Special Issue "Application of Novel Thermal Technology in Foods Processing"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Engineering and Technology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 December 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Indrawati Oey
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Food Science, Division of Sciences, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
Interests: non-thermal food-processing technologies; food enzymes; kinetic modeling and process impact assessment; bioavailability and bioactivity of secondary metabolites; consumer perception; technology transfer and dissemination to industrial food applications
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Sze Ying Leong
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Department of Food Science, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
2. Riddet Institute, Palmerston North, New Zealand
Interests: functional foods; bioactive; digestibility; plant proteins
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Advanced and novel thermal technologies, such as ohmic heating, dielectric heating (e.g., microwave heating and radio frequency heating), and inductive heating, have been developed to improve the effectiveness of heat processing whilst guaranteeing food safety and eliminating undesirable impacts on the organoleptic and nutritional properties of foods. Novel thermal technologies rely on heat generation directly inside foods, which has implications for improving the overall energy efficiency of the heating process itself. The use of novel thermal technologies is dependent on the complexity and inherent properties of the food materials of interest (e.g., thermal conductivity, electrical resistance, water content, pH, rheological properties, food porosity, and presence of particulates).

This Special Issue will present an overview of the latest applications of novel thermal technology in food processing. We invite authors to submit cutting edge original research papers or comprehensive review papers discussing novel thermal processing technologies from the perspectives of food safety, sustainability, process engineering, (bio)chemical changes, health, nutrition, sensory issues, and consumers. We also welcome papers that address the combination of thermal processing with emerging technologies such as pulsed electric fields and high hydrostatic pressure to complement the conventional thermal processing of fluid and solid foods.

Prof. Dr. Indrawati Oey
Dr. Sze Ying Leong
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • novel thermal processing
  • emerging processing
  • ohmic heating
  • microwave heating
  • radio frequency heating
  • infrared heating
  • advanced drying
  • heating uniformity improvement
  • mathematical modelling
  • food constituents
  • health benefits
  • food quality
  • food safety
  • sustainability
  • consumer

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Article
Kinetics of Colour Development during Frying of Potato Pre-Treated with Pulsed Electric Fields and Blanching: Effect of Cultivar
Foods 2021, 10(10), 2307; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102307 - 28 Sep 2021
Viewed by 320
Abstract
The current research aimed to investigate the effect of pulsed electric fields (1 kV/cm; 50 and 150 kJ/kg) followed by blanching (3 min., 100 °C) on the colour development of potato slices during frying on a kinetic basis. Four potato cultivars ‘Crop77’, ‘Moonlight’, [...] Read more.
The current research aimed to investigate the effect of pulsed electric fields (1 kV/cm; 50 and 150 kJ/kg) followed by blanching (3 min., 100 °C) on the colour development of potato slices during frying on a kinetic basis. Four potato cultivars ‘Crop77’, ‘Moonlight’, ‘Nadine’, and ‘Russet Burbank’ with different content of glucose and amino acids were used. Lightness (L* values from colorimeter measurement) was used as a parameter to assess the colour development during frying. The implementation of PEF and blanching as sequential pre-treatment prior to frying for all potato cultivars was found effective in improving their lightness in the fried products. PEF pre-treatment did not change the kinetics of L* reduction during frying (between 150 and 190 °C) which followed first-order reaction kinetics. The estimated reaction rate constant (k) and activation energy (Ea based on Arrhenius equation) for non-PEF and PEF-treated samples were cultivar dependent. The estimated Ea values during the frying of PEF-treated ‘Russet Burbank’ and ‘Crop77’ were significantly (p < 0.05) lower (up to 30%) than their non-PEF counterparts, indicating that the change in k value of L* became less temperature dependence during frying. This kinetic study is valuable to aid the optimisation of frying condition in deep-fried potato industries when PEF technology is implemented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Novel Thermal Technology in Foods Processing)
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Article
Heat and Mass Transfer Modeling to Predict Temperature Distribution during Potato Frying after Pre-Treatment with Pulsed Electric Field
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1679; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081679 - 21 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 506
Abstract
Based on unsteady state heat conduction, a mathematical model has been developed to describe the simultaneous heat and moisture transfer during potato frying. For the first time, the equation was solved using both enthalpy and Variable Space Network (VSN) methods, based on a [...] Read more.
Based on unsteady state heat conduction, a mathematical model has been developed to describe the simultaneous heat and moisture transfer during potato frying. For the first time, the equation was solved using both enthalpy and Variable Space Network (VSN) methods, based on a moving interface defined by the boiling temperature of water in a potato disc during frying. Two separate regions of the potato disc namely fried (crust) and unfried (core), were considered as heat transfer domains. A variable boiling temperature of the water in potato discs was required as an input parameter for the model as the water is evaporated during frying, resulting in an increase in the soluble solid concentration of the potato sample. Pulsed electric field (PEF) pretreatment prior to frying had no significant effect on the measured moisture content, thermal conductivity or frying time compared to potatoes that did not receive a PEF pretreatment. However, a PEF pretreatment at 1.1 kV/cm and 56 kJ/kg reduced the temperature variation in the experimentally measured potato center by up to 30%. The proposed heat and moisture transfer model based on unsteady state heat conduction successfully predicted the experimental measurements, especially when the equation was solved using the enthalpy method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Novel Thermal Technology in Foods Processing)
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Article
Optimization and Prediction of the Drying and Quality of Turnip Slices by Convective-Infrared Dryer under Various Pretreatments by RSM and ANFIS Methods
Foods 2021, 10(2), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020284 - 31 Jan 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 703
Abstract
Drying can prolong the shelf life of a product by reducing microbial activities while facilitating its transportation and storage by decreasing the product weight and volume. The quality factors of the drying process are among the important issues in the drying of food [...] Read more.
Drying can prolong the shelf life of a product by reducing microbial activities while facilitating its transportation and storage by decreasing the product weight and volume. The quality factors of the drying process are among the important issues in the drying of food and agricultural products. In this study, the effects of several independent variables such as the temperature of the drying air (50, 60, and 70 °C) and the thickness of the samples (2, 4, and 6 mm) were studied on the response variables including the quality indices (color difference and shrinkage) and drying factors (drying time, effective moisture diffusivity coefficient, specific energy consumption (SEC), energy efficiency and dryer efficiency) of the turnip slices dried by a hybrid convective-infrared (HCIR) dryer. Before drying, the samples were treated by three pretreatments: microwave (360 W for 2.5 min), ultrasonic (at 30 °C for 10 min) and blanching (at 90 °C for 2 min). The statistical analyses of the data and optimization of the drying process were achieved by the response surface method (RSM) and the response variables were predicted by the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) model. The results indicated that an increase in the dryer temperature and a decline in the thickness of the sample can enhance the evaporation rate of the samples which will decrease the drying time (40–20 min), SEC (from 168.98 to 21.57 MJ/kg), color difference (from 50.59 to 15.38) and shrinkage (from 67.84% to 24.28%) while increasing the effective moisture diffusivity coefficient (from 1.007 × 10−9 to 8.11 × 10−9 m2/s), energy efficiency (from 0.89% to 15.23%) and dryer efficiency (from 2.11% to 21.2%). Compared to ultrasonic and blanching, microwave pretreatment increased the energy and drying efficiency; while the variations in the color and shrinkage were the lowest in the ultrasonic pretreatment. The optimal condition involved the temperature of 70 °C and sample thickness of 2 mm with the desirability above 0.89. The ANFIS model also managed to predict the response variables with R2 > 0.96. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Novel Thermal Technology in Foods Processing)
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Article
Application of Ohmic–Vacuum Combination Heating for the Processing of Senior-Friendly Food (Multiphase Food): Experimental Studies and Numerical Simulation
Foods 2021, 10(1), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10010138 - 11 Jan 2021
Viewed by 702
Abstract
The popularity of senior-friendly food has been increasing as the world enters the age of an aging society. It is required that senior-friendly food products are processed with the new concept of processing techniques that do not destroy the nutritional and sensory values. [...] Read more.
The popularity of senior-friendly food has been increasing as the world enters the age of an aging society. It is required that senior-friendly food products are processed with the new concept of processing techniques that do not destroy the nutritional and sensory values. Ohmic heating can be an alternative to conventional heating methods for processing senior-friendly food with retaining excellent taste and quality because of less destruction of nutrients in the food. In this study, the ohmic–vacuum combination heating system was developed to process a multiphase type of senior-friendly food. Changes in physical and electrical properties of senior-friendly model foods were investigated depending on the experimental conditions such as vacuum pressure intensity and vacuum pretreatment time. Numerical simulations based on the experimental conditions were performed using COMSOL multiphysics. The ohmic–vacuum combination heating method with agitation reduced the heating time of the model food, and non-uniform temperature distribution in model food was successfully resolved due to the effect of vacuum and agitation. Furthermore, the difference was found in the hardness of solid particles depending on the vacuum treatment time and intensity after the heating treatment. The ohmic–vacuum combination heating system appeared effective when applying for the senior-friendly foods in multiphase form. The simulation results matched reasonably well with the experimental data, and the data predicted through simulation could save the cost and time of experimentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Novel Thermal Technology in Foods Processing)
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Article
Development of Bacterial Spore Pouches as a Tool to Evaluate the Sterilization Efficiency—A Case Study with Microwave Sterilization Using Clostridium sporogenes and Geobacillus stearothermophilus
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1342; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101342 - 23 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 855
Abstract
In this study, novel spore pouches were developed using mashed potato as a food model inoculated with either Geobacillus stearothermophilus or Clostridium sporogenes spores. These spore pouches were used to evaluate the sterilization efficiency of Coaxially induced microwave pasteurization and sterilization (CiMPAS) as [...] Read more.
In this study, novel spore pouches were developed using mashed potato as a food model inoculated with either Geobacillus stearothermophilus or Clostridium sporogenes spores. These spore pouches were used to evaluate the sterilization efficiency of Coaxially induced microwave pasteurization and sterilization (CiMPAS) as a case study. CiMPAS technology combines microwave energy (915 MHz) along with hot water immersion to sterilize food in polymeric packages. The spore pouches were placed at pre-determined specific locations, especially cold spots in each food tray before being processed using two regimes (R-121 and R-65), which consisted of 121 °C and 65 °C at 12 and 22 kW, respectively, followed by recovery and enumeration of the surviving spores. To identify cold spots or the location for inoculation, mashed potato was spiked with Maillard precursors and processed through CiMPAS, followed by measurement of lightness values (*L-values). Inactivation equivalent to of 1–2 Log CFU/g and >6 Log CFU/g for Geobacillus stearothermophilus and Clostridium sporogenes spores, respectively was obtained on the cold spots using R-121, which comprised of a total processing time of 64.2 min. Whereas, inactivation of <1 and 2–3 Log CFU/g for G. stearothermophilus and C. sporogenes spores, respectively on the cold spots was obtained using R-65 (total processing time of 68.3 min), whereas inactivation of 1–3 Log CFU/g of C. sporogenes spores was obtained on the sides of the tray. The results were reproducible across three processing replicates for each regime and inactivation at the specific locations were clearly distinguishable. The study indicated a strong potential to use spore pouches as a tool for validation studies of microwave-induced sterilization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Novel Thermal Technology in Foods Processing)
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Article
Identification of Cold Spots Using Non-Destructive Hyperspectral Imaging Technology in Model Food Processed by Coaxially Induced Microwave Pasteurization and Sterilization
Foods 2020, 9(6), 837; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060837 - 26 Jun 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1298
Abstract
The model food in this study known as mashed potato consisted of ribose (1.0%) and lysine (0.5%) to induce browning via Maillard reaction products. Mashed potato was processed by Coaxially Induced Microwave Pasteurization and Sterilization (CiMPAS) regime to generate an F0 of 6–8 [...] Read more.
The model food in this study known as mashed potato consisted of ribose (1.0%) and lysine (0.5%) to induce browning via Maillard reaction products. Mashed potato was processed by Coaxially Induced Microwave Pasteurization and Sterilization (CiMPAS) regime to generate an F0 of 6–8 min and analysis of the post-processed food was done in two ways, which included by measuring the color changes and using hyperspectral data acquisition. For visualizing the spectra of each tray in comparison with the control sample (raw mashed-potato), the mean spectrum (i.e., mean of region of interest) of each tray, as well as the control sample, was extracted and then fed to the fitted principal component analysis model and the results coincided with those post hoc analysis of the average reflectance values. Despite the presence of a visual difference in browning, the Lightness (L) values were not significantly (p < 0.05) different to detect a cold spot among a range of 12 processed samples. At the same time, hyperspectral imaging could identify the colder trays among the 12 samples from one batch of microwave sterilization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Novel Thermal Technology in Foods Processing)
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Article
Evolution of Polyphenolic Compounds and Sensory Properties of Wines Obtained from Grenache Grapes Treated by Pulsed Electric Fields during Aging in Bottles and in Oak Barrels
Foods 2020, 9(5), 542; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050542 - 30 Apr 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 968
Abstract
The evolution of polyphenolic compounds and sensory properties of wines obtained from Grenache grapes, either untreated or treated with pulsed electric fields (PEF), in the course of bottle aging, as well as during oak aging followed by bottle aging, were compared. Immediately prior [...] Read more.
The evolution of polyphenolic compounds and sensory properties of wines obtained from Grenache grapes, either untreated or treated with pulsed electric fields (PEF), in the course of bottle aging, as well as during oak aging followed by bottle aging, were compared. Immediately prior to aging in bottles or in barrels, enological parameters that depend on phenolic extraction during skin maceration were higher when grapes had been treated with PEF. In terms of color intensity, phenolic families, and individual phenols, the wine obtained with grapes treated by PEF followed an evolution similar to untreated control wine in the course of aging. Sensory analysis revealed that the application of a PEF treatment resulted in wines that are sensorially different: panelists preferred wines obtained from grapes treated with PEF. Physicochemical and sensory analyses showed that grapes treated with PEF are suitable for obtaining wines that require aging in bottles or in oak barrels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Novel Thermal Technology in Foods Processing)
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Article
Effects of Moisture, Temperature, and Salt Content on the Dielectric Properties of Pecan Kernels during Microwave and Radio Frequency Drying Processes
Foods 2019, 8(9), 385; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090385 - 02 Sep 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1124
Abstract
Dielectric properties of materials influence the interaction of electromagnetic fields with and are therefore important in designing effective dielectric heating processes. We investigated the dielectric properties (DPs) of pecan kernels between 10 and 3000 MHz using a Novocontrol broadband dielectric spectrometer in a [...] Read more.
Dielectric properties of materials influence the interaction of electromagnetic fields with and are therefore important in designing effective dielectric heating processes. We investigated the dielectric properties (DPs) of pecan kernels between 10 and 3000 MHz using a Novocontrol broadband dielectric spectrometer in a temperature range of 5–65 °C and a moisture content range of 10–30% wet basis (wb) at three salt levels. The dielectric constant (ε′) and loss factor (ε″) of the pecan kernels decreased significantly with increasing frequency in the radio frequency (RF) band, but gradually in the measured microwave (MW) band. The moisture content and temperature increase greatly contributed to the increase in the ε′ and ε″ of samples, and ε″ increased sharply with increasing salt strength. Quadratic polynomial models were established to simulate DPs as functions of temperature and moisture content at four frequencies (27, 40, 915, and 2450 MHz), with R2 > 0.94. The average penetration depth of pecan kernels in the RF band was greater than that in the MW band (238.17 ± 21.78 cm vs. 15.23 ± 7.36 cm; p < 0.01). Based on the measured DP data, the simulated and experimental temperature-time histories of pecan kernels at five moisture contents were compared within the 5 min RF heating period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Novel Thermal Technology in Foods Processing)
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Review

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Review
Understanding the Frying Process of Plant-Based Foods Pretreated with Pulsed Electric Fields Using Frying Models
Foods 2020, 9(7), 949; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070949 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1749
Abstract
Deep-fried foods (e.g., French fries, potato/veggie crisps) are popular among consumers. Recently, there has been an increased interest in the application of Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) technology as a pretreatment of plant-based foods prior to deep-frying to improve quality (e.g., lower browning tendency [...] Read more.
Deep-fried foods (e.g., French fries, potato/veggie crisps) are popular among consumers. Recently, there has been an increased interest in the application of Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) technology as a pretreatment of plant-based foods prior to deep-frying to improve quality (e.g., lower browning tendency and oil uptake) and reduce production costs (e.g., better water and energy efficiencies). However, the influence of a PEF pretreatment on the frying process and related chemical reactions for food materials is still not fully understood. PEF treatment of plant tissue causes structural modifications, which are likely to influence heat, mass and momentum transfers, as well as altering the rate of chemical reactions, during the frying process. Detailed insights into the frying process in terms of heat, mass (water and oil) and momentum transfers are outlined, in conjunction with the development of Maillard reaction and starch gelatinisation during frying. These changes occur during frying and consequently will impact on oil uptake, moisture content, colour, texture and the amount of contaminants in the fried foods, as well as the fried oil, and hence, the effects of PEF pretreatment on these quality properties of a variety of fried plant-based foods are summarised. Different mathematical models to potentially describe the influence of PEF on the frying process of plant-based foods and to predict the quality parameters of fried foods produced from PEF-treated plant materials are addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Novel Thermal Technology in Foods Processing)
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