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Foods, Volume 9, Issue 8 (August 2020) – 172 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Champagne glasses are subjected to complex ascending bubble-driven flow patterns enhancing the release of gas-phase CO2 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the headspace above glasses. In complete accordance with several experimental observations conducted through laser tomography and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) techniques, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) revealed a very complex flow composed of surface eddies interacting with a toroidal flow that develops around the ascending bubble column. The ultimate goal of our approach is to quickly and cost-effectively analyze the influence of glass shape on the subsequent ascending bubble-driven flow patterns which are believed to influence in turn the overall perception of champagne under standard tasting conditions. View this paper
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Article
Energy Density and Nutrient Contents of Selective Chinese New Year Snacks
Foods 2020, 9(8), 1137; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081137 - 18 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1508
Abstract
Background: In this study, the energy density and nutrient contents of thirty Chinese New Year (CNY) snacks commonly consumed in the Asian region during the CNY festive season were measured. Methods: Calorie Answer™, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) [...] Read more.
Background: In this study, the energy density and nutrient contents of thirty Chinese New Year (CNY) snacks commonly consumed in the Asian region during the CNY festive season were measured. Methods: Calorie Answer™, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were the main methods applied in this study. Results: All snacks showed high energy density (kJ/100 g) and the nutrient content, including macro-and micronutrients of these snacks were remarkably different. The most abundant minerals in these snacks include sodium, magnesium, potassium, and calcium. Palmitic (C16:0), oleic (C18:1) and linoleic (C18:2) acids were the main fatty acids and trans-fat was only identified in Butter cookies. Conclusions: This study provides a large database on macro- and micronutrient contents in CNY snacks consumed in the Asian region that has not been previously reported. Our results indicate that the snacks were generally energy-dense and nutrient-poor. This study provides necessary information to enable the reformulation of snacks with lower saturated fat and sodium content. It is also a source of information for consumers to select healthier snacks. Full article
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Article
Simultaneous Determination of 6-Shogaol and 6-Gingerol in Various Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) Extracts and Commercial Formulations Using a Green RP-HPTLC-Densitometry Method
Foods 2020, 9(8), 1136; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081136 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 968
Abstract
Various analytical methodologies have been reported for the determination of 6-shogaol (6-SHO) and 6-gingerol (6-GIN) in ginger extracts and commercial formulations. However, green analytical methods for the determination of 6-SHO and 6-GIN, either alone or in combination, have not yet been reported in [...] Read more.
Various analytical methodologies have been reported for the determination of 6-shogaol (6-SHO) and 6-gingerol (6-GIN) in ginger extracts and commercial formulations. However, green analytical methods for the determination of 6-SHO and 6-GIN, either alone or in combination, have not yet been reported in literature. Hence, the present study was aimed to develop a rapid, simple, and cheaper green reversed phase high-performance thin-layer chromatography (RP-HPTLC) densitometry method for the simultaneous determination of 6-SHO and 6-GIN in the traditional and ultrasonication-assisted extracts of ginger rhizome, commercial ginger powder, commercial capsules, and commercial ginger teas. The simultaneous analysis of 6-SHO and 6-GIN was carried out via RP-18 silica gel 60 F254S HPTLC plates. The mixture of green solvents, i.e., ethanol:water (6.5:3.5 v/v) was utilized as a mobile phase for the simultaneous analysis of 6-SHO and 6-GIN. The analysis of 6-SHO and 6-GIN was performed at λmax = 200 nm for 6-SHO and 6-GIN. The densitograms of 6-SHO and 6-GIN from traditional and ultrasonication-assisted extracts of ginger rhizome, commercial ginger powder, commercial capsules, and commercial ginger teas were verified by obtaining their single band at Rf = 0.36 ± 0.01 for 6-SHO and Rf = 0.53 ± 0.01 for 6-GIN, compared to standard 6-SHO and 6-GIN. The green RP-HPTLC method was found to be linear, in the range of 100–700 ng/band with R2 = 0.9988 for 6-SHO and 50–600 ng/band with R2 = 0.9995 for 6-GIN. In addition, the method was recorded as “accurate, precise, robust and sensitive” for the simultaneous quantification of 6-SHO and 6-GIN in traditional and ultrasonication-assisted extracts of ginger rhizome, commercial ginger powder, commercial capsules, and commercial ginger teas. The amount of 6-SHO in traditional extracts of ginger rhizome, commercial ginger powder, commercial capsules, and commercial ginger teas was obtained as 12.1, 17.9, 10.5, and 9.6 mg/g of extract, respectively. However, the amount of 6-SHO in ultrasonication-assisted extracts of ginger rhizome, commercial ginger powder, commercial capsules, and commercial ginger teas were obtained as 14.6, 19.7, 11.6, and 10.7 mg/g of extract, respectively. The amount of 6-GIN in traditional extracts of ginger rhizome, commercial ginger powder, commercial capsules, and commercial ginger teas were found as 10.2, 15.1, 7.3, and 6.9 mg/g of extract, respectively. However, the amount of 6-GIN in ultrasonication-assisted extracts of ginger rhizome, commercial ginger powder, commercial capsules, and commercial ginger teas were obtained as 12.7, 17.8, 8.8, and 7.9 mg/g of extract, respectively. Overall, the results of this study indicated that the proposed analytical technique could be effectively used for the simultaneous quantification of 6-SHO and 6-GIN in a wide range of plant extracts and commercial formulations. Full article
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Article
Comparison of Batch and Continuous Wet-Processing of Coffee: Changes in the Main Compounds in Beans, By-Products and Wastewater
Foods 2020, 9(8), 1135; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081135 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1024
Abstract
Many technical challenges still need to be overcome to improve the quality of the green coffee beans. In this work, the wet Arabica coffee processing in batch and continuous modus were investigated. Coffee beans samples as well as by-products and wastewaters collected at [...] Read more.
Many technical challenges still need to be overcome to improve the quality of the green coffee beans. In this work, the wet Arabica coffee processing in batch and continuous modus were investigated. Coffee beans samples as well as by-products and wastewaters collected at different production steps were analyzed in terms of their content in total phenols, antioxidant capacity, caffeine content, organic acids, reducing sugars, free amino group and protein content. The results showed that 40% of caffeine was removed with pulp. Green coffee beans showed highest concentration of organic acids and sucrose (4.96 ± 0.25 and 5.07 ± 0.39 g/100 g DW for the batch and continuous processing). Batch green coffee beans contained higher amount of phenols. 5-caffeoylquinic Acid (5-CQA) was the main constituent (67.1 and 66.0% for the batch and continuous processing, respectively). Protein content was 15 and 13% in the green coffee bean in batch and continuous processing, respectively. A decrease of 50 to 64% for free amino groups during processing was observed resulting in final amounts of 0.8 to 1.4% in the processed beans. Finally, the batch processing still revealed by-products and wastewater with high nutrient content encouraging a better concept for valorization. Full article
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Review
Proteomics-Based Methodologies for the Detection and Quantification of Seafood Allergens
Foods 2020, 9(8), 1134; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081134 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1189
Abstract
Seafood is considered one of the main food allergen sources by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). It comprises several distinct groups of edible aquatic animals, including fish and shellfish, such as crustacean and mollusks. Recently, the EFSA recognized the high risk of [...] Read more.
Seafood is considered one of the main food allergen sources by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). It comprises several distinct groups of edible aquatic animals, including fish and shellfish, such as crustacean and mollusks. Recently, the EFSA recognized the high risk of food allergy over the world and established the necessity of developing new methodologies for its control. Consequently, accurate, sensitive, and fast detection methods for seafood allergy control and detection in food products are highly recommended. In this work, we present a comprehensive review of the applications of the proteomics methodologies for the detection and quantification of seafood allergens. For this purpose, two consecutive proteomics strategies (discovery and targeted proteomics) that are applied to the study and control of seafood allergies are reviewed in detail. In addition, future directions and new perspectives are also provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Researches in Food Allergen Detection)
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Article
The Combined Effect of Pressure and Temperature on Kefir Production—A Case Study of Food Fermentation in Unconventional Conditions
Foods 2020, 9(8), 1133; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081133 - 18 Aug 2020
Viewed by 928
Abstract
Food fermentation under pressure has been studied in recent years as a way to produce foods with novel properties. The purpose of this work was to study kefir production under pressure (7–50 MPa) at different temperatures (17–32 °C), as a case study of [...] Read more.
Food fermentation under pressure has been studied in recent years as a way to produce foods with novel properties. The purpose of this work was to study kefir production under pressure (7–50 MPa) at different temperatures (17–32 °C), as a case study of unconventional food fermentation. The fermentation time to produce kefir was similar at all temperatures (17, 25, and 32 °C) up to 15 MPa, compared to atmospheric pressure. At 50 MPa, the fermentation rate was slower, but the difference was reduced as temperature increased. During fermentation, lactic and acetic acid concentration increased while citric acid decreased. The positive activation volumes (Va) obtained indicate that pressure decreased the fermentation rate, while the temperature rise led to the attenuation of the pressure effect (lower Va). On the other hand, higher activation energies (Ea) were observed with pressure increase, indicating that fermentation became more sensitive to temperature. The condition that resulted in a faster fermentation, higher titratable acidity, and higher concentration of lactic acid was 15 MPa/32 °C. As the authors are aware, this is the second work in the literature to study the combined effect of pressure and temperature on a fermentative process. Full article
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Article
Japanese Quince (Chaenomeles japonica) as a Potential Source of Phenols: Optimization of the Extraction Parameters and Assessment of Antiradical and Antimicrobial Activities
Foods 2020, 9(8), 1132; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081132 - 17 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1159
Abstract
The value of fruits is determined by the quantity and variety of biologically active compounds they contain, and their benefits on human health. This work presents the first study of the biochemical composition and antibacterial activity of the new Japanese quince (JQ) cultivars [...] Read more.
The value of fruits is determined by the quantity and variety of biologically active compounds they contain, and their benefits on human health. This work presents the first study of the biochemical composition and antibacterial activity of the new Japanese quince (JQ) cultivars ‘Darius’, ‘Rondo’, and ‘Rasa’ fruits. The total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using the Folin–Ciocalteu method and each compound was identified by HPLC High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The antimicrobial activity against three Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria, and one yeast strain, was evaluated by the agar well diffusion method using three different concentrations. The free radical scavenging activity was determined using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) methods and ranged from 99.1 to 115.9 μmolTE/100 g, and from 372 to 682 μmolTE/100 g, respectively. TPC ranged from 3906 to 4550 mgGAE/100 g, and five compounds, isoquercitrin, rutin, (+)-catechin, (–)-epicatechin, and chlorogenic acid were identified. All JQ extracts possessed antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) was the most sensitive strain. These results indicate that JQ fruits are a significant source of bio-compounds, which can enrich the diet with strong antioxidants, and they are very promising as a substitute for chemical preservatives in the food and cosmetic industry. Full article
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Article
Profiling Individual Differences in Alcoholic Beverage Preference and Consumption: New Insights from a Large-Scale Study
Foods 2020, 9(8), 1131; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081131 - 17 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 987
Abstract
Alcoholic beverage consumption plays an important role in European culture, and in many contexts drinking alcohol is socially acceptable and considered part of the diet. Understanding the determinants of alcohol preference and consumption is important not only for disease prevention, intervention, and policy [...] Read more.
Alcoholic beverage consumption plays an important role in European culture, and in many contexts drinking alcohol is socially acceptable and considered part of the diet. Understanding the determinants of alcohol preference and consumption is important not only for disease prevention, intervention, and policy management, but also for market segmentation, product development, and optimization. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of individual responsiveness to various oral sensations on self-reported liking and intake of 14 alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages (including beers, wines, spirits, and cocktails) considering gender, age, and oral responsiveness (measured through response to 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil -PROP, basic tastes, astringency, and pungency) in a large sample of Italian consumers. Data were collected from 2388 respondents (age range 18–60 years; mean age = 37.6, SD = 13.1; 58.2% women). These results indicate that notwithstanding the strong gender difference, with women generally liking and consuming fewer alcoholic beverages than men, liking patterns in the two genders were similar. Three liking patterns for different alcoholic beverages largely driven by orosensory properties were identified in both genders. “Spirit-lovers” constituted the smallest group (12%), consumed alcoholic beverages of any kind (not only spirits) more than the other segments, and were mainly men aged 30–45. “Beer/wine lovers” (44%) were the oldest group with no difference by gender. “Mild-drink lovers” (44%) liked alcoholic drinks with intense sweet taste and/or mixers that moderate ethanol perception. They were mainly women, aged 18–29, had a lower consumption of alcohol, and a higher orosensory responsiveness than the other two groups. The results also suggest the opportunity to develop personalized recommendations towards specific consumer segments based not only on socio-demographics but considering also perceptive variables. Finally, our data suggest that increased burning and bitterness from alcohol may act as a sensory hindrance to alcoholic beverage overconsumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensory and Consumer Sciences)
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Article
Metabolomic Analysis of Germinated Brown Rice at Different Germination Stages
Foods 2020, 9(8), 1130; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081130 - 17 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1087
Abstract
Brown rice (BR) is unpolished rice containing many bioactive compounds in addition to the basic nutrients of the rice grain. Herein, BR was germinated for up to 48 h to prepare germinated brown rice (GBR). The physiological and chemical changes in the GBR [...] Read more.
Brown rice (BR) is unpolished rice containing many bioactive compounds in addition to the basic nutrients of the rice grain. Herein, BR was germinated for up to 48 h to prepare germinated brown rice (GBR). The physiological and chemical changes in the GBR during germination were analyzed. GBR samples germinated for 48 h were in the radicle-emergence stage, but root formation was not observed. The change in the GBR metabolite profile during germination was analyzed to determine the effect of germination on the chemical profiles of the GBR samples. Twenty-five metabolites including acidic compounds, amino acids, sugars, lipid metabolites, and secondary metabolites were identified as the components that contributed to the variations in the GBR groups germinated for different time periods. Among the metabolites, the carbohydrates associated with energy production and lipid metabolites changed significantly. Based on the identified metabolites, a metabolomic pathway was proposed. Carbohydrate metabolism, citric acid cycle, and lipid metabolism were the main processes that were affected during germination. Although further studies on the relationship between the metabolite profile and nutritional quality of the GBR are needed, these results are useful for understanding the effect of germination on the physiological and chemical changes in BR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analytical Methods)
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Article
Characterization of the Key Aroma Constituents in Fry Breads by Means of the Sensomics Concept
Foods 2020, 9(8), 1129; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081129 - 17 Aug 2020
Viewed by 968
Abstract
The key aroma constituents in the volatile fractions isolated FROM two differently processed fry breads by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation were characterized by an aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Twenty-two compounds were identified with flavor dilution (FD) factor ranges of 2–516. Among them, 13 [...] Read more.
The key aroma constituents in the volatile fractions isolated FROM two differently processed fry breads by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation were characterized by an aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Twenty-two compounds were identified with flavor dilution (FD) factor ranges of 2–516. Among them, 13 compounds (FD ≥ 16) were quantified by stable isotope dilution assays and analyzed by odor activity values (OAVs). Of these, 11 compounds had OAVs ≥ 1, and the highest concentrations were determined for δ-decalactone and 2,3-butanedione. Two recombination models of the fry breads showed similarity to the corresponding fry breads. Omission tests confirmed that aroma-active constituents, such as δ-decalactone (oily/peach), 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (roasty/popcorn-like), 3-methylbutanal (malty), methional (baked potato-like), 2,3-butanedione (buttery), phenyl acetaldehyde (flowery), (E,E)-2,4-decadienal (deep-fried), butanoic acid, and 3-methylbutanoic acid, were the key aroma constituents of fry bread. In addition, 3-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (smoky) and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone were also identified as important aroma constituents of fry bread. Full article
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Review
Unravelling Conformational Aspects of Milk Protein Structure—Contributions from Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies
Foods 2020, 9(8), 1128; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081128 - 16 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1305
Abstract
Changes in the molecular structure and association of milk proteins lead to many desirable (under controlled conditions) or undesirable characteristics of dairy products. Several methods have been used to study the structure of milk proteins and changes therein in different environments. Whey proteins [...] Read more.
Changes in the molecular structure and association of milk proteins lead to many desirable (under controlled conditions) or undesirable characteristics of dairy products. Several methods have been used to study the structure of milk proteins and changes therein in different environments. Whey proteins are an excellent model for secondary structure studies using circular dichroism (CD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and tertiary structure studies using X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). However, caseins, the most abundant protein class in milk, are far more difficult to characterize. The tertiary structure of caseins cannot be observed by X-ray crystallography due to the inability to crystallize caseins. However, NMR is an appropriate approach for structural elucidation. Thus far, NMR was applied on specific peptides of individual caseins of the molecules including phosphoserine centers and colloidal calcium phosphate. The literature focuses on these parts of the molecule due to its importance in building the sub-unit particles involving individual caseins and calcium phosphate nanoclusters. This review focuses on present structural studies of milk proteins using NMR and their importance in dairy processing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Trends in the Dairy Field)
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Communication
Methodology for the Determination of Fruit, Vegetable, Nut and Legume Points for Food Supplies without Quantitative Ingredient Declarations and Its Application to a Large Canadian Packaged Food and Beverage Database
Foods 2020, 9(8), 1127; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081127 - 15 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1113
Abstract
Nutrient profiling (NP) models are useful tools for objectively and transparently quantifying the nutritional quality of packaged foods and beverages. Many NP models incorporate ingredients beneficial for health (e.g., fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes (FVNL)) in addition to less healthful nutrients or components, assigning [...] Read more.
Nutrient profiling (NP) models are useful tools for objectively and transparently quantifying the nutritional quality of packaged foods and beverages. Many NP models incorporate ingredients beneficial for health (e.g., fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes (FVNL)) in addition to less healthful nutrients or components, assigning points based on the proportion of the product that contains FVNL ingredients. However, with food labelling in most countries lacking mandatory quantitative ingredient declarations (QUIDs), there is potential for the estimation of FVNL points to be ambiguous and inconsistent. The purpose of this article was to describe the development and application of methodology for estimating FVNL points for products without QUIDs, based on the position of FVNL components within the ingredients list. Using this method, FVNL points were calculated for packaged foods and beverages in the University of Toronto Food Label Information Program 2017 database (n = 17,337). Distributions of FVNL points were examined overall and by food category. This study provides evidence of the feasibility of this method in distinguishing between products with differing amounts of FVNL ingredients. This method will be valuable for researchers and policymakers in ensuring consistent, objective and reproducible estimations of FVNL points—and consequently, assessments of product healthfulness—for food supplies without QUIDs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
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Communication
A Novel Approach to Structure Plant-Based Yogurts Using High Pressure Processing
Foods 2020, 9(8), 1126; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081126 - 15 Aug 2020
Viewed by 2062
Abstract
Current plant-based yogurts are made by the fermentation of plant-based milks. Although this imparts fermented flavors and probiotic cultures, the process is relatively longer and often leads to textural issues. The protein content of these plant-based yogurts is also lower than their dairy [...] Read more.
Current plant-based yogurts are made by the fermentation of plant-based milks. Although this imparts fermented flavors and probiotic cultures, the process is relatively longer and often leads to textural issues. The protein content of these plant-based yogurts is also lower than their dairy counterparts. To overcome these challenges, this paper explores the high pressure processing (HPP) of plant protein ingredients as an alternative structuring strategy for plant-based yogurts. Using mung bean (MB), chickpea (CP), pea (PP), lentil (LP), and faba bean (FB) proteins as examples, this work compared the viscosity and viscoelastic properties of high pressure-structured (600 MPa, 5 min, 5 °C) 12% (w/w) plant protein gels without, and with 5% (w/w) sunflower oil (SO) to commercial plain skim and whole milk Greek yogurts and discussed the feasibility of using HPP to develop plant-based yogurts. HPP formed viscoelastic gels (G’ > G’’) for all plant protein samples with comparable gel strength (G’~102–103 Pa; tan δ~0.2–0.3) to commercial dairy yogurts. The plant protein gel strength decreased in the order: CP~CPSO~LP~LPSO > MBSO~PPSO~FB~FBSO > PP >> MB. Modest addition of sunflower oil led to little change in viscoelastic properties for all plant protein samples except for MB and PP, where gel strength increased with incorporated oil. The emulsion gels were also more viscous than the hydrogels. Nonetheless, the viscosity of the plant protein gels was similar to the dairy yogurts. Finally, a process involving separate biotransformation for optimized flavor production and high pressure processing for consistent texture generation was proposed. This could lead to high protein plant-based yogurt products with desirable texture, flavor, and nutrition. Full article
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Article
Tapioca Dextrin as an Alternative Carrier in the Spray Drying of Fruit Juices—A Case Study of Chokeberry Powder
Foods 2020, 9(8), 1125; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081125 - 15 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1141
Abstract
This paper analyses the semi-industrial process of spray drying chokeberry juice with carbohydrate polymers used as a carrier. Tapioca dextrin (Dx) was proposed and tested as an alternative carrier and it was compared with maltodextrin carriers (MDx), which are the most common in [...] Read more.
This paper analyses the semi-industrial process of spray drying chokeberry juice with carbohydrate polymers used as a carrier. Tapioca dextrin (Dx) was proposed and tested as an alternative carrier and it was compared with maltodextrin carriers (MDx), which are the most common in industrial practice. The influence of selected process parameters (carrier type and content, inlet air temperature, atomiser speed) on the characteristics of dried chokeberry powder was investigated. The size and microstructure of the powder particles, the bulk and apparent density, porosity, flowability, yield and bioactive properties were analysed. In comparison with MDx, the Dx carrier improved the handling properties, yield and bioactive properties. An increase in the Dx carrier content improved the phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, flowability and resulted in greater yield of the powder. An increase in the drying temperature increased the size of particles and improved powder flowability but it also caused a greater loss of the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. The rotary atomizer speed had the most significant effect on the bioactive properties of obtained powders, which increased along with its growth. The following conditions were the most favourable for chokeberry juice with tapioca dextrin (Dx) as the carrier: inlet air temperature, 160 °C; rotary atomizer speed, 15,000 rpm; and Dx carrier content, 60%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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Review
Sensorial Perception of Astringency: Oral Mechanisms and Current Analysis Methods
Foods 2020, 9(8), 1124; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081124 - 14 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1532
Abstract
Understanding consumers’ food choices and the psychological processes involved in their preferences is crucial to promote more mindful eating regulation and guide food design. Fortifying foods minimizing the oral dryness, rough, and puckering associated with many functional ingredients has been attracting interest in [...] Read more.
Understanding consumers’ food choices and the psychological processes involved in their preferences is crucial to promote more mindful eating regulation and guide food design. Fortifying foods minimizing the oral dryness, rough, and puckering associated with many functional ingredients has been attracting interest in understanding oral astringency over the years. A variety of studies have explored the sensorial mechanisms and the food properties determining astringency perception. The present review provides a deeper understanding of astringency, a general view of the oral mechanisms involved, and the exciting variety of the latest methods used to direct and indirectly quantify and simulate the astringency perception and the specific mechanisms involved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensory and Consumer Sciences)
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Article
A Cup of Hemp Coffee by Moka Pot from Southern Italy: An UHPLC-HRMS Investigation
Foods 2020, 9(8), 1123; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081123 - 14 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1120
Abstract
After a long period defined by prohibition of hemp production, this crop has been recently re-evaluated in various industrial sectors. Until now, inflorescences have been considered a processing by-product, not useful for the food industry, and their disposal also represents an economic problem [...] Read more.
After a long period defined by prohibition of hemp production, this crop has been recently re-evaluated in various industrial sectors. Until now, inflorescences have been considered a processing by-product, not useful for the food industry, and their disposal also represents an economic problem for farmers. The objects of the present work are coffee blends enriched with shredded inflorescences of different cultivars of industrial hemp that underwent solid/liquid extraction into the Italian “moka” coffee maker. The obtained coffee drinks were analyzed by Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) tools for their quali-quantitative phytocannabinoid profiles. The results showed that they are minor constituents compared to chlorogenic acids and caffeine in all samples. In particular, cannabidiolic acid was the most abundant among phytocannabinoids, followed by tetrahydrocannabinolic acid. Neither Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) nor cannabinol, its main oxidation product, were detected. The percentage of total THC never exceeded 0.04%, corresponding to 0.4 mg/kg, far below the current maximum limits imposed by the Italian Ministry of Health. This study opens up a new concrete possibility to exploit hemp processing by-products in order to obtain drinks with high added value and paves the way for further in vitro and in vivo investigations aimed at promoting their benefits for human health. Full article
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Article
Effects of Ultrasound Treatments on Tenderness and In Vitro Protein Digestibility of New Zealand Abalone, Haliotis iris
Foods 2020, 9(8), 1122; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081122 - 14 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1077
Abstract
Canned pāua, Haliotis iris, is a premium New Zealand product that is exported to Asia. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of ultrasound treatments on pāua texture, microstructure and in vitro protein digestibility. Whole pāua meat was ultrasound-treated [...] Read more.
Canned pāua, Haliotis iris, is a premium New Zealand product that is exported to Asia. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of ultrasound treatments on pāua texture, microstructure and in vitro protein digestibility. Whole pāua meat was ultrasound-treated (20 kHz, 464 ± 9 W) for 5 min in water (with or without subsequent soaking in water at 4 °C for 24 h) or ultrasound-treated in 1% actinidin enzyme solution. Post-treatment cooking of canned pāua was done in a water retort at 116 °C for 30 min. All ultrasound-treated cooked pāua yielded lower slice shear force values (SSFV) than untreated canned and cooked samples. The lowest SSFV was attained when ultrasound treatment in water was followed by soaking at 4 °C for 24 h. The increased tenderness of ultrasound-treated pāua could be linked to disintegration of myofibers and formation of gaps between myofibers, as observed through histological analysis and transmission electron microscopy. Collagenous fragmentation was also observed, particularly in pāua ultrasonicated in enzyme solution. Raw pāua was found to be more digestible in terms of free amino N released during in vitro digestion than all cooked samples. However, cooked ultrasound pre-treated pāua was more digestible than the control cooked sample. Full article
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Article
The Human Microbial Metabolism of Quercetin in Different Formulations: An In Vitro Evaluation
Foods 2020, 9(8), 1121; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081121 - 14 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 987
Abstract
Quercetin is one of the main dietary flavonols, but its beneficial properties in disease prevention may be limited due to its scarce bioavailability. For this purpose, delivery systems have been designed to enhance both stability and bioavailability of bioactive compounds. This study aimed [...] Read more.
Quercetin is one of the main dietary flavonols, but its beneficial properties in disease prevention may be limited due to its scarce bioavailability. For this purpose, delivery systems have been designed to enhance both stability and bioavailability of bioactive compounds. This study aimed at investigating the human microbial metabolism of quercetin derived from unformulated and phytosome-formulated quercetin through an in vitro model. Both ingredients were firstly characterized for their profile in native (poly)phenols, and then fermented with human fecal microbiota for 24 h. Quantification of microbial metabolites was performed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (uHPLC-MSn) analyses. Native quercetin, the main compound in both products, appeared less prone to microbial degradation in the phytosome-formulated version compared to the unformulated one during fecal incubation. Quercetin of both products was bioaccessible to colonic microbiota, resulting in the production of phenylpropanoic acid, phenylacetic acid and benzoic acid derivatives. The extent of the microbial metabolism of quercetin was higher in the unformulated ingredient, in a time-dependent manner. This study opened new perspectives to investigate the role of delivery systems on influencing the microbial metabolism of flavonols in the colonic environment, a pivotal step in the presumed bioactivity associated to their intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Metabolism and Health Benefits of Bioactive Compounds in Foods)
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Article
Concentration of Potentially Bioactive Compounds in Italian Extra Virgin Olive Oils from Various Sources by Using LC-MS and Multivariate Data Analysis
Foods 2020, 9(8), 1120; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081120 - 13 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1122
Abstract
High quality extra virgin olive oils represent an optimal source of nutraceuticals. The European Union (EU) is the world’s leading olive oil producer, with the Mediterranean region as the main contributor. This makes the EU the greatest exporter and consumer of olive oil [...] Read more.
High quality extra virgin olive oils represent an optimal source of nutraceuticals. The European Union (EU) is the world’s leading olive oil producer, with the Mediterranean region as the main contributor. This makes the EU the greatest exporter and consumer of olive oil in the world. However, small olive oil producers also contribute to olive oil production. Beneficial effects on human health of extra virgin olive oil are well known, and these can be correlated to the presence of vitamin E and phenols. Together with the origin of the olives, extraction technology can influence the chemical composition of extra virgin olive oil. The aim of this study was to investigate the concentration of potentially bioactive compounds in Italian extra virgin olive oils from various sources. For this purpose, vitamin E and phenolic fractions were characterized using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with fluorescence, photodiode array and mass spectrometry detection in fifty samples of oil pressed at industrial plants and sixty-six samples of oil produced in low-scale mills. Multivariate statistical data analysis was used to determine the applicability of selected phenolic compounds as potential quality indicators of extra virgin olive oils. Full article
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Article
Development and Validation of HPLC-DAD Method for Simultaneous Determination of Seven Food Additives and Caffeine in Powdered Drinks
Foods 2020, 9(8), 1119; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081119 - 13 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1348
Abstract
The usage of food additives must respect the general legislation in force in the country and requires a reliable analytical method for surveillance. This research aimed to develop a high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) method for the simultaneous determination of [...] Read more.
The usage of food additives must respect the general legislation in force in the country and requires a reliable analytical method for surveillance. This research aimed to develop a high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) method for the simultaneous determination of seven food additives and caffeine in powdered drinks. Three factors likely to affect the chromatographic separation, namely, mobile phase composition at the beginning (x1, 0–10% of the amount of methanol in the phosphate buffer) and the end (x2, 60–100% of the amount of methanol in the phosphate buffer) of the gradient program and pH (x3, 3–7), were evaluated with the aid of a Box–Behnken Design (BBD). Subsequently, multi-response optimizations for chromatographic resolutions (Rs) and analysis time were performed using the response surface methodology (RSM) in conjunction with the desirability function (DF). Complete separation (Rs > 1.5) of seven food additives and caffeine was achieved in less than 16 min by applying 8.5% methanol in the phosphate buffer at the beginning and 90% at the end of the gradient program, in pH 6.7. The developed method was validated with low limits of detection (ranging from 1.16 mg kg−1 (sodium saccharin) to 3.00 mg kg−1 (acesulfame potassium)), low limits of quantification (ranging from 3.86 mg kg−1 (sodium saccharin) to 10.02 mg kg−1 (acesulfame potassium)), high precision (CV < 4%), and high accuracy (recoveries from 95 to 101% at 80, 100, and 120% of the target concentration). The method was successfully used to assess the seven food additives and caffeine in commercially available powdered drinks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chromatography Analysis Applied in Food Science)
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Article
Volatile Composition and Sensory Properties as Quality Attributes of Fresh and Dried Hemp Flowers (Cannabis sativa L.)
Foods 2020, 9(8), 1118; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081118 - 13 Aug 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1541
Abstract
Flowers of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) are widely used in cosmetics, food, and in the pharmaceutical industry. The drying process plays a key role in retention of aroma and also in the quality of products. Seven variants of hemp flower drying, including [...] Read more.
Flowers of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) are widely used in cosmetics, food, and in the pharmaceutical industry. The drying process plays a key role in retention of aroma and also in the quality of products. Seven variants of hemp flower drying, including convection drying (CD), vacuum–microwave drying (VMD), and combined drying consisting of convective pre-drying followed by vacuum–microwave finishing drying (CPD-VMFD) were checked in this study. For each process, we applied the two-term model. Dried material was submitted to color and chromatographical assessments. Analyses of obtained essential oil showed the presence of 93 volatile compounds, predominantly β-myrcene, limonene, and β-(E)-caryophyllene, as well as α-humulene. Application of 240 W during VMD and 50 °C during CD gave the highest retention of aroma compounds, amounting to 85 and 76%, respectively, but with huge color changes. Additionally, sensory analysis proved that drying with a microwave power of 240 W provides a product most similar to fresh material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavor and Aroma Analysis as a Tool for Quality Control of Foods)
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Article
Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity of Biodegradable Active Packaging Enriched with Clove and Thyme Essential Oil for Food Packaging Application
Foods 2020, 9(8), 1117; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081117 - 13 Aug 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1649
Abstract
Bioactive packaging contains natural antimicrobial agents, which inhibit the growth of microorganisms and increase the food shelf life. Solvent casting method was used to prepare the Poly (lactide)-Poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PLA-PBAT) film incorporated with the thyme oil and clove oil in various concentrations [...] Read more.
Bioactive packaging contains natural antimicrobial agents, which inhibit the growth of microorganisms and increase the food shelf life. Solvent casting method was used to prepare the Poly (lactide)-Poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PLA-PBAT) film incorporated with the thyme oil and clove oil in various concentrations (1 wt%, 5 wt% and 10 wt%). The clove oil composite films depicted less green and more yellow as compared to thyme oil composite films. Clove oil composite film has shown an 80% increase in the UV blocking efficiency. The tensile strength (TS) of thyme oil and clove oil composite film decreases from 1.35 MPs (control film) to 0.96 MPa and 0.79, respectively. A complete killing of S. aureus that is a reduction from 6.5 log CFU/mL to 0 log CFU/mL was observed on the 10 wt% clove oil incorporated composite film. Clove oil and thyme oil composite film had inhibited E. coli biofilm by 93.43% and 82.30%, respectively. Clove oil composite film had exhibited UV blocking properties, strong antimicrobial activity and has high potential to be used as an active food packaging. Full article
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Article
Effects of Ultra-Sonication and Agitation on Bioactive Compounds and Structure of Amaranth Extract
Foods 2020, 9(8), 1116; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081116 - 13 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 867
Abstract
Amaranth is an excellent source of various bioactive compounds that could be beneficial in the prevention of some human diseases. This study investigated the extraction and characterization of bioactive compounds from amaranth using ultra-sonication and agitation at 30, 50 and 70 °C. Color [...] Read more.
Amaranth is an excellent source of various bioactive compounds that could be beneficial in the prevention of some human diseases. This study investigated the extraction and characterization of bioactive compounds from amaranth using ultra-sonication and agitation at 30, 50 and 70 °C. Color L* values showed significant (p < 0.05) differences at 70 °C between ultra-sonication and agitation. Ultra-sonication temperature had significant effect on L* and a* values whereas agitation temperature did not have a significant effect on L*, a* and b* values. No significant (p < 0.05) differences were found in terms of total phenol, total flavonoid, DPPH•+, ABTS+ scavenging activity, betacyanins, betaxanthin and betanicaicd between ultra-sonication and agitation. However, temperature had a significant (p < 0.05) effect on total phenol (8.64–10.598 mg/g), DPPH+scavenging activity (84.36–94.44%), betacyanins (4585.95–5325.32 mg/100 g), betaxanthin (1312.56–1524.06 mg/100 g) and betalamic acid (1408.15–1790.22 mg/100 g) in ultra-sonication. Higher temperature (70 °C) showed greater amount of arbutin and hydroxybenzoic acid than those of lower temperature (30 °C) for both extraction methods. Meanwhile, temperature did not affect vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid for both samples. Fourier-transformed infrared (FTIR) spectrometry showed that ultra-sonication and agitation resulted in similar effect on the structure of amaranth extracts. Higher temperature was correlated with bioactive compounds, which were observed by principal component analysis (PCA). Therefore, agitation at 70 °C could be used as an alternative for ultra-sonication to improve the bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities of amaranth. In addition, agitation and ultra-sonication techniques might be served as an alternative of conventional technique. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
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Article
Catfish Glycoprotein, a Highly Powerful Safe Preservative of Minced Beef Stored at 4 °C for 15 Days
Foods 2020, 9(8), 1115; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081115 - 13 Aug 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1214
Abstract
Minced beef is a very perishable food product, due to its vulnerability to microbial contamination and its fast quality deterioration. In the current study, the biological efficiency of different concentrations (0, 50 and 100 µg g−1) of the antibacterial catfish glycoprotein [...] Read more.
Minced beef is a very perishable food product, due to its vulnerability to microbial contamination and its fast quality deterioration. In the current study, the biological efficiency of different concentrations (0, 50 and 100 µg g−1) of the antibacterial catfish glycoprotein (CFG) was estimated as a possible improver of the storability and safety of minced beef preserved at 4 °C for 15 days. CFG (50 and 100 µg g−1) could efficiently control the changes in meat pH during 15 days storage at 4 °C to be within the normal, acceptable levels (6.4 and 6.2, respectively), equalizing the level of the control for minced beef after 6 days of storage under similar conditions. Likewise, the level of metmyoglobin in minced beef stored at the same conditions was maintained at 53.67 and 46.67% by CFG supplementation at 50 and 100 µg g−1, respectively, at the 15th day of storage, which is comparable to the 6th day in case of the control samples. However, the antioxidant effect of CFG against lipid peroxidation was less effective. The antibacterial action of CFG was most pronouncedly powerful and efficient. Supplementation of minced beef with CFG at 50 and 100 µg g−1 significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the bacterial counts at all the time inspection points as compared to the control. After 15 days of storage, the total viable bacteria, psychrotrophic bacterial count and coliforms count were reduced to 3.12, 2.65 and 0.0 log CFU g−1, respectively, in response to CFG (50 µg g−1), and 2.41, 2.04 and 0.0 log CFU g−1, respectively, in response to CFG (100 µg g−1); this compared to 5.13, 4.78 and 2.5 in the control samples after only six days cold storage. Using CFG at 50, 100 and 200 µg g−1 in rat diets did not affect their liver or kidney functions, reflecting the non-toxicity of this substance. Substantiating the antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of CFG in minced beef storage may support its use as a naturally powerful and safe food preservative, as well as a shelf-life extender. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Packaging and Preservation)
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Article
Factors Underlying Food Choice Motives in a Brazilian Sample: The Association with Socioeconomic Factors and Risk Perceptions about Chronic Diseases
Foods 2020, 9(8), 1114; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081114 - 13 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1099
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the food choice motives in a sample in Brazil and to identify how socioeconomic characteristics and risk perceptions about chronic diseases and weight gain affect these motives. The Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) is an instrument to analyze the [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the food choice motives in a sample in Brazil and to identify how socioeconomic characteristics and risk perceptions about chronic diseases and weight gain affect these motives. The Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) is an instrument to analyze the motivations for food choice. The FCQ was completed by 525 adult individuals in Brazil. The participants were asked about their perceived risk of gaining weight, developing diabetes, and hypertension. Confirmatory factor analysis led to the rejection of the original FCQ structure, and, after exploratory factor analysis, 30 items of the FCQ were maintained in eight factors: Nutritional Composition, Preparation Convenience, Purchase Convenience, Mood, Sensory Appeal, Health, Price, and Familiarity. Sensory Appeal and Familiarity were, respectively, the most and the least important factors involved in food choices in this sample. A high education level, high income, age, and female sex positively affected FCQ factors (except for the Price factor). On the basis of FCQ scores, we defined five clusters: Health Driven, Practicality Concerned, Shape Concerned, Food Concerned, and Cooking Enthusiasts. In general, individuals were optimistic regarding the risk of developing diabetes, hypertension, and gaining weight, especially those from the Shape Concerned cluster. The differences in food choice motives presented here reinforce the existence of different niches of food consumption. Different types of products can attract specific target groups at the time of choice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Individual Determinants of Food Choice in a New Decade)
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Review
Scientific Approaches on Extraction, Purification and Stability for the Commercialization of Fucoxanthin Recovered from Brown Algae
Foods 2020, 9(8), 1113; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081113 - 13 Aug 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1840
Abstract
The scientific community has corroborated the numerous beneficial activities of fucoxanthin, such as its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer or neuroprotective effects, among others. These properties have attracted the attention of nutraceutical, cosmetic and pharmacological industries, giving rise to various possible applications. Fucoxanthin may be [...] Read more.
The scientific community has corroborated the numerous beneficial activities of fucoxanthin, such as its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer or neuroprotective effects, among others. These properties have attracted the attention of nutraceutical, cosmetic and pharmacological industries, giving rise to various possible applications. Fucoxanthin may be chemically produced, but the extraction from natural sources is considered more cost-effective, efficient and eco-friendly. Thus, identifying suitable sources of this compound and giving a general overview of efficient extraction, quantification, purification and stabilization studies is of great importance for the future production and commercialization of fucoxanthin. The scientific research showed that most of the studies are performed using conventional techniques, but non-conventional techniques begin to gain popularity in the recovery of this compound. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and spectroscopy techniques have been employed in the quantification and identification of fucoxanthin. The further purification of extracts has been mainly accomplished using purification columns. Finally, the stability of fucoxanthin has been assessed as a free molecule, in an emulsion, or encapsulated to identify the variables that might affect its further industrial application. Full article
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Article
Fungi Burger from Stale Bread? A Case Study on Perceptions of a Novel Protein-Rich Food Product Made from an Edible Fungus
Foods 2020, 9(8), 1112; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081112 - 13 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1609
Abstract
The current study aims to assess how a novel fungi product made from the filamentous fungus Neurospora intermedia, cultivated on bread residuals, is perceived using questionnaires. Participants were asked to rate characteristic attributes of a fungi burger patty and state their preference [...] Read more.
The current study aims to assess how a novel fungi product made from the filamentous fungus Neurospora intermedia, cultivated on bread residuals, is perceived using questionnaires. Participants were asked to rate characteristic attributes of a fungi burger patty and state their preference when comparing it to Quorn and hamburger patties. The data were analyzed to assess whether gender or age was statistically associated with preference profiles. Neither age nor gender was associated with the preference profiles regarding the comparison of burger patties. Except for age and bitterness, age and gender were also not associated with the preference profiles regarding the sensory characteristics of the fungi burger patty. Most of the participants liked the characteristics of the fungi burger patty. The results indicate that fungi products from waste can become accepted products when information dissemination targets environmental benefits. Moreover, to be commercially accepted, the chewiness and bitterness of the product should be improved. Other improvements should target the overall taste in order to cater to people who prefer meat-based protein sources. Full article
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Review
Safety, Quality and Analytical Authentication of ḥalāl Meat Products, with Particular Emphasis on Salami: A Review
Foods 2020, 9(8), 1111; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081111 - 13 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1260
Abstract
Only some animal species could be transformed into ḥalāl salami and the raw meat must be obtained from ritually slaughtered animals. Several scientific studies have been conducted on ritual slaughtering practices and manufacturing of meat products for Jewish and Muslim religious communities; furthermore, [...] Read more.
Only some animal species could be transformed into ḥalāl salami and the raw meat must be obtained from ritually slaughtered animals. Several scientific studies have been conducted on ritual slaughtering practices and manufacturing of meat products for Jewish and Muslim religious communities; furthermore, many projects have been funded by the European Community on this topic. The authenticity and traceability of meat is one of the priorities of ḥalāl food certification systems. The pig matrix (meat and/or lard) may be fraudulently present in ḥalāl processed meat, as well as salami, for both economic and technological purposes; in fact, the use of these raw materials reflects the easier availability and their lower cost; furthermore, it allows manufacturers to obtain final products with better quality (sensory properties) and stability (especially with respect to oxidative reactions). The aim of this review is to discuss the qualitative and technological aspects of ḥalāl raw meat for dry fermented sausages (salami); moreover, this study focuses on the most recent studies carried out on the certification system and on the analytical methods performed in order to solve problems such as fraud and adulteration of ḥalāl salami and other halal meat foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sausages: Nutrition, Safety, Processing and Quality Improvement)
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Article
Spray-Dried Structured Lipid Carriers for the Loading of Rosmarinus officinalis: New Nutraceutical and Food Preservative
Foods 2020, 9(8), 1110; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081110 - 13 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 870
Abstract
Rosemary, an aromatic herb with significant antioxidative activity, is frequently used as food preservative and a source of nutraceuticals. Its antioxidant effect is mainly related to the presence of phenolic compounds, molecules considerably unstable and prone to irreversible physicochemical changes when exposed to [...] Read more.
Rosemary, an aromatic herb with significant antioxidative activity, is frequently used as food preservative and a source of nutraceuticals. Its antioxidant effect is mainly related to the presence of phenolic compounds, molecules considerably unstable and prone to irreversible physicochemical changes when exposed to external agents. We here proposed the loading of rosemary into structured lipid systems to improve its physicochemical properties. Four formulations were prepared using the same amount of rosemary lyophilized extract. The lipid phase was composed of stearic acid and oleic acid, and the aqueous phase, a varying combination of drying carriers (whey protein concentrate or gum Arabic) and surfactant (Poloxamer 188). The formulations were sonicated, spray-dried, and the obtained powders were characterized regarding the density (0.18 g/mL to 0.26 g/mL), particle size distribution (7 µm and 52 µm), and water solubility (29% to 48%). The antioxidant activity was determined by applying ABTS•+ radical-scavenging assay and the results expressed per gram of lyophilized extract (150.6 μmol Trolox/g to 376.4 μmol Trolox/g), with a significantly lower/higher result seen for formulations containing gum Arabic and a higher concentration of Poloxamer. The prepared systems may have potential applications as preservative in foodstuff and as nutraceutical. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods)
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Article
The Effects of Ethnically Congruent Music on Eye Movements and Food Choice—A Cross-Cultural Comparison between Danish and Chinese Consumers
Foods 2020, 9(8), 1109; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081109 - 12 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1619
Abstract
Musical fit refers to the congruence between music and attributes of a food or product in context, which can prime consumer behavior through semantic networks in memory. The vast majority of research on this topic dealing with musical fit in a cultural context [...] Read more.
Musical fit refers to the congruence between music and attributes of a food or product in context, which can prime consumer behavior through semantic networks in memory. The vast majority of research on this topic dealing with musical fit in a cultural context has thus far been limited to monocultural groups in field studies, where uncontrolled confounds can potentially influence the study outcome. To overcome these limitations, and in order to explore the effects of ethnically congruent music on visual attention and food choice across cultures, the present study recruited 199 participants from China (n = 98) and Denmark (n = 101) for an in-laboratory food choice paradigm with eye-tracking data collection. For each culture group, the study used a between-subject design with half of the participants listening to only instrumental “Eastern” music and the other half only listening to instrumental “Western” music, while both groups engaged in a food choice task involving “Eastern” and “Western” food. Chi-square tests revealed a clear ethnic congruency effect between music and food choice across culture, whereby Eastern (vs. Western) food was chosen more during the Eastern music condition, and Western (vs. Eastern) food was chosen more in the Western music condition. Furthermore, results from a generalized linear mixed model suggested that Chinese participants fixated more on Western (vs. Eastern) food when Western music was played, whereas Danish participants fixated more on Eastern (vs. Western) food when Eastern music was played. Interestingly, no such priming effects were found when participants listened to music from their own culture, suggesting that music-evoked visual attention may be culturally dependent. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that ambient music can have a significant impact on consumers’ explicit and implicit behaviors, while at the same time highlighting the importance of culture-specific sensory marketing applications in the global food industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Choice and Consumer Psychology)
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Article
Legacy and Emerging Contaminants in Demersal Fish Species from Southern Norway and Implications for Food Safety
Foods 2020, 9(8), 1108; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081108 - 12 Aug 2020
Viewed by 913
Abstract
The present study aimed at measuring the levels of legacy and emerging contaminants in fillet samples from four demersal fish caught in two fishing sites from Southern Norway, in order to assess possible implications for food safety. Levels of organochlorine compounds (OCs), organophosphate [...] Read more.
The present study aimed at measuring the levels of legacy and emerging contaminants in fillet samples from four demersal fish caught in two fishing sites from Southern Norway, in order to assess possible implications for food safety. Levels of organochlorine compounds (OCs), organophosphate pesticides (OPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDE), per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in fillet from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), European plaice (Pleuronectes platessa), lemon sole (Microstomus kitt), and European flounder (Platichthys flesus) specimens. A negligible contamination by all the investigated chemicals was noted in both the fishing sites, as very low levels of OCs, PCBs, and PFASs were noted in a limited number of individuals for each species. Considering the levels of contaminants measured in fillets of the four demersal fish species, negligible risk for human health for Norwegian consumers can be supposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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