Special Issue "Advanced Research in Foodborne Microorganisms: Detection, Control, Risk Assessment and Prevention"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Michel Federighi
E-Mail
Guest Editor
1. Oniris, Route Cachet, CS 40706, F-44307 Nantes, France
2. INRAe, UMR1014 SECALIM, F-44307 Nantes, France
Interests: food microbiology; food hygiene; public health; physical treatments of food; HACCP; risk assessment
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Micro-organisms and food have been linked since the beginning of human nutrition. Depending on their nature, they constitute:

- A threat to the health of consumers

- A cause of food spoilage

- A necessary and indispensable element in the production of food.

Whatever their nature, their relationships with the food that carries them are studied in terms of microbial ecology in order to better understand them. Their identity is increasingly well established, their function increasingly deciphered, as well as their ability to withstand the conditions of food production and even to communicate with each other. This better knowledge of their properties must continue and be used to, as appropriate, prevent their transfer to the food, detect and control them, but also assess them in terms of public health risks.

Prof. Michel Federighi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Foods
  • Microorganisms
  • Preservation
  • Risk
  • Methods
  • Contamination
  • Microbial ecology
  • Hazard Analysis
  • Spoilage

Published Papers (18 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Article
Enrichment Free qPCR for Rapid Identification and Quantification of Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, C. lari, and C. upsaliensis in Chicken Meat Samples by a New Couple of Primers
Foods 2021, 10(10), 2341; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102341 - 30 Sep 2021
Viewed by 449
Abstract
Campylobacter is the main cause of bacterial foodborne disease and poultry meat is the principal source of human infections. Rapid methods for Campylobacter detection are urgently needed to decrease high bacterial prevalence in poultry products. In this study, we developed new primers, CampyPFw [...] Read more.
Campylobacter is the main cause of bacterial foodborne disease and poultry meat is the principal source of human infections. Rapid methods for Campylobacter detection are urgently needed to decrease high bacterial prevalence in poultry products. In this study, we developed new primers, CampyPFw and CampyPRv, that target the 16S-23S rRNA genes of Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, C. lari and C. upsaliensis. The primers were tested on positive and negative reference strains in pure cultures and in inoculated poultry meat samples before their application in real-time PCR (qPCR) protocol for analyzing chicken meat samples. In parallel, the samples were tested by using the ISO 10272-1:2006 method. The qPCR protocol based on CampyPFw and CampyPRv showed good sensitivity, with the limit of detection of 4.6 × 102 cells/mL in chicken samples without enrichment steps. Full article
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Article
Management of Listeria monocytogenes on Surfaces via Relative Air Humidity: Key Role of Cell Envelope
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2002; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092002 - 26 Aug 2021
Viewed by 539
Abstract
Although relative air humidity (RH) strongly influences microbial survival, its use for fighting surface pathogens in the food industry has been inadequately considered. We asked whether RH control could destroy Listeria monocytogenes EGDe by envelope damage. The impact of dehydration in phosphate-buffered saline [...] Read more.
Although relative air humidity (RH) strongly influences microbial survival, its use for fighting surface pathogens in the food industry has been inadequately considered. We asked whether RH control could destroy Listeria monocytogenes EGDe by envelope damage. The impact of dehydration in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 75%, 68%, 43% and 11% RH on the bacterial envelope was investigated using flow cytometry and atomic force microscopy. Changes after rehydration in the protein secondary structure and peptidoglycan were investigated by infrared spectroscopy. Complementary cultivability measurements were performed by running dehydration–rehydration with combinations of NaCl (3–0.01%), distilled water, city water and PBS. The main results show that cell membrane permeability and cell envelope were greatly altered during dehydration in PBS at 68% RH followed by rapid rehydration. This damage led cells to recover only 67% of their initial volume after rehydration. Moreover, the most efficient way to destroy cells was dehydration and rehydration in city water. Our study indicates that rehydration of dried, sullied foods on surfaces may improve current cleaning procedures in the food industry. Full article
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Article
A New Insight into the Bactericidal Mechanism of 405 nm Blue Light-Emitting-Diode against Dairy Sourced Cronobacter sakazakii
Foods 2021, 10(9), 1996; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10091996 - 25 Aug 2021
Viewed by 516
Abstract
(1) Background: Limited evidence exists addressing the action of antimicrobial visible light against Cronobacter sakazakii. Here, we investigated the antimicrobial effects of blue-LED (light emitting diode) at 405 nm against two persistent dairy environment sourced strains of C. sakazakii (ES191 and AGRFS2961). [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Limited evidence exists addressing the action of antimicrobial visible light against Cronobacter sakazakii. Here, we investigated the antimicrobial effects of blue-LED (light emitting diode) at 405 nm against two persistent dairy environment sourced strains of C. sakazakii (ES191 and AGRFS2961). (2) Methods: Beside of investigating cell survival by counts, the phenotypic characteristics of the strains were compared with a reference strain (BAA894) by evaluating the metabolic rate, cell membrane permeability, and ROS level. (3) Results: The two environment isolates (ES191 and AGRFS2961) were more metabolic active and ES191 showed dramatic permeability change of the outer membrane. Notably, we detected varied impacts of different ROS scavengers (catalase > thiourea > superoxide dismutase) during light application, suggesting that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), the reducing target of catalase, has a key role during blue light inactivation. This finding was further strengthened, following the observation that the combined effect of external H2O2 (sublethal concentration) and 405 nm LED, achieved an additional 2–4 log CFU reduction for both stationary phase and biofilm cells. (4) Conclusions: H2O2 could be used in combination with blue light to enhance bactericidal efficacy and form the basis of a new hurdle technology for controlling C. sakazakii in dairy processing plants. Full article
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Article
One-Day Molecular Detection of Salmonella and Campylobacter in Chicken Meat: A Pilot Study
Foods 2021, 10(5), 1132; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10051132 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 828
Abstract
Salmonella and Campylobacter ssp. are bacterial pathogens responsible for most foodborne infections in EU countries. Poultry serves as a reservoir for these pathogens, and its important role in the meat industry makes it essential to develop a rapid detection assay able to provide [...] Read more.
Salmonella and Campylobacter ssp. are bacterial pathogens responsible for most foodborne infections in EU countries. Poultry serves as a reservoir for these pathogens, and its important role in the meat industry makes it essential to develop a rapid detection assay able to provide results in one day. Indeed, the rapid identification of foodborne pathogens is an important instrument for the monitoring and prevention of epidemic outbreaks. To date, Salmonella and Campylobacter screening is mainly conducted through molecular methods (PCR or real-time PCR) performed after 18–24 h long enrichments. In this study, we evaluated short enrichments (0, 2, 4, and 6 h) combined with a colorimetric loop-mediated isothermal AMPlification (LAMP) or real-time PCR to detect Salmonella and Campylobacter in poultry meat contaminated at different concentration levels (101, 103, and 105 CFU/g). Our results show that real-time PCR allows the detection of Salmonella and Campylobacter, even after shorter enrichment times than prescribed by ISO references; particularly, it detected Salmonella down to 101 CFU/g since T0 and Campylobacter from 103 CFU/g since T0. Detection with LAMP was comparable to real-time PCR without the requirement of a thermal cycler and with shorter execution times. These characteristics make colorimetric LAMP a valid alternative when one-day results are needed, improving the timely identification of positive meat batches, even in the absence of specialized instrumentation. Full article
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Article
Biofilm-Forming Ability of Microbacterium lacticum and Staphylococcus capitis Considering Physicochemical and Topographical Surface Properties
Foods 2021, 10(3), 611; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030611 - 13 Mar 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 733
Abstract
Biofilm characteristics of Microbacterium lacticum D84 (M. lacticum) and Staphylococcus capitis subsp. capitis (S. capitis) on polytetrafluoroethylene and AISI-304 stainless steel at early- (24, 48 h) and late-stage (144, 192 h) biofilm formation were investigated. M. lacticum biofilm structure [...] Read more.
Biofilm characteristics of Microbacterium lacticum D84 (M. lacticum) and Staphylococcus capitis subsp. capitis (S. capitis) on polytetrafluoroethylene and AISI-304 stainless steel at early- (24, 48 h) and late-stage (144, 192 h) biofilm formation were investigated. M. lacticum biofilm structure was more developed compared to S. capitis, representing vastly mature biofilms with a strongly developed amorphous matrix, possibly extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs), at late-stage biofilm formation. S. capitis showed faster growth behavior but still resulted in a relatively flat biofilm structure. Strong correlations were found between several roughness parameters and S. capitis surface coverage (r ≥ 0.98), and between total surface free energy (γs) and S. capitis surface coverage (r = 0.89), while M. lacticum remained mostly unaffected. The pronounced ubiquitous biofilm characteristics make M. lacticum D84 a suitable model for biofilm research. Studying biofilm formation of these bacteria may help one understand bacterial adhesion on interfaces and hence reduce biofilm formation in the food industry. Full article
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Article
Effect of Chlorine Dioxide Treatment on Human Pathogens on Iceberg Lettuce
Foods 2021, 10(3), 574; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030574 - 10 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 721
Abstract
In the vegetable processing industry, the application of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) as a disinfectant solved in washing water to eliminate undesirable microorganisms harmful to consumers’ health and the shelf life of produce has been discussed for years. The disinfection efficacy depends [...] Read more.
In the vegetable processing industry, the application of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) as a disinfectant solved in washing water to eliminate undesirable microorganisms harmful to consumers’ health and the shelf life of produce has been discussed for years. The disinfection efficacy depends on various factors, e.g., the location of microorganisms and the organic load of the washing water. The present study analyzed the sanitation efficacy of various concentrations of water-solved ClO2 (cClO2: 20 and 30 mg L−1) on Escherichia coli (1.1 × 104 cfu mL−1), Salmonella enterica (2.0 × 104 cfu mL−1) and Listeria monocytogenes (1.7 × 105 cfu mL−1) loads, located on the leaf surface of iceberg lettuce assigned for fresh-cut salads. In addition, it examined the potential of ClO2 to prevent the cross-contamination of these microbes in lettuce washing water containing a chemical oxygen demand (COD) content of 350 mg L−1 after practice-relevant washing times of 1 and 2 min. On iceberg leaves, washing with 30 mg L−1 ClO2 pronouncedly (1 log) reduced loads of E. coli and S. enterica, while it only insignificantly (<0.5 × log) diminished the loads of L. monocytogenes, irrespective of the ClO2 concentration used. Although the sanitation efficacy of ClO2 washing was only limited, the addition of ClO2 to the washing water avoided cross-contamination even at high organic loads. Thus, the application of ClO2 to the lettuce washing water can improve product quality and consumer safety. Full article
Article
Growth Inhibitory and Selective Pressure Effects of Sodium Diacetate on the Spoilage Microbiota of Frankfurters Stored at 4 °C and 12 °C in Vacuum
Foods 2021, 10(1), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10010074 - 01 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 806
Abstract
This study evaluated microbial growth in commercial frankfurters formulated with 1.8% sodium lactate (SL) singly or combined with 0.25% sodium diacetate (SDA), vacuum-packaged (VP) and stored at 4 °C and 12 °C. Standard frankfurters without SDA, containing 0.15% SL, served as controls (CN). [...] Read more.
This study evaluated microbial growth in commercial frankfurters formulated with 1.8% sodium lactate (SL) singly or combined with 0.25% sodium diacetate (SDA), vacuum-packaged (VP) and stored at 4 °C and 12 °C. Standard frankfurters without SDA, containing 0.15% SL, served as controls (CN). Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were the exclusive spoilers in all treatments at both storage temperatures. However, compared to the CN and SL treatments, SL + SDA delayed growth of LAB by an average of 5.1 and 3.1 log units, and 3.0 and 2.0 log units, respectively, after 30 and 60 days at 4 °C. On day 90, the SL + SDA frankfurters were unspoiled whereas the SL and CN frankfurters had spoiled on day 60 and day 30 to 60, respectively. At 12 °C, LAB growth was similar in all treatments after day 15, but strong defects developed in the CN and SL frankfurters only. Differential spoilage patterns were associated with a major reversal of the LAB biota from gas- and slime-producing Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Leuconostoc carnosum in the CN and SL frankfurters to Lactobacillus sakei/curvatus in the SL + SDA frankfurters. Thus, SL + SDA extends the retail shelf life of VP frankfurters by delaying total LAB growth and selecting for lactobacilli with a milder cured meat spoilage potential than leuconostocs, particularly under refrigeration. Full article
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Article
Exposure to Bacillus cereus in Water Buffalo Mozzarella Cheese
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1899; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121899 - 19 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 850
Abstract
Bacillus cereus is a spoilage bacterium and is recognized as an agent of food poisoning. Two food-borne illnesses are caused by B. cereus: a diarrheal disease, associated with cytotoxin K, hemolysin BL, non-hemolytic enterotoxin and enterotoxin FM, and an emetic syndrome, associated [...] Read more.
Bacillus cereus is a spoilage bacterium and is recognized as an agent of food poisoning. Two food-borne illnesses are caused by B. cereus: a diarrheal disease, associated with cytotoxin K, hemolysin BL, non-hemolytic enterotoxin and enterotoxin FM, and an emetic syndrome, associated with the cereulide toxin. Owing to the heat resistance of B. cereus and its ability to grow in milk, this organism should be considered potentially hazardous in dairy products. The present study assessed the risk of B. cereus poisoning due to the consumption of water buffalo mozzarella cheese. A total of 340 samples were analyzed to determine B. cereus counts (ISO 7932:2005); isolates underwent molecular characterization to detect the presence of genes encoding toxins. Eighty-nine (26.1%) samples harbored B. cereus strains, with values ranging from 2.2 × 102 to 2.6 × 106 CFU/g. Isolates showed eight different molecular profiles, and some displayed virulence characteristics. Bacterial counts and the toxin profiles of isolates were evaluated both separately and jointly to assess the risk of enteritis due to B. cereus following the consumption of buffalo mozzarella cheese. In conclusion, the results of the present study showed that the risk of poisoning by B. cereus following the consumption of this cheese was moderate. Full article
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Article
Prevalence of ESBL, AmpC and Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacterales Isolated from Raw Vegetables Retailed in Romania
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1726; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121726 - 24 Nov 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 838
Abstract
(1) Background: As β-lactamase-producing Enterobacterales are no longer exclusively associated with the health care system, investigating the potential risk they pose to the integrity of the environment and food safety has become of utmost importance. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of [...] Read more.
(1) Background: As β-lactamase-producing Enterobacterales are no longer exclusively associated with the health care system, investigating the potential risk they pose to the integrity of the environment and food safety has become of utmost importance. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), AmpC, and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales isolates from retailed raw vegetables and to determine if household washing is an effective method of lowering bacterial load; (2) Methods: Seasonal vegetables (n = 165) were acquired from supermarkets (n = 2) and farmer markets (n = 2) in Romania. Following sample processing and isolation, identification of Enterobacterales was performed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) multiplex was used to ascertain the presence of the main ESBL, AmpC, and Carbapenemase genes. Phenotypic antibiotic resistance profiles of isolates were determined by extended antibiograms. Enterobacteriaceae colony-forming units (CFU) counts were compared between vegetable types; (3) Results: Beta-lactamase producing bacteria were observed on 7.9% of vegetables, with 5.5% displaying ESBL/AmpC phenotype and 2.4% identified as Carbapenemase producers. The most frequently detected β-lactamase genes were blaSHV (n = 4), followed by blaCTX-M and blaTEM (each with n = 3). Phenotypic antibiotic resistance analysis showed that 46% of isolates were multiple drug resistant, with aminoglycosides (38.5%) the most prevalent non-β-lactam resistance, followed by first-generation quinolones (38.5%). (4) Conclusions: The present study has described for the first time the presence of β-lactamase producing Enterobacterales in fresh produce retailed in Romania. Full article
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Article
Contribution of Foods and Poor Food-Handling Practices to the Burden of Foodborne Infectious Diseases in France
Foods 2020, 9(11), 1644; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111644 - 11 Nov 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1156
Abstract
The foodborne disease burden (FBDB) related to 26 major biological hazards in France was attributed to foods and poor food-handling practices at the final food preparation step, in order to develop effective intervention strategies, especially food safety campaigns. Campylobacter spp. and non-typhoidal Salmonella [...] Read more.
The foodborne disease burden (FBDB) related to 26 major biological hazards in France was attributed to foods and poor food-handling practices at the final food preparation step, in order to develop effective intervention strategies, especially food safety campaigns. Campylobacter spp. and non-typhoidal Salmonella accounted for more than 60% of the FBDB. Approximately 30% of the FBDB were attributed to 11 other hazards including bacteria, viruses and parasites. Meats were estimated as the main contributing food category causing (50–69%) (CI90) of the FBDB with (33–44%), (9–21%), (4–20%) (CI90) of the FBDB for poultry, pork and beef, respectively. Dairy products, eggs, raw produce and complex foods caused each approximately (5–20%) (CI90) of the FBDB. When foods are contaminated before the final preparation step, we estimated that inadequate cooking, cross-contamination and inadequate storage contribute for (19–49%), (7–34%) and (9–23%) (CI90) of the FBDB, respectively; (15–33%) (CI90) of the FBDB were attributed to the initial contamination of ready-to-eat foods—without any contribution from final food handlers. The thorough implementation of good hygienic practices (GHPs) at the final food preparation step could potentially reduce the FBDB by (67–85%) (CI90) (mainly with the prevention of cross-contamination and adequate cooking and storage). Full article
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Article
Enteropathogenic Potential of Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates from Soil, Animals, Food and Biopesticides
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1484; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101484 - 17 Oct 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1238
Abstract
Despite its benefits as biological insecticide, Bacillus thuringiensis bears enterotoxins, which can be responsible for a diarrhoeal type of food poisoning. Thus, all 24 isolates from foodstuffs, animals, soil and commercially used biopesticides tested in this study showed the genetic prerequisites necessary to [...] Read more.
Despite its benefits as biological insecticide, Bacillus thuringiensis bears enterotoxins, which can be responsible for a diarrhoeal type of food poisoning. Thus, all 24 isolates from foodstuffs, animals, soil and commercially used biopesticides tested in this study showed the genetic prerequisites necessary to provoke the disease. Moreover, though highly strain-specific, various isolates were able to germinate and also to actively move, which are further requirements for the onset of the disease. Most importantly, all isolates could grow under simulated intestinal conditions and produce significant amounts of enterotoxins. Cytotoxicity assays classified 14 isolates as highly, eight as medium and only two as low toxic. Additionally, growth inhibition by essential oils (EOs) was investigated as preventive measure against putatively enteropathogenic B. thuringiensis. Cinnamon Chinese cassia showed the highest antimicrobial activity, followed by citral, oregano and winter savory. In all tests, high strain-specific variations appeared and must be taken into account when evaluating the hazardous potential of B. thuringiensis and using EOs as antimicrobials. Altogether, the present study shows a non-negligible pathogenic potential of B. thuringiensis, independently from the origin of isolation. Generally, biopesticide strains were indistinguishable from other isolates. Thus, the use of these pesticides might indeed increase the risk for consumers’ health. Until complete information about the safety of the applied strains and formulations is available, consumers or manufacturers might benefit from the antimicrobial activity of EOs to reduce the level of contamination. Full article
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Article
Behaviour of Non-O157 STEC and Atypical EPEC during the Manufacturing and Ripening of Raw Milk Cheese
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1215; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091215 - 01 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1095
Abstract
This study was carried out to assess the survival of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) and atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC) during the traditional manufacturing and ripening of Spanish hard cheese from raw cow’s milk. Milk samples were spiked with up to 3.1–3.5 [...] Read more.
This study was carried out to assess the survival of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) and atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC) during the traditional manufacturing and ripening of Spanish hard cheese from raw cow’s milk. Milk samples were spiked with up to 3.1–3.5 log cfu/mL of one strain of STEC (O140:H32 serotype) and one of aEPEC (serotype O25:H2). The first steps of cheesemaking allow for a STEC and aEPEC increase of more than 1 log cfu/mL (up to 4.74 log cfu/g and 4.55 log cfu/g, respectively). After cheese pressing, a steady reduction of both populations was observed, with the STEC strain being more sensitive. The studied pathogenic E. coli populations decreased by 1.32 log cfu/g in STEC and 0.59 log cfu/g in aEPEC in cheese ripened during a minimum period of 60 d. Therefore, a moderate contamination by these diarrhoeagenic E. coli pathotypes, in particular, with aEPEC, on cheese manufactured from raw milk may not be totally controlled through the cheesemaking process and during a maturation of 90 d. These findings remark the importance of improvement in bacteriological quality of raw milk and cross-contamination prevention with diarrhoeagenic E. coli in the dairy industry. Full article
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Article
Modelling of the Behaviour of Salmonella enterica serovar Reading on Commercial Fresh-Cut Iceberg Lettuce Stored at Different Temperatures
Foods 2020, 9(7), 946; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070946 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1074
Abstract
The aim of this study was to model the growth and survival behaviour of Salmonella Reading and endogenous lactic acid bacteria on fresh pre-cut iceberg lettuce stored under modified atmosphere packaging for 10 days at different temperatures (4, 8 and 15 °C). The [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to model the growth and survival behaviour of Salmonella Reading and endogenous lactic acid bacteria on fresh pre-cut iceberg lettuce stored under modified atmosphere packaging for 10 days at different temperatures (4, 8 and 15 °C). The Baranyi and Weibull models were satisfactorily fitted to describe microbial growth and survival behaviour, respectively. Results indicated that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) could grow at all storage temperatures, while S. Reading grew only at 15 °C. Specific growth rate values (μmax) for LAB ranged between 0.080 and 0.168 h−1 corresponding to the temperatures 4 and 15 °C while for S. Reading at 15 °C, μmax = 0.056 h−1. This result was compared with published predictive microbiology models for other Salmonella serovars in leafy greens, revealing that predictions from specific models could be valid for such a temperature, provided they were developed specifically in lettuce regardless of the type of serovars inoculated. The parameter delta obtained from the Weibull model for the pathogen was found to be 16.03 and 18.81 for 4 and 8 °C, respectively, indicating that the pathogen underwent larger reduction levels at lower temperatures (2.8 log10 decrease at 4 °C). These data suggest that this Salmonella serovar is especially sensitive to low temperatures, under the assayed conditions, while showcasing that a correct refrigeration could be an effective measure to control microbial risk in commercial packaged lettuce. Finally, the microbiological data and models from this study will be useful to consider more specifically the behaviour of S. Reading during transport and storage of fresh-cut lettuce, elucidating the contribution of this serovar to the risk by Salmonella in leafy green products. Full article
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Review

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Review
Overview of the Potential Impacts of Climate Change on the Microbial Safety of the Dairy Industry
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1794; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121794 - 03 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1466
Abstract
Climate change is expected to affect many different sectors across the food supply chain. The current review paper presents an overview of the effects of climate change on the microbial safety of the dairy supply chain and suggest potential mitigation strategies to limit [...] Read more.
Climate change is expected to affect many different sectors across the food supply chain. The current review paper presents an overview of the effects of climate change on the microbial safety of the dairy supply chain and suggest potential mitigation strategies to limit the impact. Raw milk, the common raw material of dairy products, is vulnerable to climate change, influenced by changes in average temperature and amount of precipitation. This would induce changes in the microbial profile and heat stress in lactating cows, increasing susceptibility to microbial infection and higher levels of microbial contamination. Moreover, climate change affects the entire dairy supply chain and necessitates adaptation of all the current food safety management programs. In particular, the review of current prerequisite programs might be needed as well as revisiting the current microbial specifications of the receiving dairy products and the introduction of new pretreatments with stringent processing regimes. The effects on microbial changes during distribution and consumer handling also would need to be quantified through the use of predictive models. The development of Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) models, considering the whole farm-to-fork chain to evaluate risk mitigation strategies, will be a key step to prioritize actions towards a climate change-resilient dairy industry. Full article
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Review
Critical Analysis of Pork QMRA Focusing on Slaughterhouses: Lessons from the Past and Future Trends
Foods 2020, 9(11), 1704; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111704 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2025
Abstract
Foodborne microbial diseases have a significant impact on public health, leading to millions of human illnesses each year worldwide. Pork is one of the most consumed meat in Europe but may also be a major source of pathogens introduced all along the farm-to-fork [...] Read more.
Foodborne microbial diseases have a significant impact on public health, leading to millions of human illnesses each year worldwide. Pork is one of the most consumed meat in Europe but may also be a major source of pathogens introduced all along the farm-to-fork chain. Several quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) have been developed to assess human health risks associated with pork consumption and to evaluate the efficiency of different risk reduction strategies. The present critical analysis aims to review pork QMRA. An exhaustive search was conducted following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) methodology. It resulted in identification of a collection of 2489 papers including 42 on QMRA, after screening. Among them, a total of 29 studies focused on Salmonella spp. with clear concern on impacts at the slaughterhouse, modeling the spreading of contaminations and growth at critical stages along with potential reductions. Along with strict compliance with good hygiene practices, several potential risk mitigation pathways were highlighted for each slaughterhouse step. The slaughterhouse has a key role to play to ensure food safety of pork-based products but consideration of the whole farm-to-fork chain is necessary to enable better control of bacteria. This review provides an analysis of pork meat QMRA, to facilitate their reuse, and identify gaps to guide future research activities. Full article
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Review
Review of Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment in Poultry Meat: The Central Position of Consumer Behavior
Foods 2020, 9(11), 1661; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111661 - 13 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1818
Abstract
Food of animal origin, especially meat products, represent the main vehicle of foodborne pathogens and so are implicated in foodborne outbreaks. Poultry meat is a widely consumed food in various forms, but it is also a reservoir of thermotolerant Campylobacter and Salmonella bacterial [...] Read more.
Food of animal origin, especially meat products, represent the main vehicle of foodborne pathogens and so are implicated in foodborne outbreaks. Poultry meat is a widely consumed food in various forms, but it is also a reservoir of thermotolerant Campylobacter and Salmonella bacterial species. To assess human health risks associated with pathogenic bacteria in poultry meat, the use of quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) has increased over the years as it is recognized to address complex food safety issues and is recommended by health authorities. The present project reviewed poultry meat QMRA, identified key steps of the farm-to-fork chain with significant impacts on food safety, highlighted current knowledge gaps, and provided risk mitigation advices. A PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses)-based systematic analysis was carried out and enabled the collection of 4056 studies including 43 QMRA kept for analysis after screening. The latter emphasized Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. contaminations during the consumer stage as the main concern. The role of consumer handling on cross-contamination and undercooking events were of major concern. Thus, proper hygiene and safety practices by consumers have been suggested as the main intervention and would need to be followed with regular surveys to assess behavior changes and reduce knowledge gaps. Full article
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Review
Detection of Bacterial Pathogens and Antibiotic Residues in Chicken Meat: A Review
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1504; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101504 - 20 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2030
Abstract
Detection of pathogenic microbes as well as antibiotic residues in food animals, especially in chicken, has become a matter of food security worldwide. The association of various pathogenic bacteria in different diseases and selective pressure induced by accumulated antibiotic residue to develop antibiotic [...] Read more.
Detection of pathogenic microbes as well as antibiotic residues in food animals, especially in chicken, has become a matter of food security worldwide. The association of various pathogenic bacteria in different diseases and selective pressure induced by accumulated antibiotic residue to develop antibiotic resistance is also emerging as the threat to human health. These challenges have made the containment of pathogenic bacteria and early detection of antibiotic residue highly crucial for robust and precise detection. However, the traditional culture-based approaches are well-comprehended for identifying microbes. Nevertheless, because they are inadequate, time-consuming and laborious, these conventional methods are not predominantly used. Therefore, it has become essential to explore alternatives for the easy and robust detection of pathogenic microbes and antibiotic residue in the food source. Presently, different monitoring, as well as detection techniques like PCR-based, assay (nucleic acid)-based, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA)-based, aptamer-based, biosensor-based, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry-based and electronic nose-based methods, have been developed for detecting the presence of bacterial contaminants and antibiotic residues. The current review intends to summarize the different techniques and underline the potential of every method used for the detection of bacterial pathogens and antibiotic residue in chicken meat. Full article
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Review
Control of Foodborne Biological Hazards by Ionizing Radiations
Foods 2020, 9(7), 878; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070878 - 03 Jul 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2568
Abstract
Ionization radiations are used to ensure food safety and quality. This irradiation process uses ions of beta or gamma rays to inactivate or destroy the food spoilage pests, microorganisms and their toxins without significantly increasing the temperature of the treated product. Meanwhile, various [...] Read more.
Ionization radiations are used to ensure food safety and quality. This irradiation process uses ions of beta or gamma rays to inactivate or destroy the food spoilage pests, microorganisms and their toxins without significantly increasing the temperature of the treated product. Meanwhile, various intrinsic and extrinsic factors are involved in determining the efficacy of ionization irradiation against these organisms. Therefore, the dose of radiations is recommended according to the type of irradiation, substrate and microorganisms. However, controversies are surrounding the use of irradiations in the food industry due to a negative perception of irradiations. This manuscript described the use of ionization radiations to control the foodborne biological hazards and increase shelf life. Firstly, the characteristics and mode of action of irradiations were discussed. Secondly, the role of extrinsic and intrinsic factors influencing the radioresistance of biological hazards were elaborated. This literature review also detailed the differential effects of irradiations on different microorganisms and pests having a role in food safety and deterioration. Finally, the regulatory status and the consumer values along with the controversies surrounding the use of ionization irradiations in the food sector were explained. Full article
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