Special Issue "Advanced Research in Foodborne Microorganisms: Detection, Control, Risk Assessment and Prevention"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Michel Federighi
Website SciProfiles
Guest Editor
Oniris, Route Cachet,,CS 40706, F-44307 Nantes, France; INRAe, UMR1014 SECALIM, F-44307 Nantes, France
Interests: food microbiology; food hygiene; public health; physical treatments of food; HACCP; risk assessment

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Micro-organisms and food have been linked since the beginning of human nutrition. Depending on their nature, they constitute:

- A threat to the health of consumers

- A cause of food spoilage

- A necessary and indispensable element in the production of food.

Whatever their nature, their relationships with the food that carries them are studied in terms of microbial ecology in order to better understand them. Their identity is increasingly well established, their function increasingly deciphered, as well as their ability to withstand the conditions of food production and even to communicate with each other. This better knowledge of their properties must continue and be used to, as appropriate, prevent their transfer to the food, detect and control them, but also assess them in terms of public health risks.

Prof. Michel Federighi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Foods
  • Microorganisms
  • Preservation
  • Risk
  • Methods
  • Contamination
  • Microbial ecology
  • Hazard Analysis
  • Spoilage

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Enteropathogenic Potential of Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates from Soil, Animals, Food and Biopesticides
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1484; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101484 - 17 Oct 2020
Abstract
Despite its benefits as biological insecticide, Bacillus thuringiensis bears enterotoxins, which can be responsible for a diarrhoeal type of food poisoning. Thus, all 24 isolates from foodstuffs, animals, soil and commercially used biopesticides tested in this study showed the genetic prerequisites necessary to [...] Read more.
Despite its benefits as biological insecticide, Bacillus thuringiensis bears enterotoxins, which can be responsible for a diarrhoeal type of food poisoning. Thus, all 24 isolates from foodstuffs, animals, soil and commercially used biopesticides tested in this study showed the genetic prerequisites necessary to provoke the disease. Moreover, though highly strain-specific, various isolates were able to germinate and also to actively move, which are further requirements for the onset of the disease. Most importantly, all isolates could grow under simulated intestinal conditions and produce significant amounts of enterotoxins. Cytotoxicity assays classified 14 isolates as highly, eight as medium and only two as low toxic. Additionally, growth inhibition by essential oils (EOs) was investigated as preventive measure against putatively enteropathogenic B. thuringiensis. Cinnamon Chinese cassia showed the highest antimicrobial activity, followed by citral, oregano and winter savory. In all tests, high strain-specific variations appeared and must be taken into account when evaluating the hazardous potential of B. thuringiensis and using EOs as antimicrobials. Altogether, the present study shows a non-negligible pathogenic potential of B. thuringiensis, independently from the origin of isolation. Generally, biopesticide strains were indistinguishable from other isolates. Thus, the use of these pesticides might indeed increase the risk for consumers’ health. Until complete information about the safety of the applied strains and formulations is available, consumers or manufacturers might benefit from the antimicrobial activity of EOs to reduce the level of contamination. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Behaviour of Non-O157 STEC and Atypical EPEC during the Manufacturing and Ripening of Raw Milk Cheese
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1215; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091215 - 01 Sep 2020
Abstract
This study was carried out to assess the survival of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) and atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC) during the traditional manufacturing and ripening of Spanish hard cheese from raw cow’s milk. Milk samples were spiked with up to 3.1–3.5 [...] Read more.
This study was carried out to assess the survival of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) and atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC) during the traditional manufacturing and ripening of Spanish hard cheese from raw cow’s milk. Milk samples were spiked with up to 3.1–3.5 log cfu/mL of one strain of STEC (O140:H32 serotype) and one of aEPEC (serotype O25:H2). The first steps of cheesemaking allow for a STEC and aEPEC increase of more than 1 log cfu/mL (up to 4.74 log cfu/g and 4.55 log cfu/g, respectively). After cheese pressing, a steady reduction of both populations was observed, with the STEC strain being more sensitive. The studied pathogenic E. coli populations decreased by 1.32 log cfu/g in STEC and 0.59 log cfu/g in aEPEC in cheese ripened during a minimum period of 60 d. Therefore, a moderate contamination by these diarrhoeagenic E. coli pathotypes, in particular, with aEPEC, on cheese manufactured from raw milk may not be totally controlled through the cheesemaking process and during a maturation of 90 d. These findings remark the importance of improvement in bacteriological quality of raw milk and cross-contamination prevention with diarrhoeagenic E. coli in the dairy industry. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modelling of the Behaviour of Salmonella enterica serovar Reading on Commercial Fresh-Cut Iceberg Lettuce Stored at Different Temperatures
Foods 2020, 9(7), 946; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070946 - 17 Jul 2020
Abstract
The aim of this study was to model the growth and survival behaviour of Salmonella Reading and endogenous lactic acid bacteria on fresh pre-cut iceberg lettuce stored under modified atmosphere packaging for 10 days at different temperatures (4, 8 and 15 °C). The [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to model the growth and survival behaviour of Salmonella Reading and endogenous lactic acid bacteria on fresh pre-cut iceberg lettuce stored under modified atmosphere packaging for 10 days at different temperatures (4, 8 and 15 °C). The Baranyi and Weibull models were satisfactorily fitted to describe microbial growth and survival behaviour, respectively. Results indicated that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) could grow at all storage temperatures, while S. Reading grew only at 15 °C. Specific growth rate values (μmax) for LAB ranged between 0.080 and 0.168 h−1 corresponding to the temperatures 4 and 15 °C while for S. Reading at 15 °C, μmax = 0.056 h−1. This result was compared with published predictive microbiology models for other Salmonella serovars in leafy greens, revealing that predictions from specific models could be valid for such a temperature, provided they were developed specifically in lettuce regardless of the type of serovars inoculated. The parameter delta obtained from the Weibull model for the pathogen was found to be 16.03 and 18.81 for 4 and 8 °C, respectively, indicating that the pathogen underwent larger reduction levels at lower temperatures (2.8 log10 decrease at 4 °C). These data suggest that this Salmonella serovar is especially sensitive to low temperatures, under the assayed conditions, while showcasing that a correct refrigeration could be an effective measure to control microbial risk in commercial packaged lettuce. Finally, the microbiological data and models from this study will be useful to consider more specifically the behaviour of S. Reading during transport and storage of fresh-cut lettuce, elucidating the contribution of this serovar to the risk by Salmonella in leafy green products. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Detection of Bacterial Pathogens and Antibiotic Residues in Chicken Meat: A Review
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1504; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101504 - 20 Oct 2020
Abstract
Detection of pathogenic microbes as well as antibiotic residues in food animals, especially in chicken, has become a matter of food security worldwide. The association of various pathogenic bacteria in different diseases and selective pressure induced by accumulated antibiotic residue to develop antibiotic [...] Read more.
Detection of pathogenic microbes as well as antibiotic residues in food animals, especially in chicken, has become a matter of food security worldwide. The association of various pathogenic bacteria in different diseases and selective pressure induced by accumulated antibiotic residue to develop antibiotic resistance is also emerging as the threat to human health. These challenges have made the containment of pathogenic bacteria and early detection of antibiotic residue highly crucial for robust and precise detection. However, the traditional culture-based approaches are well-comprehended for identifying microbes. Nevertheless, because they are inadequate, time-consuming and laborious, these conventional methods are not predominantly used. Therefore, it has become essential to explore alternatives for the easy and robust detection of pathogenic microbes and antibiotic residue in the food source. Presently, different monitoring, as well as detection techniques like PCR-based, assay (nucleic acid)-based, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA)-based, aptamer-based, biosensor-based, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry-based and electronic nose-based methods, have been developed for detecting the presence of bacterial contaminants and antibiotic residues. The current review intends to summarize the different techniques and underline the potential of every method used for the detection of bacterial pathogens and antibiotic residue in chicken meat. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Control of Foodborne Biological Hazards by Ionizing Radiations
Foods 2020, 9(7), 878; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070878 - 03 Jul 2020
Abstract
Ionization radiations are used to ensure food safety and quality. This irradiation process uses ions of beta or gamma rays to inactivate or destroy the food spoilage pests, microorganisms and their toxins without significantly increasing the temperature of the treated product. Meanwhile, various [...] Read more.
Ionization radiations are used to ensure food safety and quality. This irradiation process uses ions of beta or gamma rays to inactivate or destroy the food spoilage pests, microorganisms and their toxins without significantly increasing the temperature of the treated product. Meanwhile, various intrinsic and extrinsic factors are involved in determining the efficacy of ionization irradiation against these organisms. Therefore, the dose of radiations is recommended according to the type of irradiation, substrate and microorganisms. However, controversies are surrounding the use of irradiations in the food industry due to a negative perception of irradiations. This manuscript described the use of ionization radiations to control the foodborne biological hazards and increase shelf life. Firstly, the characteristics and mode of action of irradiations were discussed. Secondly, the role of extrinsic and intrinsic factors influencing the radioresistance of biological hazards were elaborated. This literature review also detailed the differential effects of irradiations on different microorganisms and pests having a role in food safety and deterioration. Finally, the regulatory status and the consumer values along with the controversies surrounding the use of ionization irradiations in the food sector were explained. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

1. Short review of Quantitative Microbiological Risk Analysis in broiler meat: what we learned? How to improve next time?

    Vincent Tesson, Tahreem Khalid, Ammar Hdaifeh, Michel Federighi, Enda Cummins; Géraldine Boué and Sandrine Guillou *

2. Are physical treatments of foods always suitable for C. botulinum? An overview

    Pauline Kooh, Laurent Guillier, Michel Federighi *, Frédéric Carlin and Philippe Fravalo

3. Contribution of foods and improper food handling practices to the burden of foodborne infectious diseases in France

    Jean-Christophe Augustin *, Pauline Kooh *, Thomas Bayeux, Laurent Guillier, Thierry Meyer, Nathalie Jourdan-Da-Silva, Isabelle Villena, Moez Sanaa and Olivier Cerf

4. Critical analysis of QMRA in pork slaughterhouses: lessons from the past and data for future.

    Vincent Tesson *, Ammar Hdaifeh, Tahreem Khalid, Géraldine Boué, Sandrine Guillou and Michel Federighi

5. Ionizing radiations and safety of foods : state of the art

    Muhammad Tanveer Munir * and Michel Federighi

6. Into the jungle of biological agents of foodborne diseases: need to put some order!

    Frédérique Audiat-Perrin *

7. Management of Listeria monocytogenes on surfaces by the means of Relative Air Humidity: key role of cell wall

    Fiona Zoz, Stéphane Guyot, Cosette Grandvalet, Mélanie Ragon, Olivier Firmesse, Brigitte Carpentier and Laurent Beney

8. Quantitative assessment of the behaviour of Salmonella enterica serovar Reading on commercial fresh-cut iceberg lettuce stored at different temperatures

Fatih Tarlak, Gro Johannessen, Isabel Bascón Villegas, Araceli Bolívar Carrillo, Guiomar Denisse Posada-Izquierdo and Fernando Pérez-Rodríguez *

9. Towards a climate change resilient dairy manufacturing industry: challenges of microbial safety management

Géraldine Boué

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