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Foods, Volume 8, Issue 12 (December 2019) – 100 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The present work aims to obtain optimal models to predict the total antioxidant properties of food [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Dosidicus gigas Skin Extract as An Antioxidant and Preservative in Tuna Pâté
Foods 2019, 8(12), 693; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8120693 - 17 Dec 2019
Viewed by 931
Abstract
A strategy for food preservation, based on a methanol–HCl squid skin extract (Dosidicus gigas) (JSSE), was evaluated at two concentrations in yellowfin tuna fish pâtés, which were stored at 4 and 8 °C for 20 day. The JSSE was characterized by [...] Read more.
A strategy for food preservation, based on a methanol–HCl squid skin extract (Dosidicus gigas) (JSSE), was evaluated at two concentrations in yellowfin tuna fish pâtés, which were stored at 4 and 8 °C for 20 day. The JSSE was characterized by determining its antioxidant and mutagenic activities. A yellowfin tuna pâté was elaborated, with and without the addition of the JSSE. An affective sensory analysis was performed to establish consumers’ preferences. During a 20-day storage period, the water activity (aw), pH, color difference (ΔE*ab), microbiological analysis, lipid oxidation and sensory quality attributes were evaluated, and the results were compared with the results of the butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and control treatments. The JSSE showed antioxidant activity against the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH●+) and 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radicals and did not induce mutation, according to the Ames’ Salmonella test, nor chromosomal abnormalities, according to the onion root-tip cell assay. The consumer analysis demonstrated a higher preference for the pâté with the added JSSE in seven out of the eight evaluated attributes. During storage, the JSSE neither had an impact on aw nor pH, maintained lower ΔE*ab values, inhibited the microbial activity and lipid oxidation (unlike the control pâté), and preserved the sensory quality attributes, unlike the BHA and control treatments. This study showed that the JSSE has biologically active pigments that can act as antioxidants and antimicrobials in yellowfin tuna fish pâtés. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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Open AccessArticle
Towards the Next-Generation Disinfectant: Composition, Storability and Preservation Potential of Plasma Activated Water on Baby Spinach Leaves
Foods 2019, 8(12), 692; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8120692 - 17 Dec 2019
Viewed by 1049
Abstract
Plasma activated water (PAW) has rapidly emerged as a promising alternative to traditional sanitizers applied in the fresh produce industry. In the present study, PAW chemistry and storage stability were assessed as a function of plasma operating conditions. Increasing plasma exposure time (5, [...] Read more.
Plasma activated water (PAW) has rapidly emerged as a promising alternative to traditional sanitizers applied in the fresh produce industry. In the present study, PAW chemistry and storage stability were assessed as a function of plasma operating conditions. Increasing plasma exposure time (5, 12.5, 20 min) and power (16, 26, 36 W) led to a significant drop in pH (2.4) and higher nitrates and nitrites levels (320 and 7.2 mg/L, respectively) in the PAW. Non-detectable hydrogen peroxide concentration, irrespective of the treatment conditions, was attributed to its instability in acidic environments and the remote PAW generation mode. pH, nitrates and nitrites levels in the PAW remained unaffected after two weeks at 4 °C. The potential of PAW for microbial inactivation and quality retention was demonstrated on baby spinach leaves. Rinsing steps influenced colour development during chilled storage to a greater extent than PAW treatment itself. About 1 log reduction in total bacterial counts (5 log CFU/g) was achieved through PAW rinsing, with no variability after eight days at 4 °C (typical shelf-life at retailers). Moreover, microbial levels on PAW-treated samples after storage were significantly lower than those on control samples, thus contributing to extended product shelf-life and reduced food waste generation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Safety and Shelf-Life Extension of Food Products)
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Open AccessArticle
Using Content Analysis to Characterise the Sensory Typicity and Quality Judgements of Australian Cabernet Sauvignon Wines
Foods 2019, 8(12), 691; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8120691 - 17 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1100
Abstract
Understanding the sensory attributes that explain the typicity of Australian Cabernet Sauvignon wines is essential for increasing value and growth of Australia’s reputation as a fine wine producer. Content analysis of 2598 web-based wine reviews from well-known wine writers, including tasting notes and [...] Read more.
Understanding the sensory attributes that explain the typicity of Australian Cabernet Sauvignon wines is essential for increasing value and growth of Australia’s reputation as a fine wine producer. Content analysis of 2598 web-based wine reviews from well-known wine writers, including tasting notes and scores, was used to gather information about the regional profiles of Australian Cabernet Sauvignon wines and to create selection criteria for further wine studies. In addition, a wine expert panel evaluated 84 commercial Cabernet Sauvignon wines from Coonawarra, Margaret River, Yarra Valley and Bordeaux, using freely chosen descriptions and overall quality scores. Using content analysis software, a sensory lexicon of descriptor categories was built and frequencies of each category for each region were computed. Distinction between the sensory profiles of the regions was achieved by correspondence analysis (CA) using online review and expert panellist data. Wine quality scores obtained from reviews and experts were converted into Australian wine show medal categories. CA of assigned medal and descriptor frequencies revealed the sensory attributes that appeared to drive medal-winning wines. Multiple factor analysis of frequencies from the reviews and expert panellists indicated agreement about descriptors that were associated with wines of low and high quality, with greater alignment at the lower end of the wine quality assessment scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer and Product Characteristics Driving Wine Appreciation)
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Different Smoking Procedures on the Content of 16 PAHs in Traditional Dry Cured Smoked Meat “Hercegovačka Pečenica”
Foods 2019, 8(12), 690; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8120690 - 17 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 731
Abstract
During smoking, meat products may get contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), especially the ones that are smoked in traditional (uncontrolled) conditions. This study aims to evaluate the difference in PAH content in samples of traditional dry cured pork meat products, “Hercegovačka pečenica”, [...] Read more.
During smoking, meat products may get contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), especially the ones that are smoked in traditional (uncontrolled) conditions. This study aims to evaluate the difference in PAH content in samples of traditional dry cured pork meat products, “Hercegovačka pečenica”, produced in (1) a traditional smokehouse and (2) in industrial chambers. The study revealed that the content of the four priority PAHs (PAH4) in samples produced in a traditional smoking manner highly exceeded (up to 10 times) the maximal limits set for PAHs (12 µg/kg). PAH4 in all samples subjected to industrial smoking procedures was below the limit of quantification. All samples had below-the-limit-of-quantification values for Benzo[a]pyrene. The surface layer of the samples produced in traditional conditions had the highest total content of PAH16. The inner parts of all samples, whether traditional or industrial, had significantly lower PAH16 concentration than the surface layer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rapid Methods for Assessing Food Safety and Quality)
Open AccessArticle
The Effect of the Ultra-High-Pressure Homogenization of Protein Encapsulants on the Survivability of Probiotic Cultures after Spray Drying
Foods 2019, 8(12), 689; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8120689 - 17 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 812
Abstract
Interest in probiotic foods and ingredients is increasing as consumers become more aware of their potential health benefits. The production of these products often involves the use of dry culture powders, and the techniques used to produce such powders often suffer from significant [...] Read more.
Interest in probiotic foods and ingredients is increasing as consumers become more aware of their potential health benefits. The production of these products often involves the use of dry culture powders, and the techniques used to produce such powders often suffer from significant losses of viable cells during drying or require the use of expensive drying technologies with limited throughput (e.g., freeze drying). In this study, the authors examined whether culture survivability during spray drying could be increased via the treatment of two common protein encapsulants with ultra-high-pressure homogenization (UHPH). Lactobacillus plantarum NRRL B-1927 (also known as ATCC 10241), a probiotic strain, was suspended in either soy protein isolate (SPI) or whey protein isolate (WPI) which had been either treated with UHPH at 150 Mpa or left untreated as a control. The suspensions were then dried using either concurrent-flow spray drying (CCSD), mixed-flow spray drying (MFSD) or freeze drying (FD) and evaluated for cell survivability, particle size, moisture content and water activity. In all cases, UHPH resulted in equal or greater survivability among spray dried cultures, showed reductions in particle size measures and, except for one marginal case (CCFD SPI), significantly reduced the moisture content of the dried powders. The combination of these findings strongly suggests that UHPH could allow probiotic powder manufacturers to replace freeze drying with spray drying while maintaining or increasing product quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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Open AccessArticle
Flow Cytometry to Assess the Counts and Physiological State of Cronobacter sakazakii Cells after Heat Exposure
Foods 2019, 8(12), 688; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8120688 - 16 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 643
Abstract
Cronobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic pathogen that is associated with outbreaks of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis, septicaemia, and meningitis. Reconstituted powdered infant formulae is the most common vehicle of infection. The aim of the present study is to gain insight into the physiological states [...] Read more.
Cronobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic pathogen that is associated with outbreaks of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis, septicaemia, and meningitis. Reconstituted powdered infant formulae is the most common vehicle of infection. The aim of the present study is to gain insight into the physiological states of C. sakazakii cells using flow cytometry to detect the compromised cells, which are viable but non-culturable using plate-based methods, and to evaluate the impact of milk heat treatments on those populations. Dead-cell suspensions as well as heat-treated and non-heat-treated cell suspensions were used. After 60 or 65 °C treatments, the number of compromised cells increased as a result of cells with compromised membranes shifting from the heat-treated suspension. These temperatures were not effective at killing all bacteria but were effective at compromising their membranes. Thus, mild heat treatments are not enough to guarantee the safety of powered infant formulae. Flow cytometry was capable of detecting C. sakazakii’s compromised cells that cannot be detected with classical plate count methods; thus, it could be used as a screening test to decrease the risk derived from the presence of pathogenic viable but non-culturable cells in this food that is intended for newborns’ nutrition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Hydrocolloid Gums on the Pasting, Thermal, Rheological and Textural Properties of Chickpea Starch
Foods 2019, 8(12), 687; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8120687 - 16 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 716
Abstract
The study was planned to evaluate the effect of non-commercial gums as compared to commercial gums. The concentration dependent effect of two commercial (arabic, xanthan) and four non-commercial (cress seed, fenugreek, flaxseed, okra) polysaccharide gums on the pasting, rheological, textural and thermal properties [...] Read more.
The study was planned to evaluate the effect of non-commercial gums as compared to commercial gums. The concentration dependent effect of two commercial (arabic, xanthan) and four non-commercial (cress seed, fenugreek, flaxseed, okra) polysaccharide gums on the pasting, rheological, textural and thermal properties of chickpea were investigated by rapid visco analyzer (RVA), hybrid rheometer, texture analyzer and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Blends were prepared by replacing chickpea starch at 0.5% and 2.0% with gums, whereas native chickpea starch was used as a control. RVA data showed that peak and final viscosities were dramatically increased with xanthan contrary to reduction with gum arabic, flaxseed and okra gums. Hybrid rheometer displayed that storage and loss moduli were increased as a function of angular frequency and dominance of elastic properties over viscous ones. Xanthan blend was less temperature dependent due to dramatic decrease in activation energy value as compared to control while other gums were more temperature dependent. The magnitude of this effect was reliant on the type and concentration of gum. After storage for 21 days at −20 °C, total syneresis was reduced with the incorporation of xanthan and cress seed and also with high levels of gum arabic, flaxseed and fenugreek gums. The gel hardness was increased after overnight storage at ambient temperature (23 °C) with fenugreek while reduction in hardness was observed with xanthan, flaxseed and okra gums. The presence of gums resulted in significantly higher onset and peak temperatures determined through differential scanning calorimetry. Full article
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Open AccessBrief Report
Hydrolysis of Whey Protein-Dextran Glycates Made Using the Maillard Reaction
Foods 2019, 8(12), 686; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8120686 - 15 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 723
Abstract
Protein-polysaccharide glycates are food ingredients that use the Maillard reaction to form a Schiff base linkage between the carbonyl of a polysaccharide and the free amino moiety of a protein. Glycates are excellent emulsification, foaming, and gelling agents in foods and improve protein [...] Read more.
Protein-polysaccharide glycates are food ingredients that use the Maillard reaction to form a Schiff base linkage between the carbonyl of a polysaccharide and the free amino moiety of a protein. Glycates are excellent emulsification, foaming, and gelling agents in foods and improve protein solubility and heat stability. The present work examined if glycates dissociate by hydrolysis, returning to free un-glycated protein and dextran due to the reversibility of the Schiff base linkage. Hydrolysis of glycates made from whey protein isolate and dextran was measured versus time and temperature, allowing determination of the rate constants and equilibrium constants for glycate hydrolysis. Glycates underwent hydrolysis when placed into aqueous solutions at common food processing temperatures. For example, during hot food storage (60 °C), equilibrium fractional hydrolysis was 44%, whereas at ambient temperature (22 °C), it was 8%. The present work aims to increase the successful use of glycates in new foods by knowing what foods and conditions avoid glycate hydrolysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Chickpea Cultivar Selection to Produce Aquafaba with Superior Emulsion Properties
Foods 2019, 8(12), 685; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8120685 - 15 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1334
Abstract
Aquafaba (AQ), a viscous by-product solution produced during cooking chickpea or other legumes in water, is increasingly being used as an egg replacement due to its ability to form foams and emulsions. The objectives of our work were to select a chickpea cultivar [...] Read more.
Aquafaba (AQ), a viscous by-product solution produced during cooking chickpea or other legumes in water, is increasingly being used as an egg replacement due to its ability to form foams and emulsions. The objectives of our work were to select a chickpea cultivar that produces AQ with superior emulsion properties, and to investigate the impact of chickpea seed physicochemical properties and hydration kinetics on the properties of AQ-based emulsions. AQ from a Kabuli type chickpea cultivar (CDC Leader) had the greatest emulsion capacity (1.10 ± 0.04 m2/g) and stability (71.9 ± 0.8%). There were no correlations observed between AQ emulsion properties and chickpea seed proximate compositions. Meanwhile, AQ emulsion properties were negatively correlated with AQ yield and moisture content, indicating that AQ with higher dry-matter content displayed better emulsion properties. In conclusion, the emulsification properties of aquafaba are greatly influenced by the chickpea genotype, and AQ from the CDC Leader chickpea produced the most stable food oil emulsions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Freeze-Drying Technology in Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
A Validated Method for Cholesterol Determination in Turkey Meat Products Using Relative Response Factors
Foods 2019, 8(12), 684; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8120684 - 15 Dec 2019
Viewed by 745
Abstract
The objective of this study was to develop a precise and accurate method to quantify cholesterol in turkey meat products using relative response factors, based on a modification of a previously published method for plant sterols determination. Validation was performed using neat solutions [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to develop a precise and accurate method to quantify cholesterol in turkey meat products using relative response factors, based on a modification of a previously published method for plant sterols determination. Validation was performed using neat solutions to determine linearity, precision, and accuracy. The method was linear in the concentration range considered (1–20 µg/mL, r2 ≥ 0.991). Precision and accuracy were within the acceptability guidelines of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for method validation (<20% relative standard deviation (RSD) at the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) and <15% RSD for other standards). Turkey meat was spiked with cholesterol at two levels (low = 3 µg/mL and high = 18 µg/mL), either before or after saponification, to establish the recovery and matrix effects. Recovery ranged from 94% to 105%, with a mean value of 105% at the low spike level and 95% at the high spike level. No significant matrix effects were found (90% to 112% recovery). This method is reliable for the quantification of cholesterol in turkey meat products in the range 0.4–8 mg/g. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chromatography Analysis Applied in Food Science)
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Open AccessArticle
Quantitative Determination of Andrographolide and Related Compounds in Andrographis paniculata Extracts and Biological Evaluation of Their Anti-Inflammatory Activity
Foods 2019, 8(12), 683; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8120683 - 14 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1146
Abstract
Extraction, isolation and characterization of Andrographis paniculata (A.p.) products were developed. Three natural diterpenes compounds were obtained and one was used for chemical modifications. Evaluation of their inhibition of TNFα induced NFκB transcriptional activity. A rapid analytical method for the determination [...] Read more.
Extraction, isolation and characterization of Andrographis paniculata (A.p.) products were developed. Three natural diterpenes compounds were obtained and one was used for chemical modifications. Evaluation of their inhibition of TNFα induced NFκB transcriptional activity. A rapid analytical method for the determination and quantitation of three diterpenoid lactones (andrographolide 1, didehydroandrographolide 2, neoandrographiside 3) found in A. paniculata extracts was investigated. After some optimizations on column type and injection solvent, the separation was achieved in 9 min on a monolithic Chromolith Performance RP18e column (100 mm × 4.6 mm ID, 2 µm), with a gradient solvent system of water and methanol, UV detection at 220 nm and ELSD detection. The method was proved to be suitable for the quantitation of these three diterpenes in four different commercial Andrographis dietary supplements. The anti-inflammatory activities of a mixture of known composition have been evaluated showing differences in activity depending on the relative ratio of various diterpenes and also a possible synergic activity for some of them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Benefits of Plant Extracts for Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of Nutritional, Physicochemical, and Phytochemical Composition and Antioxidant Capacity of Three Strawberry “Fragaria × ananassa Duch.” Cultivars (“Primoris”, “Endurance”, and “Portola”) from Western Region of Portugal
Foods 2019, 8(12), 682; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8120682 - 14 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1000
Abstract
In this study, nutritional composition (protein, lipids, carbohydrates, ash, and moisture), physicochemical properties (soluble solid content, titratable acidity, texture and instrumental colour on surface, and internal section), phytochemicals (total phenolic content and anthocyanin content), and antioxidant capacity (DPPH—2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity and ferric-reducing [...] Read more.
In this study, nutritional composition (protein, lipids, carbohydrates, ash, and moisture), physicochemical properties (soluble solid content, titratable acidity, texture and instrumental colour on surface, and internal section), phytochemicals (total phenolic content and anthocyanin content), and antioxidant capacity (DPPH—2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity and ferric-reducing antioxidant power) of three strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) cultivars (cv. “Primoris”, cv. “Endurance”, and cv. “Portola”) produced in the western region of Portugal (Caldas da Rainha) were evaluated. From the obtained, results no significant differences (P > 0.05) in nutritional composition were detected in all of the cultivars; with the exception of lower protein content observed in cv. “Portola” (0.57 g/100 g ± 0.04; P < 0.05). Regarding the a* value of whole strawberry fruits, no significant differences (P > 0.05) were found in any of the cultivars, which revealed a similar redness. The cv. “Endurance” revealed the highest bioactivity content compared to the other cultivars. Overall, these results provide important information about the high quality of strawberry produced in the western region of Portugal and may be used as a tool for adding value to a functional food in the Mediterranean diet due to the phytochemical composition and nutritional value of strawberry fruits Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality and Functionality of Plant Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
Microencapsulation of Camelina sativa Oil Using Selected Soluble Fractions of Dietary Fiber as the Wall Material
Foods 2019, 8(12), 681; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8120681 - 13 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 733
Abstract
The aim of the study was to prove the usefulness of microencapsulation of Camelina sativa oil regarding its vulnerability to oxidation caused by oxygen, temperature, and other factors. Pectin, inulin, gum arabic, and β-glucan, each of them mixed with maltodextrin, were used as [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to prove the usefulness of microencapsulation of Camelina sativa oil regarding its vulnerability to oxidation caused by oxygen, temperature, and other factors. Pectin, inulin, gum arabic, and β-glucan, each of them mixed with maltodextrin, were used as wall materials and their appropriability to reduce oxidation of the core material was examined. Microcapsules were prepared by spray drying, which is the most commonly used and very effective method. The research confirmed results known from literature, that gum arabic and inulin are most proper wall materials, because they ensure small oxidation increase during storage (4.59 and 5.92 eq/kg after seven days respectively) and also provide high efficiency of process (83.93% and 91.74%, respectively). Pectin turned out to be the least appropriate polysaccharide because it is not able to assure sufficient protection for the core material, in this case Camelina sativa oil, due to low efficiency (61.36%) and high oxidation (16.11 eq/kg after seven days). β-glucan occurred to be the coating material with relatively high encapsulation efficiency (79.26%) but high humidity (4.97%) which could negatively influence the storage of microcapsules. The use of polysaccharides in microencapsulation, except performing the role of wall material, has the advantage of increasing the amount of dietary fiber in human diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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Open AccessArticle
Distribution of β-Glucan, Phenolic Acids, and Proteins as Functional Phytonutrients of Hull-Less Barley Grain
Foods 2019, 8(12), 680; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8120680 - 13 Dec 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 692
Abstract
Two hull-less barley varieties were roller-milled, and breaks (B) and reduction flours (C), shorts, and bran were collected. Shorts, which mainly originate from endosperm cells with a smaller amount of the outer layers, had the largest yield (48.87–51.54%). Ash (0.82–3.10%) and protein (9.95–14.8%) [...] Read more.
Two hull-less barley varieties were roller-milled, and breaks (B) and reduction flours (C), shorts, and bran were collected. Shorts, which mainly originate from endosperm cells with a smaller amount of the outer layers, had the largest yield (48.87–51.54%). Ash (0.82–3.10%) and protein (9.95–14.8%) increased from flours toward shorts and bran, while starch decreased (82.31–48.69%). In contrast to clear distribution differences in protein content (bran > shorts > C > B), albumins/globulins content was lowest in bran (0.78–0.90 g/100 gdw), and their distribution between fractions was uneven and genotype dependent. Distribution of hordeins (6.69–10.49 g/100 gdw) was more distinct and generally decreased in order from bran > B > shorts > C. The proportion of nutritionally poor C-hordeins in total hordeins varied from 28.33% to 30.24%, without significant differences between fractions. The β-glucan content varied from 0.80% to 7.49% with decreasing content in the order bran, shorts > C > B. Shorts and bran could be classified as moderate and high β-glucan flour (5.70–7.22%). The total phenolic and antioxidant activities ranged from 0.91 to 2.21 mg GAE/gdw and 28.81–72.06%, respectively. Ferulic and sinapic acids determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were major contributors to the antioxidant activity (45.16–1026.91 ug/gdw and 18.93–206.52 ug/gdw), respectively. The yield and high content of phytonutrients make hull-less barley shorts suitable for the production of health-promoting food and food supplements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Grain)
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Open AccessArticle
Inactivation of Escherichia Coli and Salmonella Using 365 and 395 nm High Intensity Pulsed Light Emitting Diodes
Foods 2019, 8(12), 679; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8120679 - 13 Dec 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 928
Abstract
High intensity pulsed light emitting diode (LED) treatment is a novel approach to inactivate foodborne pathogens. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial potential of high intensity 365 (UV-A) and 395 nm (NUV-Vis) LED treatments against Escherichia coli and Salmonella [...] Read more.
High intensity pulsed light emitting diode (LED) treatment is a novel approach to inactivate foodborne pathogens. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial potential of high intensity 365 (UV-A) and 395 nm (NUV-Vis) LED treatments against Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica at high and low water activity (aw) conditions, and to understand the influence of different process parameters on their antibacterial efficacy. Bacteria at high (in phosphate buffer saline, PBS) and low aw (aw = 0.75) conditions were treated with both the LEDs with specific doses at a fixed distance from the LEDs. The 365 nm LED showed more effectiveness in reducing the dried bacteria compared to 395 nm LED. The dry E. coli showed more resistance to LED treatments compared to Salmonella. The 365 and 395 nm LED treatments with ~658 J/cm2 dose resulted in reductions of 0.79 and 1.76 log CFU/g of Salmonella, respectively, on 0.75 aw pet foods. The LED treatments increased the surface temperature, resulting in water loss in the treated samples. This study showed that the dose, duration of light exposure, bacterial strain, and aw played a major role in the antibacterial efficacy of the 365 and 395 nm LEDs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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Open AccessArticle
Technofunctional and Sensory Properties of Fermented Lupin Protein Isolates
Foods 2019, 8(12), 678; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8120678 - 13 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 960
Abstract
Lupin protein isolate was fermented with eight different microorganisms to evaluate the influence on sensory profile, techno-functional properties and protein integrity. All investigated microorganisms were able to grow in lupin protein isolate. The results showed that the foaming activity in the range of [...] Read more.
Lupin protein isolate was fermented with eight different microorganisms to evaluate the influence on sensory profile, techno-functional properties and protein integrity. All investigated microorganisms were able to grow in lupin protein isolate. The results showed that the foaming activity in the range of 1646–1703% and the emulsifying capacity in the range of 347–595 mL of the fermented lupin protein isolates were similar to those of the unfermented ones. Protein solubility at pH 4 showed no significant changes compared to unfermented lupin protein isolate, whereas the solubility at pH 7 decreased significantly from 63.59% for lupin protein isolate to solubilities lower than 42.35% for fermented lupin protein isolate. Fermentation with all microorganisms showed the tendency to decrease bitterness from 2.3 for lupin protein isolate (LPI) to 1.0–2.0 for the fermented ones. The most promising microorganisms for the improvement of the sensory properties of lupin protein isolates were Lactobacillus brevis as it reduced the intensity of characteristic aroma impression (pea-like, green bell pepper-like) from 4.5 to 1.0. The SDS-PAGE results showed the fermentation treatment appeared not to be sufficiently effective to destruct the protein integrity and thus, deplete the allergen potential of lupin proteins. Fermentation allows the development of food ingredients with good functional properties in foam formation and emulsifying capacity, with a well-balanced aroma and taste profile. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Development and Characterization of Gelled Double Emulsions Based on Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) Mucilage Mixed with Different Biopolymers and Loaded with Green Tea Extract (Camellia sinensis)
Foods 2019, 8(12), 677; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8120677 - 13 Dec 2019
Viewed by 716
Abstract
The aim of this research was to develop and characterize five gelled double emulsions based on chia mucilage (CM) and different biopolymers (κ-carrageenan, C; locust bean gum, L; thixogum, T; and whey protein concentrate, W) loaded with green tea extract (GTE). Gelled double [...] Read more.
The aim of this research was to develop and characterize five gelled double emulsions based on chia mucilage (CM) and different biopolymers (κ-carrageenan, C; locust bean gum, L; thixogum, T; and whey protein concentrate, W) loaded with green tea extract (GTE). Gelled double emulsions consisted of W1 (whey-protein-concentrate/sodium-azide/NaCl/GTE)/O and (PGPR/canola-oi)/W2 (CM, CMC, CML, CMT and CMW), and were characterized based on physicochemical properties during 35 days of storage. Optical microscopy clearly showed the drops of the internal phase surrounded by droplets of oil dispersed in the second aqueous phase; the droplet size was higher for CMT and lowest for CMW. In addition, all emulsions were highly stable at creaming and were effective in reducing the loss of antioxidant activity (88.82%) and total phenols (64.26%) during storage; CMT, CML and CM were the most effective. Furthermore, all emulsions showed a protective effect by modulating the release of the GTE in a simulated gastrointestinal environment, allowing a controlled release during the gastric-intestinal digestion phases and reaching its maximum release in the intestinal phase (64.57–83.31%). Thus, gelled double emulsions are an alternative for the preservation of GTE and could be a potential alternative for their application in the development of functional foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Technologies for Encapsulation in Food Industry)
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Open AccessArticle
Land Snails as a Valuable Source of Fatty Acids: A Multivariate Statistical Approach
Foods 2019, 8(12), 676; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8120676 - 12 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 754
Abstract
The fatty acid (FA) profile of wild Theba pisana, Cornu aspersum, and Eobania vermiculata land snail samples, collected in Sicily (Southern Italy), before and after heat treatment at +100 °C were examined by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The [...] Read more.
The fatty acid (FA) profile of wild Theba pisana, Cornu aspersum, and Eobania vermiculata land snail samples, collected in Sicily (Southern Italy), before and after heat treatment at +100 °C were examined by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The results show a higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in all of the examined raw snails samples, representing up to 48.10% of the total fatty acids contents, followed by monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs). The thermal processing of the snail samples examined determined an overall reduction of PUFA levels (8.13%, 7.75%, and 4.62% for T. pisana, C. aspersum and E. vermiculata samples, respectively) and a species-specific variation of saturated fatty acid (SFA) contents. Oleic acid remained the most abundant FA of all of the snails species examined, accounting for up to 29.95% of the total FA content. A relevant decrease of ɷ3/ɷ6 ratio was found only for T. pisana samples. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed a separation of the snail samples in terms of species and heat treatment. The results of this work suggest land snails as a valuable source of MUFA and PUFA contents and boiling as appropriate treatment, according to the maintenance of healthy properties. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Celiac Antigenicity of Ancient Wheat Species
Foods 2019, 8(12), 675; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8120675 - 12 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 784
Abstract
Ancient grains have gained renewed interest in the last few years due to their perceived nutritional benefits. The goal of this study was to examine the presence of celiac epitopes in different ancient grains and determine differences in the gliadin protein profile of [...] Read more.
Ancient grains have gained renewed interest in the last few years due to their perceived nutritional benefits. The goal of this study was to examine the presence of celiac epitopes in different ancient grains and determine differences in the gliadin protein profile of such grains. To investigate celiac epitopes, an untargeted mass spectrometric method was used, and the gliadin protein profile was studied using reverse phase-HPLC. Our findings show that celiac epitopes can be detected in wheat-related ancient grains, such as einkorn, emmer, and Kamut, indicating that these ancient grains have the potential to elicit the immune response associated with celiac disease. Additionally, the results showed that the gliadin protein composition is significantly different between ancient grain species, which could result in varying functional properties in end-use applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Quality of Wheat and its Products)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Cutting Styles on Quality and Antioxidant Activity of Stored Fresh-Cut Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) Cultivars
Foods 2019, 8(12), 674; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8120674 - 12 Dec 2019
Viewed by 857
Abstract
The effect of cutting styles (slice, pie, and shred) on the quality characteristics and antioxidant activity of purple and yellow flesh sweet potato cultivars during six days of storage at 4 °C was investigated. The results indicated that the sliced and pie samples [...] Read more.
The effect of cutting styles (slice, pie, and shred) on the quality characteristics and antioxidant activity of purple and yellow flesh sweet potato cultivars during six days of storage at 4 °C was investigated. The results indicated that the sliced and pie samples showed no significant difference (p > 0.05) on the firmness, weight loss, and vitamin C content compared with the whole sweet potato in both cultivars during storage. The pie sample exhibited the highest wound-induced phenolic, flavonoid, and carotenoid accumulation and DPPH radical scavenging activity among the cuts in both cultivars. Moreover, the shredded sample showed significantly (p < 0.05) higher polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity but lower total phenolic and flavonoid content and the lowest antioxidant activity among the samples. Thus, the finding of this study revealed that pie-cut processing has potential in improving the quality and increasing the antioxidant activity of fresh-cut purple and yellow flesh sweet potato cultivars while shredding accelerated the quality deterioration of both sweet potato cultivars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Preservation Technology for the Fresh Fruit and Vegetables)
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Open AccessCommunication
Anti-adipogenic Effect of β-Carboline Alkaloids from Garlic (Allium sativum)
Foods 2019, 8(12), 673; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8120673 - 12 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1099
Abstract
Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is utilized worldwide for culinary and medicinal use and has diverse health benefits. As part of our ongoing research to identify bioactive components from natural resources, phytochemical analysis of the methanolic extract of garlic led to the isolation [...] Read more.
Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is utilized worldwide for culinary and medicinal use and has diverse health benefits. As part of our ongoing research to identify bioactive components from natural resources, phytochemical analysis of the methanolic extract of garlic led to the isolation and characterization of six compounds: Three eugenol diglycosides (13) and three β-carboline alkaloids (46). In particular, the absolute configurations of β-carboline alkaloids (5 and 6) were established by gauge-including atomic orbital nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shift calculations, followed by DP4+ analysis. Here, we evaluated the effects of compounds 16 on 3T3-L1 preadipocyte adipogenesis and lipid metabolism. 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation was evaluated using Oil Red O staining; the expression of adipogenic genes was detected using RT-qPCR. Among compounds 16, (1R,3S)-1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid (6) inhibited 3T3-L1 preadipocyte adipogenesis and reduced the expression of adipogenic genes (Fabp4, PPARγ, C/EBPβ, Adipsin, and Adipoq). Moreover, it markedly decreased the actylation of α-tubulin, which is crucial for cytoskeletal remodeling during adipogenesis. Anti-adipogenic effects were observed upon treatment with compound 6, not only during the entire process, but also on the first two days of adipogenesis. Additionally, treatment with compound 6 regulated the expression of genes involved in adipocyte lipid metabolism, decreasing the lipogenic gene (SREBP1) and increasing lipolytic genes (ATGL and HSL). We provide experimental evidence of the health benefits of using (1R,3S)-1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid obtained from garlic to prevent excessive adipogenesis in obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals in Human Health) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
High-Hydrostatic-Pressure (HHP) Processing Technology as a Novel Control Method for Listeria monocytogenes Occurrence in Mediterranean-Style Dry-Fermented Sausages
Foods 2019, 8(12), 672; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8120672 - 12 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 687
Abstract
Although conventional microbial control techniques are currently employed and largely successful, their major drawbacks are related to their effects on quality of processed food. In recent years, there has been a growing demand for high-quality foods that are microbially safe and retain most [...] Read more.
Although conventional microbial control techniques are currently employed and largely successful, their major drawbacks are related to their effects on quality of processed food. In recent years, there has been a growing demand for high-quality foods that are microbially safe and retain most of their natural freshness. Therefore, several modern and innovative methods of microbial control in food processing have been developed. High-hydrostatic-pressure (HHP) processing technology has been mainly used to enhance the food safety of ready-to-eat (RTE) products as a new pre-/post-packaging, non-thermal purification method in the meat industry. Listeria monocytogenes is a pertinent target for microbiological safety and shelf-life; due to its capacity to multiply in a broad range of food environments, is extremely complicated to prevent in fermented-sausage-producing plants. The frequent detection of L. monocytogenes in final products emphasizes the necessity for the producers of fermented sausages to correctly overcome the hurdles of the technological process and to prevent the presence of L. monocytogenes by applying novel control techniques. This review discusses a collection of recent studies describing pressure-induced elimination of L. monocytogenes in fermented sausages produced in the Mediterranean area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Microbial Control Techniques for Foods)
Open AccessArticle
Glyceridic and Unsaponifiable Components of Microencapsulated Sacha Inchi (Plukenetia huayllabambana L. and Plukenetia volubilis L.) Edible Oils
Foods 2019, 8(12), 671; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8120671 - 12 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 728
Abstract
Sacha inchi (Plukenetia huayllabambana L. and Plukenetia volubilis L.) edible oils were microencapsulated and the lipid fraction of the microparticles was characterized. Hi-cap®, Capsule®, Arabic gum, and the binary combination of Arabic gum + maltodextrin and the ternary [...] Read more.
Sacha inchi (Plukenetia huayllabambana L. and Plukenetia volubilis L.) edible oils were microencapsulated and the lipid fraction of the microparticles was characterized. Hi-cap®, Capsule®, Arabic gum, and the binary combination of Arabic gum + maltodextrin and the ternary combination of Arabic gum + maltodextrin + whey protein isolate, were used as coating materials for the encapsulation process using spray-drying. The surface and the total oils obtained from the microparticles were evaluated in terms of fatty acid composition, minor glyceride polar compounds, polymers, oxidized triglycerides, diglycerides, monoglycerides, and free fatty acids, along with their unsaponifiable components, sterols, and tocopherols. Differences between the original oils and the microencapsulated ones were determined. The most remarkable results included the presence of polymers when there were none in the original oils, the slight loss in ω3-fatty acids, up to 6%, the loss in tocopherols, in some of the cases around 30%, the maintaining of the phytosterol in their initial levels and the presence of cholesterol in the oils encapsulated with whey protein isolate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analytical Methods)
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Open AccessArticle
Distribution of Free and Bound Phenolic Compounds in Buckwheat Milling Fractions
Foods 2019, 8(12), 670; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8120670 - 12 Dec 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 775
Abstract
Buckwheat is a rich source of phenolic compounds that have shown to possess beneficial effect to reduce some diseases due to their antioxidant power. Phenolic compounds are present in the free and in the bound form to the cell wall that are concentrated [...] Read more.
Buckwheat is a rich source of phenolic compounds that have shown to possess beneficial effect to reduce some diseases due to their antioxidant power. Phenolic compounds are present in the free and in the bound form to the cell wall that are concentrated mainly in the outer layer (hull and bran). Hull is removed before the milling of buckwheat to obtain flours. In order to evaluate the phenolic composition in dehulled buckwheat milling fractions, it was carried out a determination of free and bound phenolic compounds in dehulled whole buckwheat flour, light flour, bran flour, and middling flour by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS). The most abundant free phenolic compounds were rutin and epiafzelchin–epicatechin-O-dimethylgallate, whereas the most abundant bound phenolic compounds were catechin and epicatechin in all buckwheat flours. Besides, the highest content of free phenolic compounds was obtained in bran flour (1249.49 mg/kg d.w.), whereas the greatest bound phenolic content was in middling (704.47 mg/kg d.w.) and bran flours (689.81 mg/kg d.w.). Thus, middling and bran flours are naturally enriched flours in phenolic compounds that could be used to develop functional foods. Full article
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Open AccessPerspective
The Introduction of Thousands of Tonnes of Glyphosate in the food Chain—An Evaluation of Glyphosate Tolerant Soybeans
Foods 2019, 8(12), 669; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8120669 - 11 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2971
Abstract
Glyphosate-tolerant (GT) soybeans dominate the world soybean market. These plants have triggered increased use of, as well as increased residues of, glyphosate in soybean products. We present data that show farmers have doubled their glyphosate applications per season (from two to four) and [...] Read more.
Glyphosate-tolerant (GT) soybeans dominate the world soybean market. These plants have triggered increased use of, as well as increased residues of, glyphosate in soybean products. We present data that show farmers have doubled their glyphosate applications per season (from two to four) and that residues of late season spraying of glyphosate (at full bloom of the plant) result in much higher residues in the harvested plants and products. GT soybeans produced on commercial farms in the USA, Brazil and Argentina accumulate in total an estimated 2500–10,000 metric tonnes of glyphosate per year, which enter global food chains. We also review studies that have compared the quality of GT soybeans with conventional and organic soybeans. Feeding studies in Daphnia magna have shown dose-related adverse effects (mortality, reduced fecundity and delayed reproduction) of glyphosate residues in soybeans, even at glyphosate concentrations below allowed residue levels. We argue that GT soybeans need to be tested in fully representative and realistic contexts. However, the current risk assessment system has only required and received data from field trials with beans that were sprayed with much lower doses of glyphosate as compared to contemporary commercial farms. This has left knowledge gaps and a potentially serious underestimation of health risks to consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetically Modified Food)
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Open AccessArticle
Toxicity Studies of Lactobacillus plantarum PS128TM Isolated from Spontaneously Fermented Mustard Greens
Foods 2019, 8(12), 668; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8120668 - 11 Dec 2019
Viewed by 818
Abstract
Probiotics are extensively available to consumers; however, the use of probiotics may not always be safe, and there are few reports on their side effects, including those of Lactobacillus. Lactobacillus plantarum strain PS128TM isolated from spontaneously fermented mustard greens in Taiwan [...] Read more.
Probiotics are extensively available to consumers; however, the use of probiotics may not always be safe, and there are few reports on their side effects, including those of Lactobacillus. Lactobacillus plantarum strain PS128TM isolated from spontaneously fermented mustard greens in Taiwan was recently reported to exhibit probiotic properties. In this study, we aimed to assess the safety of strain PS128TM for use in humans via examining genotoxic and oral toxic effects using in vitro and in vivo testing. Five strains of Salmonella typhimurium were evaluated by the Ames test; no signs of increased reverse mutation were observed following exposure to PS128TM. Additional testing of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells exposed to PS128TM revealed that the incidence of chromosomal aberrations in CHO cells had not increased. PS128TM treatment also did not affect the proportion of immature to total erythrocytes or the number of micronuclei in the immature erythrocytes of ICR mice. Moreover, following a 28 day study involving repeated oral dose toxicity tests (2400, 400, and 40 mg/kg body weight) utilizing an ICR mouse model, no observable adverse level (NOAEL) was found at any of the doses. PS128TM was sensitive to antibiotics; however, genes related to the production of biogenic amines were absent. While further research is required, these toxicological assessments suggest that PS128TM could be safe for human consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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Open AccessArticle
Compositional Characterization of Different Industrial White and Red Grape Pomaces in Virginia and the Potential Valorization of the Major Components
Foods 2019, 8(12), 667; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8120667 - 11 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 656
Abstract
To better evaluate potential uses for grape pomace (GP) waste, a comprehensive chemical composition analysis of GP in Virginia was conducted. Eight commercial white and red pomace samples (cv. Viognier, Vidal Blanc, Niagara, Petit Manseng, Petit Verdot, Merlot, Cabernet Franc, and Chambourcin) obtained [...] Read more.
To better evaluate potential uses for grape pomace (GP) waste, a comprehensive chemical composition analysis of GP in Virginia was conducted. Eight commercial white and red pomace samples (cv. Viognier, Vidal Blanc, Niagara, Petit Manseng, Petit Verdot, Merlot, Cabernet Franc, and Chambourcin) obtained from different wineries in Virginia, USA were used. For extractives, GPs contained 2.89%–4.66% titratable acids, 4.32%–6.60% ash, 4.62%–12.5% lipids with linoleic acid being the predominant (59.0%–70.9%) fatty acid, 10.4–64.8 g total phenolic content (gallic acid equivalents)/kg GP, 2.09–53.3 g glucose/kg GP, 3.79–52.9 g fructose/kg GP, and trace sucrose. As for non-extractives, GPs contained 25.2%–44.5% lignin, 8.04%–12.7% glucan, 4.42%–7.05% xylan, and trace amounts of galactan, arabinan, and mannan (less than 3% in total). Potential usages of these components were further examined to provide information on better valorization of GP. Considering the valuable extractives (e.g., polyphenols and oil) and non-extractives (e.g., lignin), designing a biorefinery process aiming at fully recover and/or utilize these components is of future significance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Security and Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle
Diversity and Use of Edible Grasshoppers, Locusts, Crickets, and Katydids (Orthoptera) in Madagascar
Foods 2019, 8(12), 666; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8120666 - 10 Dec 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1092
Abstract
Madagascar has a long history of using Orthoptera as food and feed. Our understanding of the biological diversity of this resource, its contemporary use, and its future potentials in Madagascar is extremely limited. The present study contributes basic knowledge of the biological diversity [...] Read more.
Madagascar has a long history of using Orthoptera as food and feed. Our understanding of the biological diversity of this resource, its contemporary use, and its future potentials in Madagascar is extremely limited. The present study contributes basic knowledge of the biological diversity and local uses of edible Orthoptera in Malagasy food cultures. Data was collected with key informants in 47 localities covering most of the ecoregions of Madagascar and corresponding to 12 of the 19 ethnic groups. Orthoptera are consumed throughout Madagascar. We report 37 edible Orthoptera species, of which 28 are new species records of edible Orthoptera in Madagascar and 24 are new species records of edible Orthoptera in the world. Most species are endemic and occur in farming zones. Children are the primary collectors and consumers of edible Orthoptera. The insects are eaten both as snacks and main meals. Edible Orthoptera are primarily collected casually and marketing is rare, with the notable exceptions of the large cricket Brachytrupes membranaceus colosseus and during locust outbreaks (e.g., Locusta migratoria). The use of Orthoptera as feed seems rare. Further investigations of cultural and personal preferences are required to assess the future potential roles of Orthoptera in Malagasy food habits. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Front-Face Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Chemometrics for Quality Control of Cold-Pressed Rapeseed Oil During Storage
Foods 2019, 8(12), 665; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8120665 - 10 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 912
Abstract
The aim of this study was to test the usability of fluorescence spectroscopy to evaluate the stability of cold-pressed rapeseed oil during storage. Freshly-pressed rapeseed oil was stored in colorless and green glass bottles exposed to light, and in darkness for a period [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to test the usability of fluorescence spectroscopy to evaluate the stability of cold-pressed rapeseed oil during storage. Freshly-pressed rapeseed oil was stored in colorless and green glass bottles exposed to light, and in darkness for a period of 6 months. The quality deterioration of oils was evaluated on the basis of several chemical parameters (peroxide value, acid value, K232 and K270, polar compounds, tocopherols, carotenoids, pheophytins, oxygen concentration) and fluorescence. Parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) of oil excitation-emission matrices revealed the presence of four fluorophores that showed different evolution throughout the storage period. The fluorescence study provided direct information about tocopherol and pheophytin degradation and revealed formation of a new fluorescent product. Principal component analysis (PCA) performed on analytical and fluorescence data showed that oxidation was more advanced in samples exposed to light due to the photo-induced processes; only a very minor effect of the bottle color was observed. Multiple linear regression (MLR) and partial least squares regression (PLSR) on the PARAFAC scores revealed a quantitative relationship between fluorescence and some of the chemical parameters. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Punica granatum and Citrus spp. Extract Mix Affects Spoilage Microorganisms Growth Rate in Vacuum-Packaged Cooked Sausages Made from Pork Meat, Emmer Wheat (Triticum dicoccum Schübler), Almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.) and Hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.)
Foods 2019, 8(12), 664; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8120664 - 10 Dec 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 814
Abstract
Sausage made from pork meat, emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum Schübler), almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.), and hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) was integrated with a mix of Punica granatum and Citrus spp. extracts to evaluate the possible effects on the growth and [...] Read more.
Sausage made from pork meat, emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum Schübler), almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.), and hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) was integrated with a mix of Punica granatum and Citrus spp. extracts to evaluate the possible effects on the growth and oxidation of spoilage microorganisms. Two concentrations of the mix were added, respectively, during sausage-making, and the final products were compared with a control group, without the extract mix, during storage. The use of the mix, especially at 10 g/1000 g of the whole ingredients, delayed the pH drop and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs) value during storage. Total viable count, lactic acid bacteria and psychrotrophic microbial counts were also affected, as the extract mix lowered the maximum growth rate of the microbial population considered. The sensory analyses revealed an improvement in the shelf-life of 6 and 16 days, respectively, when 5‰ and 10‰ of the mix were used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sausages: Nutrition, Safety, Processing and Quality Improvement)
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