Special Issue "Application of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Food Preservation and Fermentation"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Maria de Lurdes Dapkevicius
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
University of the Azores, Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences/ Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Research and Technology (IITAA), Ponta Delgada, Portugal
Interests: antimicrobials; bacterial; probiotics; lactic acid bacteria; microbiology; foodborne diseases; food microbiology; food science and technology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Humankind and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have cohabited since the dawn of our existence as a species. They are part of our microbiota and they are in and on our food. Throughout the history of humankind, lactic fermentation has been a way to preserve foods, obtain a range of novel flavors and textures and help us stay healthy. Today, LAB and their bioactivities are major “microbial shareholders” in the profitable market of probiotics. In some food systems, however, LAB are part of the deterioration microbiota. Most LAB species are considered safe for food uses, but some also raise concerns due to their potential for opportunism. Much has been written on LAB, but much more remains to be investigated, discussed, and summarized to help us better understand—and make better use—of this exciting group of bacteria. This Special Issue provides an opportunity to take part in the building of universal knowledge on LAB in a journal that offers open access and has a wide readership.

Prof. Maria de Lurdes Nunes Enes Dapkevicius
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Lactic acid bacteria
  • Food fermentation
  • Food microbiota
  • Probiotics
  • Safety
  • Deterioration
  • Preservation
  • Starter cultures
  • Adjunct cultures
  • Protective cultures

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Article
Effect of Mixed Starters on Proteolysis and Formation of Biogenic Amines in Dry Fermented Mutton Sausages
Foods 2021, 10(12), 2939; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10122939 - 29 Nov 2021
Viewed by 340
Abstract
In this study, by comparing the four groups of sausages, namely, CO (without starter culture), LB (with Lactobacillus sakei), LS (with L. sakei 3X-2B + Staphylococcus xylosus SZ-8), and LSS (with L. sakei 3X-2B + S. xylosus SZ-8 + S. carnosus SZ-2), [...] Read more.
In this study, by comparing the four groups of sausages, namely, CO (without starter culture), LB (with Lactobacillus sakei), LS (with L. sakei 3X-2B + Staphylococcus xylosus SZ-8), and LSS (with L. sakei 3X-2B + S. xylosus SZ-8 + S. carnosus SZ-2), the effects of mixed starter cultures on physical–chemical quality, proteolysis, and biogenic amines (BAs) during fermentation and ripening were investigated. Inoculation of the mixed starter cultures increased the number of lactic acid bacteria and staphylococci in sausages during fermentation and ripening for 0 to 5 days. The L. sakei 3X-2B + S. xylosus SZ-8 + S. carnosus SZ-2 mixed starter accelerated the rate of acid production and water activity reduction of sausages and improved the redness value. Compared with CO, the mixed starter effectively inhibited Enterobacteriaceae. At the end of ripening, the LSS group was approximately 1.25 CFU/g, which was less than the CO group, thereby reducing the total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) in the LSS group. The free amino acids in the LS and LSS groups (224.97 and 235.53 mg/kg dry sausage, respectively) were significantly (p < 0.001) higher than that in the CO group (170.93 mg/kg dry sausage). The level of histamine, cadaverine, putrescine, and common BAs showed an opposite trend to the increase of the corresponding precursor amino acid content, which were significantly lower (p < 0.001) in the LS and LSS sausages than in CO. This study showed that L. sakei 3X-2B + S. xylosus SZ-8 + S. carnosus SZ-2 is a potential mixed starter for fermented meat products. Full article
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Article
The Influence of Environmental Conditions on the Antagonistic Activity of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Fermented Meat Products
Foods 2021, 10(10), 2267; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102267 - 25 Sep 2021
Viewed by 536
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the impact of environmental conditions on the antimicrobial properties of 21 lactic acid bacteria strains in the selected indicator bacteria. To assess the antimicrobial activity of the whole bacteria culture (WBC), the agar well diffusion [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the impact of environmental conditions on the antimicrobial properties of 21 lactic acid bacteria strains in the selected indicator bacteria. To assess the antimicrobial activity of the whole bacteria culture (WBC), the agar well diffusion method was used. The interference of LAB strains with the growth of the selected indicator bacteria was evaluated by incubating co-cultures in the food matrix. Based on the conducted research, it was found that environmental conditions have a significant impact on the antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria strains. The highest antimicrobial activity was recorded under optimal conditions for the development of LAB, the incubation time being different depending on the indicator strain used. The tested LAB strains were characterized by a high ability to inhibit indicator strains, especially in the food matrix. These results led us to further characterize and purify the antimicrobial compound produced by lactic acid bacteria taking into account changing environmental conditions. Full article
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Article
Effect of Novel Bacteriocinogenic Lactobacillus fermentum BZ532 on Microbiological Shelf-Life and Physicochemical and Organoleptic Properties of Fresh Home-Made Bozai
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2120; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092120 - 08 Sep 2021
Viewed by 449
Abstract
Bacteriocinogenic Lactobacillus fermentum BZ532 with novel bacteriocin LF-BZ532 was originally isolated from Chinese cereal fermented drink, showing an antimicrobial characteristic during fermentation. This study aimed to explore the in situ antimicrobial activities of L. fermentum BZ532 and co-culturing investigation against key food pathogens, [...] Read more.
Bacteriocinogenic Lactobacillus fermentum BZ532 with novel bacteriocin LF-BZ532 was originally isolated from Chinese cereal fermented drink, showing an antimicrobial characteristic during fermentation. This study aimed to explore the in situ antimicrobial activities of L. fermentum BZ532 and co-culturing investigation against key food pathogens, i.e., Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli K-12, was conducted during fresh bozai production. The growth of spoilage bacteria was suppressed and bacterial count was reduced to a significantly low level during 48 h of co-cultures. In situ production of antimicrobial compounds expressed positive activity against S. aureus and E. coli K-12, but negative acitivity against Salmonella sp. D104. The total viable count of bozai BZ-Lf (bozai fermented with BZ532 strain) had a comparatively lower viable count than bozai BZ-C (bozai as an experimental control without BZ532) during storage of 7 days. Titratable acidity of bozai treatments (BZ-C, BZ-Lf) was increased, while pH declined accordingly during storage of 7 days. The organoleptic quality of bozai BZ-C had low sensorial scores as compared with BZ-Lf during storage. In comparison with naturally fermented bozai (BZ-C), L. fermentum BZ532 (BZ-Lf) could significantly reduce the microbial spoilage and extend the shelf-life based on microbiological examination. Conclusively, L. fermentum BZ532 can be used as a bio-protective culture for improving the safety of bozai. Full article
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Article
Evaluation of Semi-Solid-State Fermentation of Elaeocarpus serratus L. Leaves and Black Soymilk by Lactobacillus plantarum on Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity
Foods 2021, 10(4), 704; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040704 - 26 Mar 2021
Viewed by 899
Abstract
Elaeocarpus serratus L. leaves (EL) containing phenolic compounds and flavonoids, including myricitrin with pharmacological properties, could be valorized as nutritional additive in foods. In this study, the semi-solid-state fermentation of EL and black soymilk (BS) by Lactobacillus plantarum BCRC 10357 was investigated. Without [...] Read more.
Elaeocarpus serratus L. leaves (EL) containing phenolic compounds and flavonoids, including myricitrin with pharmacological properties, could be valorized as nutritional additive in foods. In this study, the semi-solid-state fermentation of EL and black soymilk (BS) by Lactobacillus plantarum BCRC 10357 was investigated. Without adding EL in MRS medium, the β-glucosidase activity of L. plantarum quickly reduced to 2.33 ± 0.15 U/mL in 36 h of fermentation; by using 3% EL, the stability period of β-glucosidase activity was prolonged as 12.94 ± 0.69 U/mL in 12 h to 13.71 ± 0.94 in 36 h, showing positive response of the bacteria encountering EL. Using L. plantarum to ferment BS with 3% EL, the β-glucosidase activity increased to 23.78 ± 1.34 U/mL in 24 h, and in the fermented product extract (FPE), the content of myricitrin (2297.06 μg/g-FPE) and isoflavone aglycones (daidzein and genistein, 474.47 μg/g-FPE) at 48 h of fermentation were 1.61-fold and 1.95-fold of that before fermentation (at 0 h), respectively. Total flavonoid content, myricitrin, and ferric reducing antioxidant power in FPE using BS and EL were higher than that using EL alone. This study developed the potential fermented product of black soymilk using EL as a nutritional supplement with probiotics. Full article
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Article
Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Biochemical Agents Enrich the Shelf Life of Fresh-Cut Bell Pepper (Capsicum annuum L. var. grossum (L.) Sendt)
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1252; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091252 - 07 Sep 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1052
Abstract
This work analyzed the individual and combined effects of biochemical additives and probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on red and yellow fresh-cut bell pepper (R- and Y-FCBP, respectively) stored at two different temperatures (4 °C and 15 °C) for 15 days. The results [...] Read more.
This work analyzed the individual and combined effects of biochemical additives and probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on red and yellow fresh-cut bell pepper (R- and Y-FCBP, respectively) stored at two different temperatures (4 °C and 15 °C) for 15 days. The results revealed that the combined application of biochemical additives and L. rhamnosus GG inhibited the colonization of total bacterial counts (25.10%), total Salmonella counts (38.32%), total Listeria counts (23.75%), and total fungal counts (61.90%) in FCBP. Total bacterial colonization was found to be higher in R-FCBP (1188.09 ± 9.25 CFU g−1) than Y-FCBP (863.96 ± 7.21 CFU g−1). The storage at 4 °C was prevented 35.38% of microbial colonization in FCBP. Importantly, the L. rhamnosus GG count remained for up to 12 days. Moreover, the combined inoculation of the biochemical additives and L. rhamnosus GG treatments (T3) maintained the quality of R- and Y-FCBP for up to 12 days at 4 °C without any loss of antioxidant properties. This work reports the successful utilization of L. rhamnosus GG as a preservative agent for maintaining the quality of FCBP by preventing microbial colonization. Full article
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Article
The Effect of Rosa spinosissima Fruits Extract on Lactic Acid Bacteria Growth and Other Yoghurt Parameters
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1167; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091167 - 24 Aug 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1125
Abstract
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of purified extract from Rosa spinosissima fruits on the quality characteristics and antioxidant properties of yoghurt. The extract, added to yoghurt at a concentration of 0.1% and 0.2%, contained high quantities of phenolic [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of purified extract from Rosa spinosissima fruits on the quality characteristics and antioxidant properties of yoghurt. The extract, added to yoghurt at a concentration of 0.1% and 0.2%, contained high quantities of phenolic compounds and exhibited high antioxidant activity due to the presence of anthocyanins flavan-3-ols, flavonols and ellagitannins. Yoghurt physicochemical properties, microbiology and antioxidant properties were evaluated after 1, 7 and 14 days of storage at a temperature of 4 °C. The data revealed a positive influence of rose preparation on yoghurt’s microflora and on its other properties. The highest count of traditional yoghurt microflora was observed in samples with 0.2% of extract. Its addition had a positive effect on the yoghurts’ color, giving them a characteristic pink color of an intensity dependent on additive concentration. It also significantly affected the yoghurts’ antioxidant properties, which were stable during storage, as well as the content of the introduced phenolic compounds. Full article
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Article
Probiotic Properties and Antioxidant Activities of Pediococcus pentosaceus SC28 and Levilactobacillus brevis KU15151 in Fermented Black Gamju
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1154; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091154 - 21 Aug 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1298
Abstract
Black gamju is Korean traditional beverage fermented with molds. The aim of this study was to assess the probiotic properties and antioxidant activities of novel Pediococcus pentosaceus SC28 and Levilactobacillus brevis KU15151 to develop black gamju with bioactive properties for health. Tolerance against [...] Read more.
Black gamju is Korean traditional beverage fermented with molds. The aim of this study was to assess the probiotic properties and antioxidant activities of novel Pediococcus pentosaceus SC28 and Levilactobacillus brevis KU15151 to develop black gamju with bioactive properties for health. Tolerance against artificial gastric juice and bile salts, adhesion ability on HT-29 cells of strains, and antibiotics susceptibility were evaluated as probiotics, and various enzyme productions were detected. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay, 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate, and β-carotene bleaching assay were used for antioxidant activity of samples. The tolerance of both strains to artificial gastric juice and bile salts (Oxgall) was more than 90%. Additionally, both strains did not produce β-glucuronidase and were resistant to gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, and ciprofloxacin. After fermentation of black gamju with each strain, the number of viable lactic acid bacteria increased to 8.25–8.95 log colony forming unit/mL, but the pH value of fermented samples decreased more (to pH 3.33–3.41) than that of control (pH 4.37). L. brevis KU15151 showed higher adhesion activity to HT-29 cells and antioxidant effects than P. pentosaceus SC28 in three antioxidant assays. Full article
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Review

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Review
Role of Exposure to Lactic Acid Bacteria from Foods of Animal Origin in Human Health
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2092; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092092 - 04 Sep 2021
Viewed by 774
Abstract
Animal products, in particular dairy and fermented products, are major natural sources of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). These are known for their antimicrobial properties, as well as for their roles in organoleptic changes, antioxidant activity, nutrient digestibility, the release of peptides and polysaccharides, [...] Read more.
Animal products, in particular dairy and fermented products, are major natural sources of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). These are known for their antimicrobial properties, as well as for their roles in organoleptic changes, antioxidant activity, nutrient digestibility, the release of peptides and polysaccharides, amino acid decarboxylation, and biogenic amine production and degradation. Due to their antimicrobial properties, LAB are used in humans and in animals, with beneficial effects, as probiotics or in the treatment of a variety of diseases. In livestock production, LAB contribute to animal performance, health, and productivity. In the food industry, LAB are applied as bioprotective and biopreservation agents, contributing to improve food safety and quality. However, some studies have described resistance to relevant antibiotics in LAB, with the concomitant risks associated with the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes to foodborne pathogens and their potential dissemination throughout the food chain and the environment. Here, we summarize the application of LAB in livestock and animal products, as well as the health impact of LAB in animal food products. In general, the beneficial effects of LAB on the human food chain seem to outweigh the potential risks associated with their consumption as part of animal and human diets. However, further studies and continuous monitorization efforts are needed to ensure their safe application in animal products and in the control of pathogenic microorganisms, preventing the possible risks associated with antibiotic resistance and, thus, protecting public health. Full article
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Review
A Review on Adventitious Lactic Acid Bacteria from Table Olives
Foods 2020, 9(7), 948; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070948 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1478
Abstract
Spontaneous fermentation constitutes the basis of the chief natural method of processing of table olives, where autochthonous strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) play a dominant role. A thorough literature search has unfolded 197 reports worldwide, published in the last two decades, that [...] Read more.
Spontaneous fermentation constitutes the basis of the chief natural method of processing of table olives, where autochthonous strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) play a dominant role. A thorough literature search has unfolded 197 reports worldwide, published in the last two decades, that indicate an increasing interest in table olive-borne LAB, especially in Mediterranean countries. This review attempted to extract extra information from such a large body of work, namely, in terms of correlations between LAB strains isolated, manufacture processes, olive types, and geographical regions. Spain produces mostly green olives by Spanish-style treatment, whereas Italy and Greece produce mainly green and black olives, respectively, by both natural and Spanish-style. More than 40 species belonging to nine genera of LAB have been described; the genus most often cited is Lactobacillus, with L. plantarum and L. pentosus as most frequent species—irrespective of country, processing method, or olive type. Certain LAB species are typically associated with cultivar, e.g., Lactobacillus parafarraginis with Spanish Manzanilla, or L. paraplantarum with Greek Kalamata and Conservolea, Portuguese Galega, and Italian Tonda di Cagliari. Despite the potential of native LAB to serve as starter cultures, extensive research and development efforts are still needed before this becomes a commercial reality in table olive fermentation. Full article
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