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Open AccessArticle

Distribution of Free and Bound Phenolic Compounds in Buckwheat Milling Fractions

1
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Granada, Avd. Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada, Spain
2
Department of Agricultural and Food Sciences, University of Bologna, Piazza Goidanich 60, (FC) 47521 Cesena, Italy
3
Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Campus of Cartuja, 18071 Granada, Spain
4
Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology ‘José Mataix’, Biomedical Research Center, University of Granada, Avda del Conocimiento sn., 18100 Armilla, Granada, Spain
5
Dipartimento Agricoltura, Ambiente e Alimenti, Università del Molise, via De Sanctis s/n, I-86100 Campobasso, Italy
6
Interdepartmental Centre for Agri-Food Industrial Research, Alma Mater Studiorum, Università di Bologna, via Quinto Bucci 336, 47521 Cesena (FC), Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2019, 8(12), 670; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8120670
Received: 16 October 2019 / Revised: 7 December 2019 / Accepted: 9 December 2019 / Published: 12 December 2019
Buckwheat is a rich source of phenolic compounds that have shown to possess beneficial effect to reduce some diseases due to their antioxidant power. Phenolic compounds are present in the free and in the bound form to the cell wall that are concentrated mainly in the outer layer (hull and bran). Hull is removed before the milling of buckwheat to obtain flours. In order to evaluate the phenolic composition in dehulled buckwheat milling fractions, it was carried out a determination of free and bound phenolic compounds in dehulled whole buckwheat flour, light flour, bran flour, and middling flour by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS). The most abundant free phenolic compounds were rutin and epiafzelchin–epicatechin-O-dimethylgallate, whereas the most abundant bound phenolic compounds were catechin and epicatechin in all buckwheat flours. Besides, the highest content of free phenolic compounds was obtained in bran flour (1249.49 mg/kg d.w.), whereas the greatest bound phenolic content was in middling (704.47 mg/kg d.w.) and bran flours (689.81 mg/kg d.w.). Thus, middling and bran flours are naturally enriched flours in phenolic compounds that could be used to develop functional foods. View Full-Text
Keywords: free and bound phenolic compounds; buckwheat flours; HPLC–MS; milling fractions free and bound phenolic compounds; buckwheat flours; HPLC–MS; milling fractions
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MDPI and ACS Style

Martín-García, B.; Pasini, F.; Verardo, V.; Gómez-Caravaca, A.M.; Marconi, E.; Caboni, M.F. Distribution of Free and Bound Phenolic Compounds in Buckwheat Milling Fractions. Foods 2019, 8, 670.

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