provided by carrot juice. Air-drying at 60 °C only reduced carotenoids content by 10%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Functional Food Processing)
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19 pages, 10039 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Physicochemical and Structural Properties and the Sensory Characteristics of Meat Analogues Prepared with Various Non-Animal Based Liquid Additives
by Gihyun Wi, Junhwan Bae, Honggyun Kim, Youngjae Cho and Mi-Jung Choi
Foods 2020, 9(4), 461; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9040461 - 8 Apr 2020
Cited by 87 | Viewed by 12436
Abstract
This study investigates the effects of various non-animal-based liquid additives on the physicochemical, structural, and sensory properties of meat analogue. Meat analogue was prepared by blending together textured vegetable protein (TVP), soy protein isolate (SPI), and other liquid additives. Physicochemical (rheological properties, cooking [...] Read more.
This study investigates the effects of various non-animal-based liquid additives on the physicochemical, structural, and sensory properties of meat analogue. Meat analogue was prepared by blending together textured vegetable protein (TVP), soy protein isolate (SPI), and other liquid additives. Physicochemical (rheological properties, cooking loss (CL), water holding capacity (WHC), texture and color), structural (visible appearance and microstructure), and sensory properties were evaluated. Higher free water content of meat analogue due to water treatment resulted in a decrease in viscoelasticity, the highest CL value, the lowest WHC and hardness value, and a porous structure. Reversely, meat analogue with oil treatment had an increase in viscoelasticity, the lowest CL value, the highest WHC and hardness value, and a dense structure due to hydrophobic interactions. SPI had a positive effect on the gel network formation of TVP matrix, but lecithin had a negative effect resulting in a decrease in viscoelasticity, WHC, hardness value and an increase in CL value and pore size at microstructure. The results of sensory evaluation revealed that juiciness was more affected by water than oil. Oil treatment showed high intensity for texture parameters. On the other hand, emulsion treatment showed high preference scores for texture parameters and overall acceptance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Functional Food Processing)
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8 pages, 1983 KiB  
Article
Drying Habanero Pepper (Capsicum chinense) by Modified Freeze Drying Process
by Cicerón González-Toxqui, Álvaro González-Ángeles, Roberto López-Avitia and David González-Balvaneda
Foods 2020, 9(4), 437; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9040437 - 5 Apr 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2733
Abstract
Freeze drying process was applied to habanero pepper and modified, in order to reduce energy expenditure on frozen and dehydration techniques. Six alkaline solutions, olive oil, avocado oil, coconut oil, grape oil, sesame oil and safflower oil, were used to reduce time on [...] Read more.
Freeze drying process was applied to habanero pepper and modified, in order to reduce energy expenditure on frozen and dehydration techniques. Six alkaline solutions, olive oil, avocado oil, coconut oil, grape oil, sesame oil and safflower oil, were used to reduce time on vacuum chamber. Also, frozen step was modified by using dry ice (CO2) obtaining 43% of energy saving. The final product had high quality, moisture within 3% to 7% range, low microorganisms number, without organoleptic attributes damage and having all the characteristics of a fresh product by rehydrating. Dried sample was rehydrated by immersion in water at 40 °C for 5 min, obtaining 75% of initial humidity.Markedchanges on rehydrated final product was not perceived. The most effective oil to reduce the moisture was safflower followed by coconut and sesame, whilst the least effective were olive, followed by avocado and grape oils. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Functional Food Processing)
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

15 pages, 2243 KiB  
Review
Optimal Dosing Regimen of Osteoporosis Drugs in Relation to Food Intake as the Key for the Enhancement of the Treatment Effectiveness—A Concise Literature Review
by Agnieszka Wiesner, Mariusz Szuta, Agnieszka Galanty and Paweł Paśko
Foods 2021, 10(4), 720; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040720 - 29 Mar 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 5891
Abstract
Bisphosphonates and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) represent the two most important groups of medications taken orally and employed in osteoporosis treatment. Effectiveness of the therapy may be affected by poor patient adherence, in particular, due to the inconvenient dosing regimen of oral [...] Read more.
Bisphosphonates and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) represent the two most important groups of medications taken orally and employed in osteoporosis treatment. Effectiveness of the therapy may be affected by poor patient adherence, in particular, due to the inconvenient dosing regimen of oral bisphosphonates. With this review we aimed to assess the effects that food, beverages, and dietary supplements consumed during treatment, along with the dosing regimens, may have on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral drugs employed in treating osteoporosis; we also aimed to shape the recommendations valuable for professional patients’ counseling and education, to provide appropriate dosing regimens in order to improve adherence to the therapy. Food, beverages such as coffee, juices, and mineral water, as well as dietary supplements containing multivalent cations, e.g., calcium, magnesium, aluminium, iron, showed to have a deleterious effect on the bioavailability of all the investigated oral bisphosphonates, specifically alendronate, risedronate, ibandronate, minodronate, and etidronate. For risedronate, a delayed-release (DR) tablet was designed to solve the malabsorption problem in the presence of food, hence DR risedronate can be ingested following breakfast. For other oral bisphosphonates, the proper interval between drug and food, beverages, and dietary supplements intake should be maintained to minimize the risk of interactions. The effect of food on pharmacokinetic parameters of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) was found to be clinically irrelevant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Functional Food Processing)
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30 pages, 5240 KiB  
Review
The Perspective of Croatian Old Apple Cultivars in Extensive Farming for the Production of Functional Foods
by Boris Duralija, Predrag Putnik, Dora Brdar, Anica Bebek Markovinović, Sandra Zavadlav, Mirian Pateiro, Rubén Domínguez, José M. Lorenzo and Danijela Bursać Kovačević
Foods 2021, 10(4), 708; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040708 - 26 Mar 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4726
Abstract
The Republic of Croatia has a long tradition of fruit growing due to its geographical location, climatic conditions, and high quality of fruit crops, especially apple fruits. Apples can be used for the formulation of functional foods either in processed form (e.g., juice), [...] Read more.
The Republic of Croatia has a long tradition of fruit growing due to its geographical location, climatic conditions, and high quality of fruit crops, especially apple fruits. Apples can be used for the formulation of functional foods either in processed form (e.g., juice), or as a by-product (e.g., apple pomace). However, there is a growing demand for functional foods derived from ancient and traditional plant sources as they are recognized as a very valuable source of health-promoting bioactive ingredients. Similarly, old apple cultivars (Malus domestica Borkh.) are characterized by good morphological and pomological properties, less need for chemicals during cultivation and the higher share of biologically active compounds (BACs) with better sensory acceptability compared to commercial cultivars. However, their nutritional and biological potential is underestimated, as is their ability to be processed into functional food. The importance in preserving old apple cultivars can also be seen in their significance for improving the nutritional composition of other apple cultivars through innovative cultivation strategies, and therefore old local apple cultivars could be of great importance in future breeding programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Functional Food Processing)
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14 pages, 431 KiB  
Review
Food–Drug Interactions with Fruit Juices
by Zvonimir Petric, Irena Žuntar, Predrag Putnik and Danijela Bursać Kovačević
Foods 2021, 10(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10010033 - 24 Dec 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 13556
Abstract
Fruit juices contain a large number of phytochemicals that, in combination with certain drugs, can cause food–drug interactions that can be clinically significant and lead to adverse events. The mechanisms behind such interactions are in most cases related to phytochemical interference with the [...] Read more.
Fruit juices contain a large number of phytochemicals that, in combination with certain drugs, can cause food–drug interactions that can be clinically significant and lead to adverse events. The mechanisms behind such interactions are in most cases related to phytochemical interference with the activity of cytochrome P450 metabolizing enzymes (CYPs) or drug transporters. Moreover, alterations in their activity can have a clinical relevance if systemic exposure to the drug is decreased or increased, meaning that the pharmacological drug effects are suboptimal, or the drug will cause toxicity. In general, the common pharmacokinetic parameters found to be altered in food–drug interactions regarding fruit juices are the area under the concentration–time curve, bioavailability, and maximum plasma concentration. In most cases, the results from the drug interaction studies with fruit juices provide only limited information due to the small number of subjects, which are also healthy volunteers. Moreover, drug interactions with fruit juices are challenging to predict due to the unknown amounts of the specific phytochemicals responsible for the interaction, as well as due to the inter-individual variability of drug metabolism, among others. Therefore, this work aims to raise awareness about possible pharmacological interactions with fruit juices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Functional Food Processing)
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28 pages, 855 KiB  
Review
Sous-Vide as a Technique for Preparing Healthy and High-Quality Vegetable and Seafood Products
by Sandra Zavadlav, Marijana Blažić, Franco Van de Velde, Charito Vignatti, Cecilia Fenoglio, Andrea M. Piagentini, María Elida Pirovani, Cristina M. Perotti, Danijela Bursać Kovačević and Predrag Putnik
Foods 2020, 9(11), 1537; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111537 - 25 Oct 2020
Cited by 44 | Viewed by 11538
Abstract
Sous-vide is a technique of cooking foods in vacuum bags under strictly controlled temperature, offering improved taste, texture and nutritional values along with extended shelf life as compared to the traditional cooking methods. In addition to other constituents, vegetables and seafood represent important [...] Read more.
Sous-vide is a technique of cooking foods in vacuum bags under strictly controlled temperature, offering improved taste, texture and nutritional values along with extended shelf life as compared to the traditional cooking methods. In addition to other constituents, vegetables and seafood represent important sources of phytochemicals. Thus, by applying sous-vide technology, preservation of such foods can be prolonged with almost full retention of native quality. In this way, sous-vide processing meets customers’ growing demand for the production of safer and healthier foods. Considering the industrial points of view, sous-vide technology has proven to be an adequate substitute for traditional cooking methods. Therefore, its application in various aspects of food production has been increasingly researched. Although sous-vide cooking of meats and vegetables is well explored, the challenges remain with seafoods due to the large differences in structure and quality of marine organisms. Cephalopods (e.g., squid, octopus, etc.) are of particular interest, as the changes of their muscular physical structure during processing have to be carefully considered. Based on all the above, this study summarizes the literature review on the recent sous-vide application on vegetable and seafood products in view of production of high-quality and safe foodstuffs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Functional Food Processing)
38 pages, 828 KiB  
Review
Fate of Residual Pesticides in Fruit and Vegetable Waste (FVW) Processing
by Tri Thanh Nguyen, Carmen Rosello, Richard Bélanger and Cristina Ratti
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1468; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101468 - 15 Oct 2020
Cited by 47 | Viewed by 7921
Abstract
Plants need to be protected against pests and diseases, so as to assure an adequate production, and therefore to contribute to food security. However, some of the used pesticides are harmful compounds, and thus the right balance between the need to increase food [...] Read more.
Plants need to be protected against pests and diseases, so as to assure an adequate production, and therefore to contribute to food security. However, some of the used pesticides are harmful compounds, and thus the right balance between the need to increase food production with the need to ensure the safety of people, food and the environment must be struck. In particular, when dealing with fruit and vegetable wastes, their content in agrochemicals should be monitored, especially in peel and skins, and eventually minimized before or during further processing to separate or concentrate bioactive compounds from it. The general objective of this review is to investigate initial levels of pesticide residues and their potential reduction through further processing for some of the most contaminated fruit and vegetable wastes. Focus will be placed on extraction and drying processes being amid the main processing steps used in the recuperation of bioactive compounds from fruit and vegetable wastes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Functional Food Processing)
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19 pages, 814 KiB  
Review
Safety of Probiotics: Functional Fruit Beverages and Nutraceuticals
by Irena Žuntar, Zvonimir Petric, Danijela Bursać Kovačević and Predrag Putnik
Foods 2020, 9(7), 947; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070947 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 75 | Viewed by 11396
Abstract
Over the last decade, fruit juice consumption has increased. Their rise in popularity can be attributed to the belief that they are a quick way to consuming a dietary portion of fruit. Probiotics added to fruit juices produce various bioactive compounds, thus probiotic [...] Read more.
Over the last decade, fruit juice consumption has increased. Their rise in popularity can be attributed to the belief that they are a quick way to consuming a dietary portion of fruit. Probiotics added to fruit juices produce various bioactive compounds, thus probiotic fruit juices can be considered as a new type of functional foods. Such combinations could improve nutritional properties and provide health benefits of fruit juices, due to delivering positive health attributes from both sources (fruit juices and probiotics). However, this review discusses the other side of the same coin, i.e., the one that challenges general beliefs that probiotics are undoubtedly safe. This topic deserves more acknowledgments from the medical and nutritional literature, as it is highly important for health care professionals and nutritionists who must be aware of potential probiotic issues. Still, clinical trials have not adequately questioned the safety of probiotics, as they are generally considered safe. Therefore, this reviews aims to give an evidence-based perspective of probiotic safety, focusing on probiotic fruit beverages and nutraceuticals, by providing documented clinical case reports and studies. Finally, the paper deals with some additional insights from the pharmacological and toxicological point of views, such as pharmacological repercussions of probiotics on health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Functional Food Processing)
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36 pages, 344 KiB  
Review
Innovative Hurdle Technologies for the Preservation of Functional Fruit Juices
by Predrag Putnik, Branimir Pavlić, Branislav Šojić, Sandra Zavadlav, Irena Žuntar, Leona Kao, Dora Kitonić and Danijela Bursać Kovačević
Foods 2020, 9(6), 699; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060699 - 1 Jun 2020
Cited by 52 | Viewed by 9282
Abstract
Functional nutrition, which includes the consumption of fruit juices, has become the field of interest for those seeking a healthy lifestyle. Functional nutrition is also of great interest to the food industry, with the aims of improving human health and providing economic prosperity [...] Read more.
Functional nutrition, which includes the consumption of fruit juices, has become the field of interest for those seeking a healthy lifestyle. Functional nutrition is also of great interest to the food industry, with the aims of improving human health and providing economic prosperity in a sustainable manner. The functional food sector is the most profitable part of the food industry, with a fast-growing market resulting from new sociodemographic trends (e.g., longer life expectancy, higher standard of living, better health care), which often includes sustainable concepts of food production. Therefore, the demand for hurdle technology in the food industry is growing, along with the consumption of minimally processed foods, not only because this approach inactivates microorganisms in food, but because it can also prolong the shelf life of food products. To preserve food products such as fruit juices, the hurdle technology approach often uses non-thermal methods as alternatives to pasteurization, which can cause a decrease in the nutritional value and quality of the food. Non-thermal technologies are often combined with different hurdles, such as antimicrobial additives, thermal treatment, and ultraviolet or pulsed light, to achieve synergistic effects and overall quality improvements in (functional) juices. Hence, hurdle technology could be a promising approach for the preservation of fruit juices due to its efficiency and low impact on juice quality and characteristics, although all processing parameters still require optimization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Functional Food Processing)
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